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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060675

RESUMO

To investigate the association of smoking status and years since smoking cessation with the risk of incident dementia among elderly Japanese. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of smoking status and smoking cessation with dementia in prospective cohort study of 12,489 Japanese individuals aged ≥ 65 years who were followed up for 5.7 years. Information on smoking status and other lifestyle factors was collected via a questionnaire in 2006. Data on incident dementia were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance Database. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident dementia. During 61,613 person-years of follow-up, 1110 cases (8.9%) of incident dementia were documented. Compared with individuals who had never smoked, current smokers showed a higher risk of dementia (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.17, 1.80). Among ex-smokers, the risk for those who had stopped smoking for ≤ 2 years was still high (HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.96, 2.01), however, quitting smoking for 3 years or longer mitigated the increased risk incurred by smokers; the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) were 1.03 (0.70, 1.53) for those who had stopped smoking for 3-5 years, 1.04 (0.74, 1.45) for 6-10 years, 1.19 (0.84, 1.69) for 11-15 years, and 0.92 (0.73, 1.15) for > 15 years. Our study suggests that the risk of incident dementia among ex-smokers becomes the same level as that of never smokers if they maintain abstinence from smoking for at least 3 years.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 39(1): 298-303, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although it has been suggested that the Japanese diet contributes to the longevity of the Japanese population, no study has examined the association between the Japanese diet and survival time. The present study investigated the association between the Japanese diet and survival time. METHODS: We analyzed 20-year follow-up data from a cohort study of 14,764 Japanese men and women aged 40-79 years. At the baseline survey in 1994, we collected dietary information using a validated 40-item food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to a Japanese diet consisting of nine components (rice, miso soup, seaweeds, pickles, green and yellow vegetables, fish, green tea, beef and pork, and coffee) was assessed in terms of a Japanese dietary index (JDI) score, the total score ranging from 0 to 9. Cox proportional hazards model and Laplace regression analysis were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and differences in median age at death (50th percentile differences - PDs in age at death) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to the quartiles of the JDI score. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, we documented 4,619 deaths. We observed that a higher JDI score was associated with a lower risk of mortality and longer survival time: In comparison to participants in the lowest JDI score quartile (0-4), the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality was 0.91 (0.83-0.99) and the multivariate-adjusted 50th PD in age at death (95% CI) was 10.2 (3.2-17.2) months longer for those in the highest quartile (7-9). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Japanese diet is associated with a longer survival time.

3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 86: 103964, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683175

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that emotional support may promote cognition; however, the effects of giving or receiving emotional support on incident dementia remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate the relationship between emotional support (giving or receiving) and incident dementia. In December 2006, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,694 Japanese individuals aged ≥65 years who lived in Ohsaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. A self-reported questionnaire including items on emotional support and lifestyle factors was distributed. After excluding those who did not provide consent or responses to all items, 13,636 eligible responses were analyzed for this study. According to responses of "yes" or "no" for emotional support, we made two categories for both giving (gave or did not give) and receiving (received or did not receive) emotional support. Furthermore, we combined giving and receiving emotional support into four categories ("giving = no & receiving = no", "giving = no & receiving = yes", "giving = yes & receiving = no", "giving = yes & receiving = yes"). Data on incident dementia were retrieved from the Long-term Care Insurance Database in which participants were followed up for 5.7 years. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we found that compared with participants who did not give emotional support to others, those who did give had a lower risk of dementia (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52, 0.71)). However, a nonsignificant relationship was observed for receiving emotional support. Additionally, compared to "giving = no & receiving = no" for emotional support, "giving = no & receiving = yes" showed a higher risk of dementia (multivariate-adjusted HR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.07, 2.14]).

4.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 49(10): 972-984, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee and green tea, two popular drinks in the Japanese, have recently drawn much attention as potential protective factors against the occurrence of liver cancer. METHODS: We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies on coffee, green tea and liver cancer among Japanese populations. Original data were obtained by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Ichushi databases, complemented with manual searches. The evaluation was performed in terms of the magnitude of association in each study and the strength of evidence ('convincing', 'probable', 'possible', or 'insufficient'), together with biological plausibility. RESULTS: We identified four cohort and four case-control studies on coffee and liver cancer and six cohort and one case-control studies on green tea and liver cancer. All cohort and case-control studies on coffee reported a weak to strong inverse association, with a summary relative risk (RR) for one cup increase being 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.79). Conversely, all studies but two cohort studies on green tea reported no association, with a corresponding summary RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01, P = 0.37). CONCLUSION: Coffee drinking 'probably' decreases the risk of primary liver cancer among the Japanese population whereas the evidence on an association between green tea and liver cancer is 'insufficient' in this population.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860982

