Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 102
Filtrar
1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 207, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence supporting the distinction between suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-harm (NSSH) is lacking. Although NSSH is a risk factor for SA, we do not currently know whether these behaviours lie on a continuum of severity, or whether they are discrete outcomes with different aetiologies. We conducted this exploratory genetic epidemiology study to investigate this issue further. METHODS: We explored the extent of genetic overlap between NSSH and SA in a large, richly-phenotyped cohort (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; N = 4959), utilising individual-level genetic and phenotypic data to conduct analyses of genome-wide complex traits and polygenic risk scores (PRS). RESULTS: The single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of NSSH was estimated to be 13% (SE 0.07) and that of SA to be 0% (SE 0.07). Of the traits investigated, NSSH was most strongly correlated with higher IQ (rG = 0.31, SE = 0.22), there was little evidence of high genetic correlation between NSSH and SA (rG = - 0.1, SE = 0.54), likely due to the low heritability estimate for SA. The PRS for depression differentiated between those with NSSH and SA in multinomial regression. The optimal PRS prediction model for SA (Nagelkerke R2 0.022, p < 0.001) included ADHD, depression, income, anorexia and neuroticism and explained more variance than the optimal prediction model for NSSH (Nagelkerke R2 0.010, p < 0.001) which included ADHD, alcohol consumption, autism spectrum conditions, depression, IQ, neuroticism and suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that SA does not have a large genetic component, and that although NSSH and SA are not discrete outcomes there appears to be little genetic overlap between the two. The relatively small sample size and resulting low heritability estimate for SA was a limitation of the study. Combined with low heritability estimates, this implies that family or population structures in SA GWASs may contribute to signals detected.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Tentativa de Suicídio , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Epidemiologia Molecular , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/genética , Ideação Suicida
2.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805157

RESUMO

We describe for the first time the genetic and antigenic characterization of 18 avian avulavirus type-6 viruses (AAvV-6) that were isolated from wild waterfowl in the Americas over the span of 12 years. Only one of the AAvV-6 viruses isolated failed to hemagglutinate chicken red blood cells. We were able to obtain full genome sequences of 16 and 2 fusion gene sequences from the remaining 2 isolates. This is more than double the number of full genome sequences available at the NCBI database. These AAvV-6 viruses phylogenetically grouped into the 2 existing AAvV-6 genotype subgroups indicating the existence of an intercontinental epidemiological link with other AAvV-6 viruses isolated from migratory waterfowl from different Eurasian countries. Antigenic maps made using HI assay data for these isolates showed that the two genetic groups were also antigenically distinct. An isolate representing each genotype was inoculated in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, however, no clinical symptoms were observed. A duplex fusion gene based real-time assay for the detection and genotyping of AAvV-6 to genotype 1 and 2 was developed. Using the developed assay, the viral shedding pattern in the infected chickens was examined. The chickens infected with both genotypes were able to shed the virus orally for about a week, however, no significant cloacal shedding was detected in chickens of both groups. Chickens in both groups developed detectable levels of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies 7 days after infection.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if smoking-related DNA methylation represents a causal pathway between smoking and risk of lung cancer. We sought to identify novel smoking-related DNA methylation sites in blood, with repeated measurements, and to appraise the putative role of DNA methylation in the pathway between smoking and lung cancer development. METHODS: We derived a nested case-control study from the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), including 140 incident patients who developed lung cancer during 2009-13 and 140 controls. We profiled 850 K DNA methylation sites (Illumina Infinium EPIC array) in DNA extracted from blood that was collected in HUNT2 (1995-97) and HUNT3 (2006-08) for the same individuals. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) were performed for a detailed smoking phenotype and for lung cancer. Two-step Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to assess the potential causal effect of smoking on DNA methylation as well as of DNA methylation (13 sites as putative mediators) on risk of lung cancer. RESULTS: The EWAS for smoking in HUNT2 identified associations at 76 DNA methylation sites (P < 5 × 10-8), including 16 novel sites. Smoking was associated with DNA hypomethylation in a dose-response relationship among 83% of the 76 sites, which was confirmed by analyses using repeated measurements from blood that was collected at 11 years apart for the same individuals. Two-step MR analyses showed evidence for a causal effect of smoking on DNA methylation but no evidence for a causal link between DNA methylation and the risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation modifications in blood did not seem to represent a causal pathway linking smoking and the lung cancer risk.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of early childhood adversity is strongly linked to later self-harm, but there is poor understanding of how this distal risk factor might influence later behaviours. One possible mechanism is through an earlier onset of puberty in children exposed to adversity, since early puberty is associated with an increased risk of adolescent self-harm. We investigated whether early pubertal timing mediates the association between childhood adversity and later self-harm. METHODS: Participants were 6698 young people from a UK population-based birth cohort (ALSPAC). We measured exposure to nine types of adversity from 0 to 9 years old, and self-harm when participants were aged 16 and 21 years. Pubertal timing measures were age at peak height velocity (aPHV - males and females) and age at menarche (AAM). We used generalised structural equation modelling for analyses. RESULTS: For every additional type of adversity; participants had an average 12-14% increased risk of self-harm by 16. Relative risk (RR) estimates were stronger for direct effects when outcomes were self-harm with suicidal intent. There was no evidence that earlier pubertal timing mediated the association between adversity and self-harm [indirect effect RR 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.00 for aPHV and RR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00-1.01 for AAM]. CONCLUSIONS: A cumulative measure of exposure to multiple types of adversity does not confer an increased risk of self-harm via early pubertal timing, however both childhood adversity and early puberty are risk factors for later self-harm. Research identifying mechanisms underlying the link between childhood adversity and later self-harm is needed to inform interventions.

