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1.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33(4)2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbation (AE) leads to social and economic costs and long-term adverse outcomes. We aimed to predict exacerbation-prone asthma (EPA) in children. METHODS: The Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS) is a prospective nationwide pediatric asthma cohort of children aged 5-15 years followed every 6 months. Patients with AE during the 6 months prior to all three visits, with AE prior to one or two visits, and without AE prior to any visit were defined as having EPA, exacerbation-intermittent asthma (EIA), and exacerbation-resistant asthma (ERA), respectively. Risk factors and prediction models of EPA were explored. RESULTS: Of the 497 patients who completed three visits, 42%, 18%, and 15% had exacerbations prior to visits 1, 2, and 3 and 5%, 47%, and 48% had EPA, EIA, and ERA, respectively. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression revealed forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) z-score, forced vital capacity (FVC) z-score, white blood cell (WBC) count, and asthma control test (ACT) score as relevant EPA risk factors. The EPA prediction model comprised FVC z-score, WBC count, ACT score, sex, and parental education level (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] 0.841 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.728-0.954]). CONCLUSION: With appropriate management, AE decreases over time, but persistent AEs may occur. Apart from asthma control level, baseline lung function and WBC count predicted EPA.


Assuntos
Asma , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
2.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(2): 133-139, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317890

RESUMO

Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Asthma exacerbations (AE) are episodes characterized by a progressive increase in symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, or chest tightness with a decrease in lung function. There have been previous studies that examined the role of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in asthma, but there have been no studies of the role of EDN in children experiencing AE. Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine the association of EDN with lung function and prognosis in children admitted for severe AE. Methods: We enrolled 82 children who were admitted for severe AE at two different university hospitals in South Korea between January 2018 and December 2019. Blood tests, including white blood cell count, myeloperoxidase (MPO), total eosinophil count, EDN, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and interleukin (IL) 4, IL-5, IL-10 values, and lung function were measured on admission and at discharge in each patient. Results: We observed significant decreases in the levels of MPO, EDN, CRP, and IL-4, with significant improvement in lung function after treatment. We then classified the subjects into two groups of different clinical phenotypes: eosinophilic asthma exacerbation (EAE) group and non-EAE group. EDN levels were higher and lung functions were lower in the EAE group. Also, we found that the EDN level was a significant biomarker useful for predicting the number of days for hospital stay. Conclusion: We found that EDN can act as a biomarker that reflects lung function, and that EDN could act as a prognostic biomarker, which demonstrated the complex role of EDN in children experiencing AE.


Assuntos
Asma , Eosinofilia Pulmonar , Biomarcadores , Neurotoxina Derivada de Eosinófilo/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Humanos
3.
J Clin Med ; 11(2)2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35054002

RESUMO

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children, and the treatment of choice is macrolides. There is an increasing trend in reports of refractory clinical responses despite macrolide treatment due to the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Early discrimination of macrolide-refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MrMP) from macrolide-sensitive M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MSMP) is vital; however, testing for macrolide susceptibility at the time of admission is not feasible. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of MrMP in Korean children, in comparison with those of MSMP. In this multicenter study, board-certified pediatric pulmonologists at 22 tertiary hospitals reviewed the medical records from 2010 to 2015 of 5294 children who were hospitalized with M. pneumoniae pneumonia and administered macrolides as the initial treatment. One-way analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare differences between groups. Of 5294 patients (mean age, 5.6 years) included in this analysis, 240 (4.5%), 925 (17.5%), and 4129 (78.0%) had MrMP, macrolide-less effective M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and MSMP, respectively. Compared with the MSMP group, the MrMP group had a longer fever duration, overall (13.0 days) and after macrolide use (8.0 days). A higher proportion of MrMP patients had respiratory distress, pleural effusion, and lobar pneumonia. The mean aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels were the highest in the MrMP group, along with higher incidences of extrapulmonary manifestations and atelectasis (during and post infection). Pre-existing conditions were present in 17.4% (n = 725/4159) of patients, with asthma being the most common (n = 334/4811, 6.9%). This study verified that MrMP patients show more severe initial radiographic findings and clinical courses than MSMP patients. MrMP should be promptly managed by agents other than macrolides.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23496, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873215