RESUMO

The incidence of breast cancer among Japanese women is substantially increasing. This study evaluated the effects of reproductive and lifestyle factors with respect to breast cancer overall and separately among pre- and postmenopausal women using data from the Three-Prefecture Cohort Study of Japan.A total of 33,410 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included items about menstrual and reproductive history and other lifestyle factors. The follow-up period was from 1984 to 1992 in Miyagi and 1985 to 2000 in Aichi Prefectures. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for confounding factors.After 9.8 mean years of follow-up, 287 cases of breast cancer were recorded. In the overall analysis, later menarche (≥16 years) and parity were significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, with HRs of 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.52-0.99), respectively. Further, there was a significant decline in the risk of breast cancer with increasing number of birth among parous women (P for trend = .010). On the contrary, a family history of breast cancer in the mother was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (HR 3.22, 95% CI 1.52-6.84). Analyses based on menopausal status at baseline indicated that height (≥160 cm) and weight (≥65 kg) were significantly associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, with HRs of 1.34 (95% CI 0.72-2.50) and 3.13 (95% CI 1.75-5.60), respectively. Risk associated with BMI significantly differs by menopausal status.Our findings suggest the important role of reproductive factors in the development of breast cancer in Japanese women; however, body mass index (BMI) may have different effects on breast cancer in Japanese women compared with western women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Anamnese , Menarca , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although it has been reported that the Japanese dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability among older people, the potential benefits of improving adherence to the Japanese diet remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between 12-year change in adherence to the Japanese diet and the subsequent risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from a cohort study of 2923 Japanese older adults (age ≥65 years) in 2006. We collected dietary information using a validated 39-item food frequency questionnaire at two time points (1994 and 2006). Adherence to the Japanese diet (high intake of rice, miso soup, seaweeds, pickles, green and yellow vegetables, fish, green tea; low intake of beef and pork, and coffee) was assessed using the Japanese Diet Index (JDI), which ranges from 0 to 9. Participants were categorized into five groups according to changes in the JDI score at these two time points. Data on incident functional disability from December 2006 to November 2016 were retrieved from the public long-term care insurance database. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident functional disability. RESULTS: During 22,466 person-years of follow-up, 1093 cases of incident functional disability were documented. Compared with participants in the group with the largest decrease in the JDI score (≤-2), the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.77 (0.61-0.98) for those in the largest increase group (≥+2). CONCLUSIONS: Improved adherence to the Japanese diet was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan.

7.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 274, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional disability is a significant problem after natural disasters. Musculoskeletal pain is reported to increase after disasters, which can cause functional disability among survivors. However, the effects of musculoskeletal pain on functional decline after natural disasters are unclear. The present study aimed to examine the association between musculoskeletal pain and new-onset poor physical function among elderly survivors after the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted on survivors aged ≥65 years at three and 4 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. A total of 747 persons were included in this study. Physical function was assessed using the Kihon Checklist. New-onset poor physical function was defined as low physical function not present at 3 years but present at 4 years after the disaster. Knee, hand or foot, low back, shoulder, and neck pain was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was defined as musculoskeletal pain. Musculoskeletal pain at 3 years after the disaster was categorized according to the number of pain regions (0, 1, ≥ 2). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for new-onset poor physical function due to musculoskeletal pain. RESULTS: The incidence of new-onset poor physical function was 14.9%. New-onset poor physical function was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain. Compared with "0" musculoskeletal pain region, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.39 (0.75-2.58) and 2.69 (1.52-4.77) in "1" and "≥ 2" musculoskeletal pain regions, respectively (p for trend = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal pain is associated with new-onset poor physical function among elderly survivors after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Monitoring musculoskeletal pain is important to prevent physical function decline after natural disasters.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e030761, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prolonged periods of living in prefabricated houses (PHs) may increase the risk of musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms; however, the association is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the association between continued residence in PHs and MSK pain in a population affected by a natural disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) survivors. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A panel study was conducted including 1059 and 792 survivors at 2 and 4 years, respectively, after the GEJE, using a self-reported questionnaire. Those with no response on living status and those who did not live in a PH were excluded. Participants were classified into two groups by living status: continued residence in a PH (lived in a PH during both periods) or moving out of a PH (lived in a PH in the first period and did not live in a PH in the second). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: MSK pain included lower back, shoulder, knee, hand or foot, and neck pain. Changes in the occurrence of MSK pain during the two periods were assessed and defined as 'new-onset' and 'continuing' MSK pain. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the influence of continued residence in a PH on new-onset and continuing MSK pain. RESULTS: Continued residence in a PH was significantly associated with new-onset MSK pain, even after adjustment for covariates (adjusted OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.79, p=0.006). Participants who continued living in a PH had higher rates of continuing MSK pain than those who moved out; however, the difference was not significant (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.94 to 3.05, p=0.079). CONCLUSION: Continued residence in a PH was associated with new-onset MSK pain among survivors. Public support should be provided to such people to ensure a more comfortable life.