5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 33, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that maternal diet influences pregnancy and birth outcomes, but its contribution to the global epidemic of childhood obesity has not as yet been definitively characterized. We investigated whether maternal whole diet quality and inflammatory potential influence childhood adiposity. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled individual participant data from 16,295 mother-child pairs in seven European birth cohorts. Maternal pre-, early-, late-, and whole-pregnancy (any time during pregnancy) dietary quality and inflammatory potential assessed with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™) score, respectively. Primary outcome was childhood overweight and obesity (OWOB) (age-and-sex-specific BMI z-score > 85th percentile). Secondary outcomes were sum of skinfold thickness (SST), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). We used multivariable regression analyses (adjusting for maternal lifestyle and sociodemographic factors) to assess the associations of maternal DASH and E-DII scores with offspring adiposity outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: The study mothers had a mean (SD) age of 30.2 (4.6) years and a mean BMI of 23.4 (4.2) kg/m2. Higher early-pregnancy E-DII scores (more pro-inflammatory diet) tended to be associated with a higher odds of late-childhood [10.6 (1.2) years] OWOB [OR (95% CI) 1.09 (1.00, 1.19) per 1-SD E-DII score increase], whereas an inverse association was observed for late-pregnancy E-DII score and early-childhood [2.8 (0.3) years] OWOB [0.91 (0.83, 1.00)]. Higher maternal whole pregnancy DASH score (higher dietary quality) was associated with a lower odds of late-childhood OWOB [OR (95% CI) 0.92 (0.87, 0.98) per 1-SD DASH score increase]; associations were of similar magnitude for early and late-pregnancy [0.86 (0.72, 1.04) and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98), respectively]. These associations were robust in several sensitivity analyses and further adjustment for birth weight and childhood diet did not meaningfully alter the associations and conclusions. In two cohorts with available data, a higher whole pregnancy E-DII and lower DASH scores were associated with a lower late-childhood FFMI in males and a higher mid-childhood FMI in females (P interactions < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: A pro-inflammatory, low-quality maternal antenatal diet may adversely influence offspring body composition and OWOB risk, especially during late-childhood. Promoting an overall healthy and anti-inflammatory maternal dietary pattern may contribute to the prevention of childhood obesity, a complex health issue requiring multifaceted strategy.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420481