RESUMO

Air pollution may influence prenatal maternal stress, but research evidence is scarce. Using data from a prospective cohort study conducted on pregnant women (n = 2153), we explored the association between air pollution and perceived stress, which was assessed using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), among pregnant women. Average exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) or < 10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) for each trimester and the entire pregnancy were estimated at maternal residential addresses using land-use regression models. Linear regression models were applied to estimate associations between PSS scores and exposures to each air pollutant. After adjustment for potential confounders, interquartile-range (IQR) increases in whole pregnancy exposures to PM2.5, PM10, and O3 in the third trimester were associated with 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01, 0.74), 0.54 (95% CI 0.11, 0.97), and 0.30 (95% CI 0.07, 0.54) point increases in prenatal PSS scores, respectively. Furthermore, these associations were more evident in women with child-bearing age and a lower level of education. Also, the association between PSS scores and PM10 was stronger in the spring. Our findings support the relationship between air pollution and prenatal maternal stress.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Gestantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24287, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930997

RESUMO

Recurrent bacterial infection causes frequent bronchiectasis (BE) exacerbations. The effectiveness and safety of long-term administration of macrolides in BE remain controversial, especially in children who require minimal treatment to prevent exacerbation. We conducted this meta-analysis to determine the usefulness of long-term macrolide use in pediatric BE. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library databases, Embase, KoreaMed, Igaku Chuo Zasshi, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which elucidated long-term macrolide treatment (≥ 4 weeks) in non-cystic fibrosis BE in children aged < 18 years. The primary outcome was frequency of acute exacerbation; secondary outcomes included changes in pulmonary function, sputum scores, and adverse events including bacterial resistance. We included four RCTs. Long-term macrolide treatment showed a significant decrease in the frequency of exacerbation (odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.87), mean number of exacerbations per patient (mean difference, - 1.40; 95% CI, - 2.26 to - 0.54), and sputum purulence score (mean difference, - 0.78; 95% CI, - 1.32 to - 0.24). However, long-term macrolide treatment was accompanied by an increased carriage of azithromycin-resistant bacteria (OR, 7.13). Long-term macrolide administration prevents exacerbation of BE in children; however, there are risks of increasing antibiotic resistance. Benefits and risks should be weighed and determined on a patient-by-patient basis.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquiectasia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(12): 1654-1660.e2, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844704

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and added value of transcatheter dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography for nontraumatic lymphatic disorders. Five patients (2 males and 3 females; median age, 16.0 years; range, 3-74 years) who underwent both intranodal and transcatheter dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography for suspected nontraumatic lymphatic leakages from June 2017 to January 2020 were included in this retrospective study. The imaging findings of both dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography techniques were assessed for the presence of chylolymphatic reflux or direct sign of leakage. Intranodal dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography demonstrated chylolymphatic reflux into the thoracic area in 2 patients (40%) but no direct evidence of leakage in any of the 5 patients. Transcatheter dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography revealed chylolymphatic reflux and extravasation of the contrast agent in all 5 patients (100%). In conclusion, transcatheter dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography may reveal additional signs of reflux and extravasation even when the findings of intranodal dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography are negative.