9.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6414-6425, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475462

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are two major risk factors for esophageal cancer. Not all, but several of case-control studies have indicated interaction between the two factors; however, no prospective study has validated this phenomenon to date. Therefore, the interaction between smoking and alcohol drinking is still open-ended question. To answer this, we conducted a pooled analysis using large-scale population-based cohort studies in Japan. Male subjects from eight cohort studies were included. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were both categorized categorically (never/ever), and in the three consumption levels of pack years and ethanol consumption/day. Effects of smoking and drinking in each study were estimated by Cox regression models. The study-specific results were combined through meta-analysis to obtain summary effects of hazard ratios (HRs) and measures of interactions at both additive and multiplicative scales. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) from smoking and drinking were obtained using distributions of exposures and fully adjusted HRs. In 162 826 male subjects, 954 esophageal cancer incidences were identified. HRs of ever smoking, ever drinking, and their combination were 2.92 (1.59-5.36), 2.73 (1.78-4.18), and 8.86 (4.82-16.30), respectively. Interaction between cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking was significantly positive on the additive scale, but not significant on the multiplicative scale. The joint effect of smoking and drinking in three levels of evaluation showed a similar significant super-additive interaction. PAFs from smoking, drinking, and their combination were 55.4%, 61.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a significant positive additive interaction for esophageal cancer risk.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3603-3614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482651

RESUMO

Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bovinos , Colo , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Carne/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos
11.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486077

RESUMO

In vivo and in vitro evidence has shown that mushrooms have the potential to prevent prostate cancer. However, the relationship between mushroom consumption and incident prostate cancer in humans has never been investigated. In the present study, a total of 36,499 men, aged 40-79 years, who participated in the Miyagi Cohort Study in 1990 and in the Ohsaki Cohort Study in 1994 were followed for a median of 13.2 years. Data on mushroom consumption (categorized as <1, 1-2 and ≥3 times/week) was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer incidence. During 574,397 person-years of follow-up, 1,204 (3.3%) cases of prostate cancer were identified. Compared to participants with mushroom consumption <1 time/week, frequent mushroom intake was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer (1-2 times/week: HRs [95% CIs] = 0.92 [0.81, 1.05]; ≥3 times/week: HRs [95% CIs] = 0.83 [0.70, 0.98]; p-trend = 0.023). This inverse relationship was especially obvious among participants aged ≥50 years and did not differ by clinical stage of cancer and intake of vegetables, fruit, meat and dairy products. The present study showed an inverse relationship between mushroom consumption and incident prostate cancer among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men, suggesting that habitual mushroom intake might help to prevent prostate cancer.