RESUMO

DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 participants from 18 cohorts with mean ages ranging from 7 to 68 years, 13 methylation sites were significantly associated with aggression (alpha = 1.2 × 10-7; Bonferroni correction). In cord blood samples of 2425 children from five cohorts with aggression assessed at mean ages ranging from 4 to 7 years, 83% of these sites showed the same direction of association with childhood aggression (r = 0.74, p = 0.006) but no epigenome-wide significant sites were found. Top-sites (48 at a false discovery rate of 5% in the peripheral blood meta-analysis or in a combined meta-analysis of peripheral blood and cord blood) have been associated with chemical exposures, smoking, cognition, metabolic traits, and genetic variation (mQTLs). Three genes whose expression levels were associated with top-sites were previously linked to schizophrenia and general risk tolerance. At six CpGs, DNA methylation variation in blood mirrors variation in the brain. On average 44% (range = 3-82%) of the aggression-methylation association was explained by current and former smoking and BMI. These findings point at loci that are sensitive to chemical exposures with potential implications for neuronal functions. We hope these results to be a starting point for studies leading to applications as peripheral biomarkers and to reveal causal relationships with aggression and related traits.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(1): 119-134, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450751

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is known to play a pivotal role in childhood health and development, but a comprehensive characterization of genome-wide DNAm trajectories across this age period is currently lacking. We have therefore performed a series of epigenome-wide association studies in 5019 blood samples collected at multiple time-points from birth to late adolescence from 2348 participants of two large independent cohorts. DNAm profiles of autosomal CpG sites (CpGs) were generated using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Change over time was widespread, observed at over one-half (53%) of CpGs. In most cases, DNAm was decreasing (36% of CpGs). Inter-individual variation in linear trajectories was similarly widespread (27% of CpGs). Evidence for non-linear change and inter-individual variation in non-linear trajectories was somewhat less common (11 and 8% of CpGs, respectively). Very little inter-individual variation in change was explained by sex differences (0.4% of CpGs) even though sex-specific DNAm was observed at 5% of CpGs. DNAm trajectories were distributed non-randomly across the genome. For example, CpGs with decreasing DNAm were enriched in gene bodies and enhancers and were annotated to genes enriched in immune-developmental functions. In contrast, CpGs with increasing DNAm were enriched in promoter regions and annotated to genes enriched in neurodevelopmental functions. These findings depict a methylome undergoing widespread and often non-linear change throughout childhood. They support a developmental role for DNA methylation that extends beyond birth into late adolescence and has implications for understanding life-long health and disease. DNAm trajectories can be visualized at http://epidelta.mrcieu.ac.uk.

8.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003491, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse birth outcomes are major causes of morbidity and mortality during childhood and associate with a higher risk of noncommunicable diseases in adult life. Maternal periconception and antenatal nutrition, mostly focusing on single nutrients or foods, has been shown to influence infant birth outcomes. However, evidence on whole diet that considers complex nutrient and food interaction is rare and conflicting. We aim to elucidate the influence of whole-diet maternal dietary inflammatory potential and quality during periconceptional and antenatal periods on birth outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized and pooled individual participant data (IPD) from up to 24,861 mother-child pairs in 7 European mother-offspring cohorts [cohort name, country (recruitment dates): ALSPAC, UK (1 April 1991 to 31 December 1992); EDEN, France (27 January 2003 to 6 March 2006); Generation R, the Netherlands (1 April 2002 to 31 January 2006); Lifeways, Ireland (2 October 2001 to 4 April 2003); REPRO_PL, Poland (18 September 2007 to 16 December 2011); ROLO, Ireland (1 January 2007 to 1 January 2011); SWS, United Kingdom (6 April 1998 to 17 December 2002)]. Maternal diets were assessed preconceptionally (n = 2 cohorts) and antenatally (n = 7 cohorts). Maternal dietary inflammatory potential and quality were ranked using the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index, respectively. Primary outcomes were birth weight and gestational age at birth. Adverse birth outcomes, i.e., low birth weight (LBW), macrosomia, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), large-for-gestational-age (LGA), preterm and postterm births were defined according to standard clinical cutoffs. Associations of maternal E-DII and DASH scores with infant birth outcomes were assessed using cohort-specific multivariable regression analyses (adjusted for confounders including maternal education, ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), maternal height, parity, cigarettes smoking, and alcohol consumption), with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Overall, the study mothers had a mean ± SD age of 29.5 ± 4.9 y at delivery and a mean BMI of 23.3 ± 4.2 kg/m2. Higher pregnancy DASH score (higher dietary quality) was associated with higher birth weight [ß(95% CI) = 18.5(5.7, 31.3) g per 1-SD higher DASH score; P value = 0.005] and head circumference [0.03(0.01, 0.06) cm; P value = 0.004], longer birth length [0.05(0.01, 0.10) cm; P value = 0.010], and lower risk of delivering LBW [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 0.89(0.82, 0.95); P value = 0.001] and SGA [0.87(0.82, 0.94); P value < 0.001] infants. Higher maternal prepregnancy E-DII score (more pro-inflammatory diet) was associated with lower birth weight [ß(95% CI) = -18.7(-34.8, -2.6) g per 1-SD higher E-DII score; P value = 0.023] and shorter birth length [-0.07(-0.14, -0.01) cm; P value = 0.031], whereas higher pregnancy E-DII score was associated with a shorter birth length [-0.06(-0.10, -0.01) cm; P value = 0.026] and higher risk of SGA [OR(95% CI) = 1.18(1.11, 1.26); P value < 0.001]. In male, but not female, infants higher maternal prepregnancy E-DII was associated with lower birth weight and head circumference, shorter birth length, and higher risk of SGA (P-for-sex-interaction = 0.029, 0.059, 0.104, and 0.075, respectively). No consistent associations were observed for maternal E-DII and DASH scores with gestational age, preterm and postterm birth, or macrosomia and LGA. Limitations of this study were that self-reported dietary data might have increased nondifferential measurement error and that causality cannot be claimed definitely with observational design. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study, we observed that maternal diet that is of low quality and high inflammatory potential is associated with lower offspring birth size and higher risk of offspring being born SGA in this multicenter meta-analysis using harmonized IPD. Improving overall maternal dietary pattern based on predefined criteria may optimize fetal growth and avert substantial healthcare burden associated with adverse birth outcomes.