Assuntos
Vasos Linfáticos , Linfografia , Adolescente , Meios de Contraste , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Linfografia/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(8): e12070, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing worldwide. Prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and maternal anxiety during pregnancy has been suggested as a potential causes of AD. This study investigated the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and maternal anxiety on AD and identified the critical period of PM2.5 exposure for AD in infants. METHODS: This study included 802 children from the COCOA birth cohort study with follow-up data at 1 year of age. PM2.5 was estimated by land-use regression models and prenatal anxiety was measured with a questionnaire. AD was diagnosed by doctor at 1 year of age. Logistic regression analysis and Bayesian distributed lag interaction models were applied. RESULTS: Higher PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy, higher prenatal maternal anxiety, and male gender were associated with AD at 1 year of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86 [1.08-3.19], 1.58 [1.01-2.47], and 1.54 [1.01-2.36], respectively). Higher PM2.5 during the first trimester and higher maternal anxiety during pregnancy showed an additive effect on the risk of AD (aOR: 3.13; 95% CI: 1.56-6.28). Among boys exposed to higher maternal anxiety during pregnancy, gestational weeks 5-8 were the critical period of PM2.5 exposure for the development of AD. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PM2.5 exposure during gestational weeks 5-8 increased the probability of AD in infancy, especially in boys with higher maternal anxiety. Avoiding PM2.5 exposure and maternal anxiety from the first trimester may prevent infant AD.

8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(10): 3310-3320, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) 2012 equations were developed to resolve the age-related disparity in interpreting spirometry results. Local validation of the equation is needed, especially in Northeast Asian children. This study evaluated the GLI equation in Korean children. METHODS: Spirometry indices (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25%-75%) and clinical information were gathered from three population-based birth cohorts. Predicted GLI reference values and z scores of spirometry results were calculated for 1239 healthy children. The mean, standard deviation of z scores were compared with the expected 0 and 1. Probabilities of falling below the lower limit of normal (LLN) (z score: -1.64) were compared with the expected value 5%. GLI z scores were assessed according to low (<-2), normal (≥-2 and ≤2), and high (>2) BMI z score groups. RESULTS: Mean z scores significantly differed from 0 for FEV1/FVC in males (mean [95% confidence interval]: 0.18 [0.08, 0.27]) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in females (-0.23 [-0.31, -0.15] and -0.26 [-0.36, -0.16], respectively). The standard deviation was larger than 1 for all variables in males and FVC and FEV1/FVC in females. The probability of falling below the LLN was significantly larger than 5% for FEV1 (12.13% [9.64, 14.77]), FVC (15.86% [13.06, 18.81]), and forced expiratory flow at 25%-75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25%-75%) (7.31% [5.29, 9.49]) in males and FVC (11.91% [9.40, 14.60]) in females. FEV1 and FVC z scores increased across low to high body mass index (BMI) groups, and FEV1/FVC decreased from low to high BMI groups. CONCLUSION: GLI equations marginally differ from real-world values, which should be considered by pulmonologists in practice or research.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Criança , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , República da Coreia , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 237: 113823, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the general population. However, this relationship among pregnant women remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pregnancy air pollution exposure and maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during the third trimester assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scales, respectively. METHODS: We analyzed 1481 pregnant women from a cohort study in Seoul. Maternal exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10), as well as to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) for each trimester and the entire pregnancy was assessed at participant's residential address by land use regression models. We estimated the relative risk (RR) and corresponding confidence interval (CI) of the depressive and anxiety symptoms associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: In single-pollutant models, an IQR increase in PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 during the second trimester was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (PM2.5 RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27; PM10 RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.23; NO2 RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.29) after adjusting for relevant covariates. Similarly, an IQR increase in O3 during the third trimester was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.18), while the IQR increase in O3 during the first trimester was associated with a decreased risk (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.96). Exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 during the second trimester was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. The associations with PM2.5 and O3 in single-and multi-pollutant models were consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that increased levels of particulate matter, NO2, and O3 during pregnancy may elevate the risk of depression or anxiety in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Environ Res ; 200: 111640, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302828

