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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396611

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the relationship between APOE*4 carriage on cognitive decline, and whether these associations were moderated by sex, baseline age, ethnicity, and vascular risk factors. Participants were 19,225 individuals aged 54-103 years from 15 longitudinal cohort studies with a mean follow up duration ranging between 1.2 and 10.7 years. Two-step individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis was used to pool results of study-wise analyses predicting memory and general cognitive decline from carriage of one or two APOE*4 alleles, and moderation of these associations by age, sex, vascular risk factors and ethnicity. Separate pooled estimates were calculated in both men and women who were younger (i.e., 62 years) and older (i.e., 80 years) at baseline. Results showed that APOE*4 carriage was related to faster general cognitive decline in women, and faster memory decline in men. A stronger dose-dependent effect was observed in older men, with faster general cognitive and memory decline in those carrying two versus one APOE*4 allele. Vascular risk factors were related to an increased effect of APOE*4 on memory decline in younger women, but a weaker effect of APOE*4 on general cognitive decline in older men. The relationship between APOE*4 carriage and memory decline was larger in older-aged Asians than Whites. In sum, APOE*4 is related to cognitive decline in men and women, although these effects are enhanced by age and carriage of two APOE*4 alleles in men, a higher numbers of vascular risk factors during the early stages of late adulthood in women, and Asian ethnicity.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331312

RESUMO

Previous evidence has suggested that vitamins might be beneficial for cognition. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of B vitamins, antioxidant vitamins, and vitamin D on the cognitive function of non-demented middle-aged or older people. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of individuals aged 40 years or older were included. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library databases, and other grey literature sources were searched up to November 2019. Their methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Twenty-three studies on B vitamins (n = 22-1053; comprising folate, B6, and B12), nine on antioxidant vitamins (n = 185-20,469), and six on vitamin D (n = 55-4122) were included. Taking B vitamins for over 3 months was beneficial for global cognition (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.18, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.06) and episodic memory (SMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.15 to -0.04). However, antioxidant vitamins (SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.03) and vitamin D (SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.23) were not. Antioxidant vitamins were beneficial for global cognition in sensitivity analyses using final measurement data as mean difference estimates (SMD, -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to -0.01). Taking B vitamins and possibly antioxidant vitamins may be beneficial for the cognitive function of non-demented people.

3.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; : 1-8, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Executive dysfunction is common in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The pulvinar nucleus plays a role in executive control and synchronizes with cortical regions in the salience network that are vulnerable to Lewy pathology. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the pulvinar subregions in patients with mild DLB and their associations with executive function. METHODS: The sample consisted of 38 DLB patients and 38 age- and sex-matched normal controls. We evaluated cognitive function using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet. We obtained four pulvinar nuclei using preprocessed T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. We compared volumes and textures of the DLB patients and the normal controls for each nucleus. We used a linear regression to determine the association of textures and neuropsychological test scores. RESULTS: The DLB patients showed comparable volumes to the normal controls in all pulvinar nuclei. However, the DLB patients showed different texture of the left medial pulvinar (PuM) from the normal controls. The entropy, contrast, and cluster shade were lower but autocorrelation of left PuM was higher in the DLB patients compared to the normal controls. These texture features of the left PuM were associated with the set-shifting performance measured by the Trail Making Test. CONCLUSIONS: In DLB, the left PuM may be altered from early stage, which may contribute to the development of executive dysfunction.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 421, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949239

RESUMO

Coffee consumption is associated with cerebral hypoperfusion that may contribute to the development of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We investigated the effect of lifetime coffee consumption on the volume of WMH (VWMH) in late life, and compared the effect between men and women since caffeine clearance may be different between sexes. We enrolled 492 community-dwelling cognitively normal elderly individuals (73.4 ± 6.7 years old on average) from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. We evaluated their patterns and amounts of coffee consumption using a study-specific standardized interview and estimated cerebral VWMH by automatic segmentation of brain fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence magnetic resonance images. Higher cumulative lifetime coffee consumption was associated with higher logVWMH in both sexes (p = 0.030). The participants who consumed more than 2 cups of coffee per day on average in their lifetime showed higher logVWMH in late life than those who consumed less. When both sexes were analyzed separately, these coffee-logVWMH associations were found only in women, although the volumes of brain and white matter of women were smaller than those of men. Our findings suggest that prolonged high coffee consumption may be associated with the risk of WMH in late life.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 884-893, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918412