9.
Biol Psychiatry ; 89(6): 550-559, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of maternal diet during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment is of public health and clinical relevance. We evaluated the associations of dietary quality based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and dietary inflammatory potential based on the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) score during pregnancy with emotional and behavioral symptoms of offspring at 7 to 10 years of age. METHODS: Individual participant data for 11,870 mother-child pairs from four European cohorts participating in the ALPHABET project were analyzed. Maternal antenatal DASH and E-DII scores were generated from self-completed food frequency questionnaires. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, aggressive behavior, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children were assessed using mother-reported tests and classified within the normal or borderline/clinical ranges using validated cutoffs. Adjusted odds ratios were determined by multivariable logistic regression models and aggregated by the two-level individual participant data meta-analysis method. RESULTS: Higher maternal DASH scores (indicating better dietary quality) were associated with lower risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior symptoms, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms within the borderline/clinical ranges: odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99; OR 0.97, 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; OR 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95-0.98, per one-unit DASH score increase, respectively. For depression and anxiety, aggressive behavior, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, a one-unit increase in E-DII scores (a more proinflammatory diet) was associated with a 7% increased risk of all three analyzed emotional and behavioral symptoms: OR 1.07, 95% CI, 1.03-1.11; OR 1.07, 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; OR 1.07, 95% CI, 1.01-1.13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a maternal low-quality and proinflammatory diet may increase the risk of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Dieta , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372384

RESUMO

The susceptibility of turkeys, chickens and chicken embryos to SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated by experimental infection. Turkeys and chickens were inoculated using a combination of intranasal, oral and ocular routes. Both turkeys and chickens did not develop clinical disease or seroconvert following inoculation. Viral RNA was not detected in oral swabs, cloacal swabs or in tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, chicken embryos were inoculated by various routes including the yolk sac, intravenous, chorioallantoic membrane and allantoic cavity. In all instances, chicken embryos failed to support replication of the virus. SARS-CoV-2 does not affect turkeys or chickens in the current genetic state and does not pose any potential risk to establish an infection in both species of domestic poultry.