RESUMO

Prenatal particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) is associated with adverse birth growth. However, the longitudinal growth impacts have been little studied, and no mechanistic relationships have been described. We investigated the association between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and growth trajectories, and the possible role of epigenetics. We enrolled 1313 neonates with PM2.5 data measured by ordinary kriging from the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases, followed up at 1, 3, and 5 years to evaluate growth. Differential DNA methylation and pyrosequencing of cord blood leukocytes was evaluated according to the prenatal PM2.5 levels and birth weight (BW). PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester (T2) caused the lowest BW in both sexes, further adjusted for indoor PM2.5 levels [female, aOR 1.39 (95% CI 1.05-1.83); male, aOR 1.36 (95% CI 1.04-1.79)]. Bayesian distributed lag models with indoor PM2.5 adjustments revealed a sensitive window for BW effects at 10-26 weeks gestation, but only in females. Latent class mixture models indicated that a persistently low weight-for-height percentile trajectory was more prevalent in the highest PM2.5 exposure quartile at T2 in females, compared to a persistently high trajectory (36.5% vs. 20.3%, P = 0.022). Also, in the females only, the high PM2.5 and low BW neonates showed significantly greater ARRDC3 methylation changes. ARRDC3 methylation was also higher only in females with low weight at 5 years of age. Higher fetal PM2.5 exposure during T2 may cause a decreased growth trajectory, especially in females, mediated by ARRDC3 hyper-methylation-associated energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Arrestinas , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
11.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e698-e706, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence on the association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases, therapies related to these diseases, and COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the potential association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 early in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We did an exposure-driven, propensity score-matched study using a South Korean nationwide cohort linked to general health examination records. We analysed all South Korean patients aged older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, and received general health examination results from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We defined autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue diseases) based on the relevant ICD-10 codes, with at least two claims (outpatient or inpatient) within 1 year. The outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, severe COVID-19 (requirement of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, application of invasive ventilation, or death), and COVID-19-related death. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for the potential confounders. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, 133 609 patients (70 050 [52·4%] female and 63 559 [47·6%] male) completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4365 (3·3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 8297 (6·2%) were diagnosed with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After matching, patients with an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease showed an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR 1·19, 95% CI 1·03-1·40; p=0·026), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·26, 1·02-1·59; p=0·041), and COVID-19-related death (1·69, 1·01-2·84; p=0·046). Similar results were observed in patients with connective tissue disease and inflammatory arthritis. Treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes, but those receiving high dose (≥10 mg per day) of systemic corticosteroids had an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR 1·47, 95% CI 1·05-2·03; p=0·022), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·76, 1·06-2·96; p=0·031), and COVID-19-related death (3·34, 1·23-8·90; p=0·017). INTERPRETATION: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19, and COVID-19-related deaths in South Korea. A high dose of systemic corticosteroid, but not DMARDs, showed an adverse effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related clinical outcomes. FUNDING: National Research Foundation of Korea.

12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 34(2): 83-87, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143683

RESUMO

Background: Myhre syndrome is a rare connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the SMAD4 gene. Although recognizing Myhre syndrome in early childhood is challenging, it is important to manage airway stenosis in patients with Myhre syndrome. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 2-month-old boy who initially presented with severe multilevel airway stenosis, dysmorphic face, and multiple abnormalities. Lung fibrosis and mild aortic valve stenosis were additionally observed on follow-up examinations. A heterozygous missense variant, c.1499T>C (p.Ile500Thr), in SMAD4 was identified through exome sequencing. Tracheostomy was performed, and the patient has maintained stable respiration through a customized tracheostomy tube with a home ventilator. Conclusions: Patients who have dysmorphic face, airway stenosis, and cardiovascular anomalies that do not fit the diagnosis of common syndromes should be evaluated for rare diseases, including Myhre syndrome. Since respiratory complications can be life threatening, early diagnosis and suitable intervention are necessary.