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the association of pineal gland volume with the risk of isolated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). We enrolled 245 community-dwelling cognitively normal elderly individuals without major psychiatric or neurological disorders at the baseline evaluation, of whom 146 completed the 2-year follow-up evaluation. We assessed RBD symptoms using the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) and defined probable RBD (pRBD) as an RBDSQ score of ≥ 5. We manually segmented the pineal gland on 3T T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and estimated its volume. The smaller the baseline pineal gland volume, the more severe the RBD symptoms at baseline. The individuals with isolated pRBD showed smaller pineal gland volumes than those without isolated pRBD. The larger the baseline pineal gland volume, the lower the risks of prevalent isolated pRBD at the baseline evaluation and incident isolated pRBD at the 2-year follow-up evaluation. Pineal gland volume showed good diagnostic accuracy for prevalent isolated pRBD and predictive accuracy for incident isolated pRBD in the receiver operator characteristic analysis. Our findings suggest that pineal gland volume may be associated with the severity of RBD symptoms and the risk of isolated RBD in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(4): 1313-1320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although tooth loss is known to increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, few studies have investigated the association between functional teeth including rehabilitated lost teeth and cognitive functionObjective:We investigated the associations of the numbers of functional teeth and functional occlusal units with cognitive impairment and cognitive function in late life. METHODS: The current study was conducted as a part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD), a community-based elderly cohort study. We analyzed 411 participants who have agreed with the additional dental exam. Geriatric psychiatrists and neuropsychologists administered the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease Assessment Packet Clinical and Neuropsychological Assessment Battery to all participants, and dentists examined their dental status. RESULTS: Higher number of functional teeth (OR = 0.955, 95% CI = 0.914-0.997, p = 0.037) and higher number of functional occlusal units (OR = 0.900, 95% CI = 0.813-0.996, p = 0.042) were associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment. When we analyzed these relationships separated by the location of teeth, only the numbers of functional teeth (OR = 0.566, 95% CI = 0.373-0.857, p = 0.007) and functional occlusal units (OR = 0.399, 95% CI = 0.213-0.748, p = 0.004) in the premolar area were associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Loss of functional teeth and functional occlusal units (especially in the premolar region) were associated with increased cognitive impairment.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite strong evidence that emotional support has a protective effect on cognitive decline, the neural basis for how an individual's emotional support is associated with cognition is unknown. We investigated if the hippocampus mediates the relationship between emotional support and cognition in older adults. METHODS: Four hundred ten non-demented Korean older adults were classified into two groups according to their Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey emotional support scores: the poor emotional support (score ≤ 25th percentile of entire sample) and normal emotional support (score > 25th percentile of entire sample) groups. Cognitive function was assessed using the Verbal Memory Score (VMS) and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet Neuropsychological Assessment Battery total score (CERAD-TS). Left and right hippocampal volume (HPV) were obtained using 3T T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Mediation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: In the association of emotional support with VMS, left HPV played a mediating role (indirect effect = 0.40, standard error [SE] = 0.21, bias-corrected 95% CI = 0.04, 0.86). In the association of emotional support with CERAD-TS, both left (indirect effect = 0.82, standard error [SE] = 0.45, bias-corrected 95% CI = 0.09, 1.83) and right (indirect effect = 0.51, standard error [SE] = 0.32, bias-corrected 95% CI = 0.02, 1.24) HPVs played mediating roles. CONCLUSIONS: The hippocampus may mediate the association between emotional support and cognition. Higher levels of emotional support may be associated with better verbal memory and global cognition via larger HPV.

8.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(8): 575-580, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of depressed mood (dysphoria) and loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia)on the risk of dementia in cognitively-normal elderly individuals. METHODS: This study included 2,685 cognitively-normal elderly individuals who completed the baseline and 4-year follow-up assessments of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. We ascertained the presence of dysphoria and anhedonia using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory. We defined subjective cognitive decline as the presence of subjective cognitive complaints without objective cognitive impairments. We analyzed the association of dysphoria and anhedonia with the risk of cognitive disorders using multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score, Apolipoprotein E genotype, and neuropsychological test performance. RESULTS: During the 4-year follow-up period, anhedonia was associated with an approximately twofold higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.20-3.64, p=0.008) and fivefold higher risk of dementia (OR=5.07, 95% CI=1.44-17.92, p=0.012) but was not associated with the risk of subjective cognitive decline. In contrast, dysphoria was associated with an approximately twofold higher risk of subjective cognitive decline (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.33-3.19, p=0.001) and 1.7-fold higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.00-3.05, p=0.048) but was not associated with the risk of dementia. CONCLUSION: Anhedonia, but not dysphoria, is a risk factor of dementia in cognitively-normal elderly individuals.