11.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 231: 110151, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227621

RESUMO

Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most highly expressed of all avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) viral proteins and stimulates a substantial immune response in infected animals. Codon optimized recombinant N (rec-N) protein from aMPV subtypes A, B, and C were expressed using the baculoviral expression system in Trichoplusia ni (Tni) insect cells. A mixture of purified rec-N antigens from each subtype was used as a coating antigen and was evaluated in indirect ELISA (iELISA) to assess antibody response in serum samples collected from experimentally infected chickens and turkeys with different aMPV subtypes. Also, archived field serum samples that were collected from different poultry submissions were used. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed using chicken and turkey serum samples that were confirmed by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test for serostatus (positive n = 270, negative n = 610). The ROC analysis showed sensitivity and specificity of 97 % at a cut-off value of 0.25. The rec-N iELISA was compared with a commercial whole virus-based APV kit. The rec-N iELISA showed comparable results in detecting antibody response in aMPV infected chicken sera but was more sensitive in detecting early antibody response in aMPV infected turkey serum samples. Our results further confirm the presence of aMPV antibodies in Canadian domestic poultry populations. The developed aMPV-rec N iELISA offers a safe and valuable alternative to whole virus-based iELISA for serodiagnosis and seroepidemiological surveillance of the disease in domestic poultry.

12.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 366, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediction of pregnancy-related disorders is usually done based on established and easily measured risk factors. Recent advances in metabolomics may provide earlier and more accurate prediction of women at risk of pregnancy-related disorders. METHODS: We used data collected from women in the Born in Bradford (BiB; n = 8212) and UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT; n = 859) studies to create and validate prediction models for pregnancy-related disorders. These were gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and preterm birth (PTB). We used ten-fold cross-validation and penalised regression to create prediction models. We compared the predictive performance of (1) risk factors (maternal age, pregnancy smoking, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity and parity) to (2) nuclear magnetic resonance-derived metabolites (N = 156 quantified metabolites, collected at 24-28 weeks gestation) and (3) combined risk factors and metabolites. The multi-ethnic BiB cohort was used for training and testing the models, with independent validation conducted in UPBEAT, a multi-ethnic study of obese pregnant women. RESULTS: Maternal age, pregnancy smoking, BMI, ethnicity and parity were retained in the combined risk factor and metabolite models for all outcomes apart from PTB, which did not include maternal age. In addition, 147, 33, 96, 51 and 14 of the 156 metabolite traits were retained in the combined risk factor and metabolite model for GDM, HDP, SGA, LGA and PTB, respectively. These include cholesterol and triglycerides in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the models predicting GDM, HDP, SGA and LGA, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), ratios of MUFA to omega 3 fatty acids and total fatty acids, and a ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA:APOB1) were retained predictors for GDM and LGA. In BiB, discrimination for GDM, HDP, LGA and SGA was improved in the combined risk factors and metabolites models. Risk factor area under the curve (AUC 95% confidence interval (CI)): GDM (0.69 (0.64, 0.73)), HDP (0.74 (0.70, 0.78)) and LGA (0.71 (0.66, 0.75)), and SGA (0.59 (0.56, 0.63)). Combined risk factor and metabolite models AUC 95% (CI): GDM (0.78 (0.74, 0.81)), HDP (0.76 (0.73, 0.79)) and LGA (0.75 (0.70, 0.79)), and SGA (0.66 (0.63, 0.70)). For GDM, HDP and LGA, but not SGA, calibration was good for a combined risk factor and metabolite model. Prediction of PTB was poor for all models. Independent validation in UPBEAT at 24-28 weeks and 15-18 weeks gestation confirmed similar patterns of results, but AUCs were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a combined risk factor and metabolite model improves prediction of GDM, HDP and LGA, and SGA, when compared to risk factors alone. They also highlight the difficulty of predicting PTB, with all models performing poorly.

13.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043146

RESUMO

Background: Cohort studies tend to be designed to look forward from the time of enrolment of the participants, but there is considerable evidence that the previous generations have a particular relevance not only in the genes that they have passed on, their cultural beliefs and attitudes, but also in the ways in which previous environmental exposures may have had non-genetic impacts, particularly for exposures during fetal life or in childhood. Methods: To investigate such non-genetic inheritance, we have collected information on the childhoods of the ancestors of the cohort of births comprising the original Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The data collected on the study child's grandparents and great grandparents comprise: (a) countries of birth; (b) years of birth; (c) age at onset of smoking; (d) whether the ancestral mothers smoked during pregnancy; (e) social class of the household; (f) information on 19 potentially traumatic situations in their childhoods such as death of a parent, being taken into care, not having enough to eat, or being in a war situation; (g) causes of death for those ancestors who had died. The ages at which the individual experienced the traumatic situations distinguished between ages <6; 6-11, and 12-16 years. The numbers of ancestors on which data were obtained varied from 1128 paternal great-grandfathers to 4122 maternal great grandmothers. These ancestral data will be available for analysis to bona fide researchers on application to the ALSPAC Executive Committee.