Assuntos
Deformidades Congênitas da Mão , Traqueostomia , Pré-Escolar , Constrição Patológica , Criptorquidismo , Facies , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual , Masculino
13.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(7): 1445-1454, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with certain gene variants, the rapidly increasing incidence of AD suggests that environmental factors contribute to disease development. In this study, we investigated the association of AD incidence and phenotype with antibiotic exposure within 6 months of age, considering the dose administered and genetic risk. METHODS: This study included 1637 children from the COCOA cohort. Pediatric allergists assessed the presence of AD at each visit and obtained information about antibiotic exposure for more than 3 days. IL-13 (rs20541) polymorphism was genotyped by the TaqMan method. We stratified the AD phenotypes into four groups and used multinomial logistic regression models for analysis. RESULTS: Antibiotic exposure within 6 months of age was found to increase the risk of AD within 3 years of life (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.81) in dose-dependent manner. Antibiotic exposure more than twice increased the risk of the early-persistent AD phenotype (aOR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.35-4.63). There was a weak interaction between genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors on the development of AD (p for interaction = 0.06). Children with the IL-13 (rs20541) GA + AA genotype have a higher risk of the early-persistent AD phenotype when exposed to antibiotics more than twice than those with the IL-13 (rs20541) GG genotype and without exposure to antibiotics (aOR = 4.73; 95% CI, 2.01-11.14). CONCLUSION: Antibiotic exposure within 6 months was related to the incidence of early-persistent AD and a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of AD in childhood, whose effect was modified by the IL-13 (rs20541) genotype.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Interleucina-13 , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Interleucina-13/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético
14.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(10): 980-988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is still debatable whether dog ownership during early childhood is a risk factor for the development of allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of dog ownership in early life with sensitization and asthma in childhood. METHODS: Data from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic diseases were used to investigate the association between dog ownership at any time from pregnancy to 1 year of age and sensitization to aeroallergens at 3 and 7 years old, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and asthma at 7 years old. We analyzed the cytokine levels in cord blood (CB) and indoor environmental measurement concentrations in the mother's residence obtained at 36 weeks of pregnancy. RESULTS: Sensitization to dogs at age 3 and 7 did not differ between dog ownership and nonownership, but dog ownership during early life decreased the risk of sensitization to aeroallergens at age 7 (aOR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.90). Dog ownership significantly increased the risk of nonatopic BHR (aOR = 2.86; 95% CI 1.32-6.21). In addition, dog ownership was associated with asthma, especially nonatopic asthma at 7 years old (aOR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.02-7.32; aOR = 7.05, 95% CI 1.85-26.90, respectively). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of IL-13 or interferon-γ in CB or indoor environmental measurements according to dog ownership during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Early-life dog exposure in this birth cohort has been shown to reduce atopy but increase the risk of nonatopic BHR and nonatopic asthma at 7 years old.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Cães/imunologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/epidemiologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/imunologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Propriedade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Testes Cutâneos
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(6): 2262-2271.e2, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can affect chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but there is unclear real-world evidence regarding the association of underlying CRS with the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether CRS is associated with increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. METHODS: Altogether, 219,959 adult patients who tested for SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea from January 1 to May 15, 2020 (excluding self-referral) were identified in this nested case-control study with propensity score matching. Data on SARS-CoV-2 test results and COVID-19 worsened outcomes (ie, the need for oxygen therapy, intensive care, or mechanical ventilation, and death) were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. RESULTS: In this matched cohort, 380 of 12,217 patients with CRS (3.1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared with 310 patients without CRS (2.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.42). Moreover, 60 of 286 COVID-19 patients with CRS (21.0%) had severe COVID-19 outcomes, compared with 38 without CRS (13.3%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.71). Subgroup analysis identified that CRS patients with an absence of nasal polyps, prior intranasal corticosteroid use, or nonatopic type had a greater risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CRS, prior intranasal corticosteroid use, the absence of nasal polyps, or nonatopic type was associated with increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 in the Korean nationwide cohort. Clinicians should be cautious in determining prognosis and care for patients with CRS amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 13(3): 404-419, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-17 variants and perturbations in the gut microbiota may influence the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, unifying principles for variants of host and microbe interaction remains unclear. We sought to investigate whether IL-17 variants and gut microbiota affect the development of AD in infancy. METHODS: Composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed in fecal samples from 99 normal healthy and 61 AD infants at 6 months of age. The associations between total immunoglobulin E (IgE), the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD), short-chain fatty acids, transcriptome and functional profile of the gut measured in these subjects and Streptococcus were analyzed. IL-6 and IL-8 in the human intestinal epithelial cell line (HIEC-6) were measured after stimulation of IL-17 and Streptococcus mitis. RESULTS: In this study, Streptococcus was enriched in infants with AD and was higher in those with the GA + AA of IL-17 (rs2275913) variant. Streptococcus was positively correlated with IgE and SCORAD in infants with AD and GA + AA of IL-17. Butyrate and valerate were negatively correlated with Streptococcus and were decreased in infants with AD and GA + AA. Bacterial genes for oxidative phosphorylation induced by reduced colonization of Clostridium were decreased compared with normal and GG. In transcriptome analysis, lactate dehydrogenase A-like 6B was higher in infants with AD compared with healthy infants. IL-6 and IL-8 were increased in IL-17 and/or S. mitis-stimulated HIEC-6 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that increased Streptococcus and A allele of IL-17 (rs2275913) may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD via modulation of the immune system in infancy.