9.
Psychiatry Investig ; 16(7): 532-538, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between normal-but-low folate levels and cognitive function in the elderly population using a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We analyzed 3,910 participants whose serum folate levels were within the normal reference range (1.5-16.9 ng/mL) at baseline evaluation in the population-based prospective cohort study named the "Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia." The association between baseline folate quartile categories and baseline cognitive disorders [mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia] was examined using binary logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding variables. The risks of incident MCI and dementia associated with the decline of serum folate level during a 4-year follow-up period were examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The lowest quartile group of serum folate (≥1.5, ≤5.9 ng/mL) showed a higher risk of cognitive disorders than did the highest quartile group at baseline evaluation (odds ratio 1.314, p=0.012). Over the 4 years of follow-up, the risk of incident dementia was 2.364 times higher among subjects whose serum folate levels declined from the 2nd-4th quartile group to the 1st quartile than among those for whom it did not (p=0.031). CONCLUSION: Normal-but-low serum folate levels were associated with the risk of cognitive disorders in the elderly population, and a decline to normal-but-low serum folate levels was associated with incident dementia. Maintaining serum folate concentration above 5.9 ng/mL may be beneficial for cognitive status.

10.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(4): 1123-1132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322573

RESUMO

Prospective studies concerning sleep architecture and cognitive function have focused on individual sleep measures per se, without considering the complementary role of non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep. We explored the association between NREM/REM cycle-related sleep architecture and cognitive decline. Community-dwelling elderly people in Korea from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia were enrolled. They were cognitively normal and underwent overnight polysomnography at baseline. A NREM/REM cycle is a sequence of NREM and REM sleep, uninterrupted by a waking period of >2 min. After 4 years, the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia was related to the measures of sleep architecture, including NREM/REM cycle parameters by logistic regression analyses. Of 235 participants (mean [SD] age 68 [5] years; 60% female) at baseline, 14 (5.9%) developed MCI/dementia at follow-up. A short average cycle length (OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.94-0.99]; p = 0.02) was significantly associated with cognitive decline. When its substructure and NREM and REM sleep outside of cycles were considered simultaneously, the average REM sleep duration per cycle (OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.76-0.98]; p = 0.03) was significantly related to the outcome. In conclusion, short average duration of NREM/REM cycles, especially average REM sleep duration in each cycle, in cognitively normal elderly might be used as an early marker of cognitive decline.

12.
Psychooncology ; 28(1): 160-166, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Delirium is highly prevalent in patients with advanced cancer. This study aimed to investigate delirium rates and potential associated factors such as mortality in patients admitted to an acute palliative care unit (APCU). Our second aim was to validate the Korean version of the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (K-MDAS). METHODS: A total of 102 patients with advanced cancer, and who were admitted to the APCU, were assessed. Demographic data were collected alongside clinical diagnosis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, clinical symptoms according to the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, history of smoking, alcohol use, hypnotic use, and daily dose of morphine were collected. The Confusion Assessment Method, the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 98, and the K-MDAS were measured at admission and 1 week later. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (23.52%) were diagnosed with delirium, and associated factors were old age (P = 0.007), higher ECOG (P = 0.011), and drowsiness (P < 0.001). The presence of delirium was an independent predictor of 1-month mortality; male gender, higher body mass index, and hypnotic use were also related to 1-month mortality. The K-MDAS had reliable internal consistency (α = 0.942) and showed sensitivity of 0.958 and specificity of 0.921 at the optimal cutoff score for diagnosing delirium of 9. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium was prevalent in patients admitted to the APCU and was associated with 1-month mortality. The K-MDAS showed acceptable reliability and validity and can be used to screen for delirium in a palliative care setting.