14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125040

RESUMO

The structured life course modeling approach (SLCMA) is a theory-driven analytic method that empirically compares multiple prespecified life course hypotheses characterizing time-dependent exposure-outcome relationships to determine which theory best fits the observed data. In this study, we performed simulations and empirical analyses to evaluate the performance of the SLCMA when applied to genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm). Using simulations, we compared five statistical inference tests used with SLCMA (n=700), assessing the family-wise error rate, statistical power, and confidence interval coverage to determine whether inference based on these tests was valid in the presence of substantial multiple testing and small effects, two hallmark challenges of inference from omics data. In the empirical analyses, we evaluated the time-dependent relationship of childhood abuse with genome-wide DNAm (n=703). In simulations, selective inference and max-|t|-test performed best: both controlled family-wise error rate and yielded moderate statistical power. Empirical analyses using SLCMA revealed time-dependent effects of childhood abuse on DNAm. Our findings show that SLCMA, applied and interpreted appropriately, can be used in high-throughput settings to examine time-dependent effects underlying exposure-outcome relationships over the life course. We provide recommendations for applying the SLCMA in omics settings and encourage researchers to move beyond analyses of exposed versus unexposed.

16.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 95, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking status, alcohol consumption and HPV infection (acquired through sexual activity) are the predominant risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer and are thought to alter the prognosis of the disease. Here, we conducted single-site and differentially methylated region (DMR) epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of these factors, in addition to ∼ 3-year survival, using Illumina Methylation EPIC DNA methylation profiles from whole blood in 409 individuals as part of the Head and Neck 5000 (HN5000) study. Overlapping sites between each factor and survival were then assessed using two-step Mendelian randomization to assess whether methylation at these positions causally affected survival. RESULTS: Using the MethylationEPIC array in an OPC dataset, we found novel CpG associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and ~ 3-year survival. We found no CpG associations below our multiple testing threshold associated with HPV16 E6 serological response (used as a proxy for HPV infection). CpG site associations below our multiple-testing threshold (PBonferroni < 0.05) for both a prognostic factor and survival were observed at four gene regions: SPEG (smoking), GFI1 (smoking), PPT2 (smoking) and KHDC3L (alcohol consumption). Evidence for a causal effect of DNA methylation on survival was only observed in the SPEG gene region (HR per SD increase in methylation score 1.28, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.43, P 2.12 × 10-05). CONCLUSIONS: Part of the effect of smoking on survival in those with oropharyngeal cancer may be mediated by methylation at the SPEG gene locus. Replication in data from independent datasets and data from HN5000 with longer follow-up times is needed to confirm these findings.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(11): 1824-1832, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating glycoprotein and a regulator of sex hormone levels, which has been shown to influence various traits and diseases. The molecular nature of SHBG makes it a feasible target for preventative or therapeutic interventions. A systematic study of its effects across the human phenome may uncover novel associations. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomization phenome-wide association study (MR-pheWAS) approach to systematically appraise the potential functions of SHBG while reducing potential biases such as confounding and reverse causation common to the literature. We searched for potential causal effects of SHBG in UK Biobank (N = 334 977) and followed-up our top findings using two-sample MR analyses to evaluate whether estimates may be biased due to horizontal pleiotropy. RESULTS: Results of the MR-pheWAS across over 21 000 outcome phenotypes identified 12 phenotypes associated with genetically elevated SHBG after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Follow-up analysis using two-sample MR indicated the associations of increased natural log SHBG with higher impedance of the arms and whole body, lower pulse rate, lower bone density, higher odds of hip replacement, lower odds of high cholesterol or cholesterol medication use and higher odds of gallbladder removal. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic MR-pheWAS of SHBG, which was comprehensive to the range of phenotypes available in UK Biobank, suggested that higher circulating SHBG affects the body impedance, bone density and cholesterol levels, among others. These phenotypes should be prioritized in future studies aiming to investigate the biological effects of SHBG or develop targets for therapeutic intervention.