12.
Br J Nutr ; 122(10): 1182-1191, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477191

RESUMO

Fish harbour many types of nutrients that are beneficial for preventing cognitive decline. Therefore, habitual fish intake might contribute to a lower risk of incident dementia. However, few prospective cohort studies have investigated fish consumption in relation to incident dementia, and their findings have been inconsistent. To investigate the association between fish consumption and the risk of incident dementia, we collected data on the consumption of fish and other foods using an FFQ in a baseline survey of individuals aged ≥65 years living in Ohsaki City, Japan. After 5·7 years of follow-up, the incidence of dementia was 1118 (8·5 %) among 13 102 participants. We then used a multivariate-adjusted Cox model to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. Compared with subjects with the lowest fish intake (Q1), the multivariate HR were 0·90 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·11) for Q2, 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·99) for Q3 and 0·84 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·997) for Q4 (Ptrend = 0·029). Such associations were also observed even after excluding participants who were diagnosed with dementia in the first 2 years of follow-up and those who had poorer cognitive function at baseline. In conclusion, an association was observed between higher fish consumption and a lower risk of incident dementia among healthy elderly people without disability. These findings suggest that habitual fish intake may be beneficial for the prevention of dementia.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1861-1867, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted to elucidate lifestyle-related risk factors for multiple myeloma in Asia. We investigated the association of body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality through a pooled analysis of more than 800,000 participants in the Asia Cohort Consortium. METHODS: The analysis included 805,309 participants contributing 10,221,623 person-years of accumulated follow-up across Asia Cohort Consortium cohorts. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between BMI, smoking, and alcohol at baseline and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model with shared frailty. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant dose-dependent association between BMI categories and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality (<18.5 kg/m2: HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.52-1.24; 18.5-24.9 kg/m2: reference; 25.0-29.9 kg/m2: HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.94-1.47; ≥30 kg/m2: HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.99-2.64, P trend = 0.014). By sex, this association was more apparent in women than in men (P for heterogeneity between sexes = 0.150). We observed no significant associations between smoking or alcohol consumption and risk of multiple myeloma mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that excess body mass is associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma mortality among Asian populations. In contrast, our results do not support an association between smoking or alcohol consumption and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations. IMPACT: This study provides important evidence on the association of BMI, smoking, and alcohol with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026225, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of educational level and risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer among Asian populations. DESIGN: A pooled analysis of 15 population-based cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 694 434 Asian individuals from 15 prospective cohorts within the Asia Cohort Consortium. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality, as well as for CVD-specific mortality and cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 694 434 participants (mean age at baseline=53.2 years) were included in the analysis. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 years, 103 023 deaths were observed, among which 33 939 were due to cancer and 34 645 were due to CVD. Higher educational levels were significantly associated with lower risk of death from all causes compared with a low educational level (≤primary education); HRs and 95% CIs for secondary education, trade/technical education and ≥university education were 0.88 (0.85 to 0.92), 0.81 (0.73 to 0.90) and 0.71 (0.63 to 0.80), respectively (ptrend=0.002). Similarly, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97), 0.86 (0.78 to 0.94) and 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) for cancer death, and 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93), 0.77 (0.66 to 0.91) and 0.67 (0.58 to 0.77) for CVD death with increasing levels of education (both ptrend <0.01). The pattern of the association among East Asians and South Asians was similar compared with ≤primary education; HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality associated with ≥university education was 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) among 539 724 East Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) and 0.61 (0.54 to 0.69) among 154 710 South Asians (Indians and Bangladeshis). CONCLUSION: Higher educational level was associated with substantially lower risk of death among Asian populations.

15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 917-926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392470

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to assess the association between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight Japanese population-based cohort studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), derived from random effects models, were used to evaluate the associations between green tea consumption, based on self-report at baseline, and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. During a mean follow-up of 17.3 years, among 313,381 persons, 52,943 deaths occurred. Compared with individuals who consumed < 1 cup/day, those in the highest consumption category (≥ 5 cups/day) had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [the multivariate-adjusted HR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for men and 0.82 (0.74-0.90) for women]. A similar inverse association was observed for heart disease mortality [HR 0.82 (0.75-0.90) for men, and 0.75 (0.68-0.84) for women], and cerebrovascular disease mortality [HR 0.76 (0.68-0.85) for men, and 0.78 (0.68-0.89) for women]. Among women, green tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of total cancer mortality: 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for the 1-2 cups/day category and 0.91 (0.85-0.98) for the 3-4 cups/day category. Results for respiratory disease mortality were [HR 0.75 (0.61-0.94)] among 3-4 cup daily consumers and [HR 0.66 (0.55-0.79)] for ≥ 5 cups/day. Higher consumption of green tea is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality in Japanese, especially for heart and cerebrovascular disease. Moderate consumption decreased the risk of total cancer and respiratory disease mortality in women.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 248(2): 73-86, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178539

RESUMO

The medical records of service in disaster provided at a place other than a medical facility are defined as disaster medical records (DMRs). In this epidemiological study, to clarify medical need characteristics and trends after disaster, we analyzed the all anonymized DMRs of Minamisanriku Town that lost medical facilities in 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and its consequent tsunami. After screening of duplicated or irrelevant documents, there were 10,464 DMRs with 18,532 diagnoses from March 11 through May 13. From 34 diagnostic groups according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10, we integrated diagnostic groups into five modules that might require treatment concepts of different types: non-communicable disease (NCD), infectious disease, mental health issue, trauma, and maternal and child health (MCH). Age and sex distributions of the patients were similar to those of population before the disaster. The largest diagnostic module was NCD (68%), followed by infectious disease (21%), mental health issues (6%), trauma (4%), and MCH (0.2%). The age-specific rate of NCD exhibited a similar or suppressed level from that of nationwide survey, with higher rate of pollinosis among young population. Infectious disease increased in most age groups but there was no apparent outbreak because of early interventions. Sleep deprivation was twice as frequent in middle-aged women, compared with men. Trauma and MCH were less frequent, but each exhibited a unique time trend. Trauma onset was continuously recorded, while MCH visits were concentrated on a specific day. The medical need after disaster dynamically changes, and appropriate anticipatory countermeasures are necessary.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Japão , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of alcohol drinking with bladder cancer risk remains unclear in East Asian populations. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme oxidizes alcohol-metabolized carcinogenic acetaldehyde into acetate. It is well known that the inactive ALDH2 carriers, specific to East Asian populations, have an increased risk of several cancer types because of increased exposure to acetaldehyde after alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk using data from ten population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan, where approximately 40% of the population has inactive ALDH2 enzyme. METHODS: We analyzed 340,497 Japanese participants with average follow-up of 13.4 years. The association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk was evaluated using Cox regression models within each study, and random-effects models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During 4,729,071 person-years, 936 men and 325 women were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our results showed no evidence of significant association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk even among men who consumed alcohol of ≥69 g/week, with HR of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79-1.33). The null result was observed consistently among women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support an association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk in the Japanese, at least without consideration of the polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e026086, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221872