Assuntos
Delírio/diagnóstico , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Delírio/psicologia , Feminino , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Prevalência , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia
13.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(8): 767-774, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086611

RESUMO

Objective: Due to an unprecedented rate of population aging, South Korea is facing a dementia epidemic. For this reason, the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD) was launched in 2009 with support from the Korean Health Industry Development Institute to investigate the epidemiology, biopsychosocial risk factors, and outcomes of dementia and dementia-related conditions. Methods: The KLOSCAD is the first nationwide multi-center population-based prospective cohort study. In October 2010, 12,694 individuals were randomly sampled from residents aged 60 years or older who lived in 13 districts across South Korea. In the baseline assessment, which was conducted from November 2010 through October 2012, 6,818 (53.7%) individuals participated. Follow-up assessments have been conducted every two years, with the first follow-up assessment conducted between November 2012 and October 2014, and the second between November 2014 and October 2016. The third is now in progress, and will span from November 2016 to October 2018. Diagnosis of cognitive disorders, neuropsychological battery, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, activities of daily living, physical and neurologic examination and laboratory tests, life styles, quality of life, and identification of death were evaluated in each assessment. Results: The cumulative drop-out rate at the second follow-up assessment was 38.7%. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment were 5.0% and 27.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The KLOSCAD may provide strong scientific evidence for advancing the fight against dementia both in Korea and globally.

14.
Sleep ; 41(10)2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011049

RESUMO

Study Objectives: Previous studies have shown that coffee consumption may suppress the production of melatonin in pinealocytes through competitive inhibition of adenosine A2 receptors by caffeine. We investigated the impact of lifetime coffee consumption on pineal gland volume and the resulting effects on sleep quality. Methods: We enrolled 162 cognitively normal elderly individuals among the participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. We evaluated the patterns and amounts of coffee consumption using a study-specific standardized interview and assessed sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We measured the volume of pineal parenchyma (VPP) by manually segmenting the pineal gland on high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. We examined the impact of lifetime coffee consumption on the VPP and the resulting effects on sleep quality using analysis of covariance, multiple linear regression, and mediation analyses. Results: We found that smaller VPP was associated with higher cumulative lifetime coffee consumption. Participants who consumed more than 60 cup-years of coffee had VPPs that were smaller by about 20% than individuals who consumed less than 60 cup-years of coffee. The VPP mediated the association between lifetime coffee consumption and sleep efficiency and quality. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high lifetime coffee consumption may reduce VPP, and that this reduction in VPP may impair the quality of sleep in late life.