18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 89: 43-50, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causal role of inflammatory markers on self-harm and suicidal risk has been studied using observational data, with conflicting results. Confounding and reverse causation can lead to bias, so we appraised question from a genetic perspective to protect against these biases. We measured associations between genetic liability for high levels of inflammatory markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) on self-harm, and conducted a secondary analysis restricted to self-harm with suicidal intent. METHODS: We conducted two sample and multivariable Mendelian randomisation (MR) to assess the effects of IL-6 and CRP on self-harm utilising existing data and conducting new genome wide association studies to instrument IL-6 and CRP, and for the outcome of self-harm. RESULTS: No single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome-wide significance for self-harm, however 193 SNPs met suggestive significance levels (p < 5 × 10-6). We found no evidence of an association between our instruments for IL-6 and self-harm in the two-sample MR, however we found an inverse association between instruments for CRP and self-harm, indicating that higher levels of circulating CRP may protect against self-harm (inverse variance weighted OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.84, 1.01, p = 0.08; MR Egger OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74, 1.00, p = 0.05). The direct effect estimate for IL-6 was slightly smaller in the multivariable MR than in the two sample MR, while the CRP effect estimates were consistent with the two sample MR (OR 0.92, SE 1.05, p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are conflicting and indicate that IL-6 and CRP are not robust etiological markers of increased self-harm or suicide risk.

19.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(6): 771-781, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341540

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) has an enormous impact on global disease burden, affecting millions of people worldwide and ranking as a leading cause of disability for almost three decades. Past molecular studies of MDD employed bulk homogenates of postmortem brain tissue, which obscures gene expression changes within individual cell types. Here we used single-nucleus transcriptomics to examine ~80,000 nuclei from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of male individuals with MDD (n = 17) and of healthy controls (n = 17). We identified 26 cellular clusters, and over 60% of these showed differential gene expression between groups. We found that the greatest dysregulation occurred in deep layer excitatory neurons and immature oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and these contributed almost half (47%) of all changes in gene expression. These results highlight the importance of dissecting cell-type-specific contributions to the disease and offer opportunities to identify new avenues of research and novel targets for treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 55, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms may partly explain the persistent effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on health outcomes in later life. DNA methylation can predict chronological age, and advanced methylation-predicted age beyond chronological age (DNA methylation age acceleration) is associated with ACEs, adverse mental and physical health, and elevated diurnal and baseline salivary cortisol. Childhood adversity is also associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which produces the neuroendocrine hormone cortisol. It remains unknown whether these associations are specific to certain types of adversity. Herein, we investigate the associations of ACEs with DNA methylation age acceleration and plasma cortisol in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. METHODS: In this study of the children in ALSPAC, we used multiple linear regression to examine associations of cumulative exposure to ACE, as well as exposure to ten individual types of ACEs, with Horvath-estimated DNA methylation age acceleration and with baseline plasma cortisol. The ten ACEs were those included in the World Health Organization's ACE International Questionnaire. Data on ACEs were prospectively collected from age 0-14 years. DNA methylation age acceleration and plasma cortisol were measured at mean 17.1 years and 15.5 years, respectively. RESULTS: We included 974 UK children in the present study. Exposure to four or more ACEs compared to zero was associated with DNA methylation age acceleration in girls (ß, 95% CI = 1.65, 0.25 to 3.04 years) but not in boys (ß, 95% CI = - 0.11, - 1.48 to 1.26 years). Also, in girls, emotional abuse and physical abuse were each associated with DNA methylation age acceleration (ß, 95% CI = 1.20, 0.15 to 2.26 years and ß, 95% CI = 1.22, 0.06 to 2.38 years, respectively). No other ACEs were associated with accelerated DNA methylation age in either sex. Associations were also null between ACE and cortisol, and cortisol and DNA methylation age acceleration. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective population-based study of UK children, cumulative ACE exposure, emotional abuse, and physical abuse between age 0 and 14 years were each associated with Horvath-estimated DNA methylation age acceleration at age 17 years in girls but not in boys.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...