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity is one of the major modifiable factors for promotion of public health. Although it has been reported that financial incentives would be effective for promoting health behaviours such as smoking cessation or attendance for cancer screening, few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have examined the effect of financial incentives for increasing the number of daily steps among individuals in a community setting. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of financial incentives for increasing the number of daily steps among community-dwelling adults in Japan. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will be a two-arm, parallel-group RCT. We will recruit community-dwelling adults who are physically inactive in a suburban area (Nakayama) of Sendai city, Japan, using leaflets and posters. Participants that meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to an intervention group or a waitlist control group. The intervention group will be offered a financial incentive (a chance to get shopping points) if participants increase their daily steps from their baseline. The primary outcome will be the average increase in the number of daily steps (at 4-6 weeks and 7-9 weeks) relative to the average number of daily steps at the baseline (1-3 weeks). For the sample size calculation, we assumed that the difference of primary outcome would be 1302 steps. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been ethically approved by the research ethics committee of Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan (No. 2018-1-171). The results will be submitted and published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000033276; Pre-results.

19.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1245-1251, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic observations have raised expectations that the Japanese dietary pattern could promote longer disability-free survival (DFS) times among the Japanese population; however, no previous study has examined this issue. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the Japanese dietary pattern and DFS time in the elderly Japanese population. METHODS: We analyzed follow-up data covering a 10-y period for 9456 elderly Japanese individuals (aged ≥65 y) participating in a community-based prospective cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Based on previous studies, we used 9 food items to calculate the Japanese Diet Index (JDI) score: rice, miso soup, fish and shellfish, green and yellow vegetables, seaweed, pickled vegetables, green tea (1 point for each item if the consumption value was more than or equal to the median, and 0 points otherwise), beef and pork, and coffee (0 points for each item if the consumption value was more than or equal to the median, and 1 point otherwise). Differences in median age at incident disability or death [50th percentile differences (PDs)] according to quartiles (Q1-Q4) of the JDI score were estimated using Laplace regression. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 4233 (44.8%) incident disability or death events occurred. In addition, a higher JDI score was significantly associated with longer DFS time: compared with the lowest quartile of JDI scores (Q1), the multivariate-adjusted 50th PD (95% CI) was 7.1 (1.8, 12.4) mo longer for Q4. Each 1-SD increase of the JDI score was associated with 3.7 (1.7, 5.7) additional months of life without disability (P-trend < 0.01). No differences were seen in sex or chronic condition (no or ≥1 chronic condition) at baseline. A post hoc analysis showed a larger effect on DFS time when using a modified JDI score without coffee. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the Japanese dietary pattern is associated with improved DFS time in the general elderly population.

20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 114: 141-146, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077948

RESUMO

Suicide is an important public health issue and previous studies have suggested that social support can one preventive factor. However, the association between emotional and instrumental social support and suicide death has not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between each type of social support and suicide death based on a population-based cohort study. We analyzed follow-up data for 47,223 subjects (aged ≥40 y) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study. At the baseline, the subjects were asked five questions about social support. The end point of the study was suicide mortality, based on data from the National Vital Statistics. The Cox model was used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of suicide death. In addition, stratified analysis was conducted to test the interaction of each type of social support with gender (male/female) and age (<65/≥65 y) separately. Among 320,880 person-years of follow-up, 90 cases of suicide death were documented. There were significant association between instrumental social support and lower risk of suicide death, and the hazard ratio was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94). Emotional social support was also associated with a lower risk of suicide death, but not to a significant degree, and the hazard ratio was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.42-1.17). It is suggested that instrumental social support was significantly associated with a lower risk of suicide death, and emotional social support tended to be associated with a lower risk of suicide death.

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