Assuntos
Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Café/efeitos adversos , Glândula Pineal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Demência , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Melatonina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Pineal/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 45(5-6): 251-261, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of gait speed and gait variability, an index of how much gait parameters, such as step time, fluctuate step-to-step, with risk of cognitive decline in cognitively normal elderly individuals. While high gait variability is emerging as an early indicator of dementing illnesses, there is little research on whether high gait variability predicts cognitive decline in cognitively normal elderly who have no evidence of cognitive impairment. METHODS: In this 4-year prospective cohort study on 91 community-dwelling cognitively normal elderly individuals without cerebral ischemic burden or Parkinsonism, we evaluated gait speed and step time variability using a tri-axial accelerometer placed on the center of body mass, and diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) according to the International Working Group on MCI. We performed Kaplan-Meier analysis with consecutive log-rank testing for MCI-free survival by cohort-specific tertiles of gait speed; hazard ratios (HR) of incident MCI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education level, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score, GDS score, and presence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. RESULTS: Out of the 91 participants in the baseline assessment, 87 completed one or more 2-year follow-up assessments, and the median duration of follow-up was 47.1 months. Kaplan-Meier curves of incident MCI show evident differences in risk by gait variability group (χ2 = 9.64, p = 0.002, log-rank test). Mean MCI-free survival in the high variability group was 12% shorter than in the mid-to-low tertile group (47.4 ± 1.74 [SD] vs. 54.04 ± 0.52 months), while it was comparable between gait speed groups (51.59 ± 0.70 vs. 50.64 ± 1.77 months; χ2 = 1.16, p = 0.281). In multivariate analysis, subjects with high gait variability showed about 12-fold higher risk of MCI (HR = 11.97, 95% CI = 1.29-111.37) than those with mid-to-low variability. However, those with slow gait speed showed comparable MCI risk to those with mid-to-high speed (HR = 5.04, 95% CI = 0.53-48.18). CONCLUSIONS: Gait variability may be a better predictor of cognitive decline than gait speed in cognitively normal elderly individuals without cerebral ischemic burden or Parkinsonism.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Disfunção Cognitiva , Marcha , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Alelos , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 10(1): 50, 2018 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of lifetime cumulative ginseng intake on cognitive function in a community-dwelling population-based prospective cohort of Korean elders. METHODS: Community-dwelling elders (N = 6422; mean age = 70.2 ± 6.9 years, education = 8.0 ± 5.3 years, female = 56.8%) from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia were included. Among them, 3918 participants (61.0%) completed the 2-year and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Subjects were categorized according to cumulative ginseng intake at baseline evaluation; no use group, low use (< 5 years) group, and high use (≥ 5 years) group. One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to compare the impact of cumulative ginseng intake on baseline Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet neuropsychological battery total score (CERAD total score) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score among the three groups while adjusting for potential covariates. A repeated-measures ANCOVA was performed to investigate the impacts on the changes in CERAD total scores and MMSE scores during the 4 years of follow-up. RESULTS: The high use group showed higher CERAD total scores compared to the no use group after controlling for age, sex, education years, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol intake, presence of hypertension, stroke history, Geriatric Depression Scale, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, and presence of the APOE e4 allele (F(2, 4762) = 3.978, p = 0.019). The changes of CERAD total score for 2 or 4 years of follow-up did not differ according to the use of ginseng. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative ginseng use for longer than 5 years may be beneficial to cognitive function in late life.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Estilo de Vida , Panax/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicometria
17.
Ann Neurol ; 83(3): 472-482, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate sleep disturbances that induce cognitive changes over 4 years in nondemented elderlies. METHODS: Data were acquired from a nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort of Korean elderlies (2,238 normal cognition [NC] and 655 mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). At baseline and 4-year follow-up assessments, sleep-related parameters (midsleep time, sleep duration, sleep latency, subjective sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and daytime dysfunction) and cognitive status were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment, respectively. We used logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, Geriatric Depression Scale, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, and physical activity. RESULTS: In participants with NC, long sleep latency (>30 minutes), long sleep duration (≥7.95 hours), and late midsleep time (after 3:00 am) at baseline were related to the risk of cognitive decline at 4-year follow-up assessment; odds ratio (OR) was 1.40 for long sleep latency, 1.67 for long sleep duration, and 0.61 for late midsleep time. These relationships remained significant when these variables maintained their status throughout the follow-up period. Newly developed long sleep latency also doubled the risk of cognitive decline. In those with MCI, however, only long sleep latency reduced the chance of reversion to NC (OR = 0.69). INTERPRETATION: As early markers of cognitive decline, long sleep latency can be used for elderlies with NC or MCI, whereas long sleep duration and relatively early sleep time might be used for cognitively normal elderlies only. Ann Neurol 2018;83:472-482.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 53(2): 731-41, 2016 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232216

RESUMO

Despite its significance as a contributing factor for late-life dementia risk, illiteracy is frequently underappreciated in the management of dementia. In this study, we estimated the proportion of dementia cases attributable to illiteracy using the population attributable fraction (PAF), and calculated to what extent the monetary cost of dementia could be saved in the future by reducing illiteracy from the South Korean, Latin American, South Asian/Middle Eastern, and African populations. We collected necessary data from the 2011 United Nations Human Development Report and prevalence studies conducted in these regions. Additional variables not included in the above sources were estimated using a logit model under a "trend scenario"-based assumption. Around 16% of the total number of dementia cases in South Korea in 2015 can be attributed to illiteracy, with this figure predicted to decline to around 2% by 2050. This translates to a saving in dementia care costs of approximately 52 billion USD, providing we are successful in theoretically eradicating illiteracy as of 2015, in the population aged 65 years or under. Likewise, reducing illiteracy to 50% in Latin America, South Asia/The Middle East, and Africa by 2050 could generate further cost savings of between 71 and 244 billion, 13 and 94 billion, and 17 and 78 billion USD, respectively. Even public policies aimed solely at reducing illiteracy in the childhood, adolescent, or middle-aged population could potentially have a role in the primary prevention of dementia. Moving forward, governments will need to address this issue in a purposeful and systematic manner.


Assuntos
Demência , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Alfabetização/psicologia , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
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