18.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(2): e13802, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777145

RESUMO

DC is caused by defects at the level of telomere maintenance, and cells from patients with this disease have abnormally short telomeres and show premature senescence. One consequence of DC is bone marrow failure. Thus, patients with DC often require HSCT. However, HSCT does not ameliorate other DC-related manifestations. In fact, HSCT can accelerate organ dysfunction due to treatment-related complications, and solid organ transplantation is required in some patients with DC. In this report, we describe the clinical course of a 5-year-old boy who was transferred to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea, 2 years after HSCT. At admission, he had tachypnea and hypoxemia. A liver biopsy was performed for suspected HPS caused by PH, and LT was considered. Eventually, his hypoxemia worsened, and he was transferred to a PICU and started on VA ECMO. He subsequently underwent a CLLT. ECMO was stopped on post-operative day 12, extubation was achieved on post-operative day 29, and the patient recovered well from the surgery. Our results show that CLLT could be a life-saving treatment option for DC patients with very severe HPS in whom a poor outcome is expected after LT.


Assuntos
Disceratose Congênita/complicações , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/cirurgia , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplante de Pulmão/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Masculino , Gravidade do Paciente
20.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 13(1): 42-55, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease occurring in children, and it has various clinical phenotypes. A clear differentiation of the clinical phenotypes can provide better asthma management and prediction of asthma prognosis. Little is currently known about asthma phenotypes in Korean children. This study was designed to identify asthma phenotypes in school-aged Korean children. METHODS: This study enrolled 674 children with physician-diagnosed asthma from the Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS) cohort. The physicians verified the relevant histories of asthma and comorbid diseases, as well as airway lability and hyper-responsiveness from the results of pulmonary function tests and bronchial provocation tests. Questionnaires regarding the participants' baseline characteristics, their environment and self-rating of asthma control were collected at the time of enrollment. Laboratory tests were performed to assess allergy and airway inflammation. Children with asthma were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS: Of the 674 patients enrolled from the KAS cohort, 447 were included in the cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of these 447 children revealed 4 asthma phenotypes: cluster 1 (n = 216, 48.3%) which was characterized by male-dominant atopic asthma; cluster 2 (n = 79, 17.7%) which was characterized by early-onset atopic asthma with atopic dermatitis; cluster 3 (n = 47, 10.5%) which was characterized by puberty-onset, female-dominant atopic asthma with the low lung function; and cluster 4 (n = 105, 23.5%) which was characterized by early-onset, non-atopic dominant asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The asthma phenotypes among Korean children can be classified into 4 distinct clusters. Long-term follow-up with these phenotypes will be needed to define their prognosis and response to treatment.

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