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BMC Biol ; 20(1): 284, 2022 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527054


BACKGROUND: Vector-borne viral diseases threaten human and wildlife worldwide. Vectors are often viewed as a passive syringe injecting the virus. However, to survive, replicate and spread, viruses must manipulate vector biology. While most vector-borne viral research focuses on vectors transmitting a single virus, in reality, vectors often carry diverse viruses. Yet how viruses affect the vectors remains poorly understood. Here, we focused on the varroa mite (Varroa destructor), an emergent parasite that can carry over 20 honey bee viruses, and has been responsible for colony collapses worldwide, as well as changes in global viral populations. Co-evolution of the varroa and the viral community makes it possible to investigate whether viruses affect vector gene expression and whether these interactions affect viral epidemiology. RESULTS: Using a large set of available varroa transcriptomes, we identified how abundances of individual viruses affect the vector's transcriptional network. We found no evidence of competition between viruses, but rather that some virus abundances are positively correlated. Furthermore, viruses that are found together interact with the vector's gene co-expression modules in similar ways, suggesting that interactions with the vector affect viral epidemiology. We experimentally validated this observation by silencing candidate genes using RNAi and found that the reduction in varroa gene expression was accompanied by a change in viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Combined, the meta-transcriptomic analysis and experimental results shed light on the mechanism by which viruses interact with each other and with their vector to shape the disease course.

Vírus de RNA , Varroidae , Vírus , Humanos , Abelhas/genética , Animais , Carga Viral , Varroidae/genética , Vírus/genética , Interferência de RNA , Transcriptoma
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1945): 20203138, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593195


Early in the process of adaptive radiation, allopatric disruption of gene flow followed by ecological specialization is key for speciation; but, do adaptive radiations occur on small islands without internal geographical barriers? Island populations sometimes harbour polymorphism in ecological specializations, but its significance remains unclear. On one hand, morphs may correspond to 'cryptic' species. Alternatively, they could result from population, developmental or behavioural plasticity. The spider Wendilgarda galapagensis (Araneae, Theridiosomatidae) is endemic to the small Isla del Coco and unique in spinning three different web types, each corresponding to a different microhabitat. We tested whether this variation is associated with 'cryptic' species or intraspecific behavioural plasticity. Despite analysing 36 803 loci across 142 individuals, we found no relationship between web type and population structure, which was only weakly geographically differentiated. The same pattern holds when looking within a sampling site or considering only Fst outliers. In line with genetic data, translocation experiments showed that web architecture is plastic within an individual. However, not all transitions between web types are equally probable, indicating the existence of individual preferences. Our data supports the idea that diversification on small islands might occur mainly at the behavioural level producing an intraspecific niche partition without speciation.

Aranhas , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Ilhas , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Aranhas/genética