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1.
Gastric Cancer ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A subgroup analysis of data from a nationwide study (KCSG-ST19-16) was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of second-line ramucirumab plus paclitaxel treatment in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced gastric or gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. METHODS: The KCSG-ST19-16 study enrolled a total of 1063 patients from 56 hospitals in South Korea with advanced gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma, who had received second-line treatment with ramucirumab plus paclitaxel. HER2 status was known for 994 (93.5%) of these patients, who were thus included in the subgroup analysis. RESULTS: In total, 163 of 994 patients (16.4%), had HER2-positive gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma. The objective response rate to ramucirumab plus paclitaxel treatment was significantly higher in patients with HER2-positive disease compared to those with HER2-negative disease (23.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 15.9-30.1] vs. 15.1% [95% CI, 12.3-17.9], p = 0.025). The median progression-free survival was longer in patients with HER2-positive versus HER2-negative disease, but the difference was not statistically significant (4.3 months [95% CI, 3.7-5.3] vs 3.7 months [95% CI, 3.4-4.0], p = 0.054). There was no statistically significant difference in median overall survival (OS) between the groups (9.8 months [95% CI, 8.9-12.3] vs 10.1 months [95% CI, 9.2-10.9], p = 0.564). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HER2-positive gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma, the objective response rate to second-line treatment with ramucirumab plus paclitaxel was significantly higher compared to patients with HER2-negative disease. However, an increased response to treatment was not associated with an improvement in OS.

2.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814239

RESUMO

Background and Aims: We compared the post-treatment overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) between patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class-A and a single small (≤3cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by surgical resection (SR) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 391 patients with CTP class-A who underwent SR (n=232) or RFA (n=159) as first-line therapy for a single small (≤3cm) HCC. Survival was compared according to tumor size (≤2cm/2-3cm) and the presence of cirrhosis. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPW) method was used to estimate the average causal effect of treatment. Results: The median follow-up period was 64.8 months (range 0.1-162.6 months). After IPW, the estimated OS was similar in the SR and RFA groups (p=0.215), and even in patients with HCC of ≤2cm (p=0.816) and without cirrhosis (p=0.195). The estimated RFS was better in the SR group than the RFA groups (p=0.005), also in patients without cirrhosis (p<0.001), but not in those with HCC of ≤2cm (p=0.234). The weighted Cox proportional hazards model with IPW provided adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for OS and RFS after RFA versus SR were 0.698 (0.396-1.232) (p=0.215) and 1.698 (1.777-2.448) (p=0.005), respectively. Conclusions: SR was similar for OS compared to RFA, but a better for RFS in patients with CTP class-A and a single small (≤3cm) HCC. The RFS was determined by the presence or absence of cirrhosis. Hence, SR rather than RFA should be considered in patients without cirrhosis to prolong RFS although there is no OS difference.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27417, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596169

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the clinical implications of hepatitis B surface antigen quantification (qHBs Ag) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and identified the association between qHBs Ag and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in these patients.Between January 2007 and December 2018, the qHBs Ag and clinical data of 183 CHB patients who initially received ETV (n = 45, 24.6%) or TDF (n = 138, 75.4%) were analyzed.The mean follow-up period of the 183 CHB patients was 45.3 months, of which 59 (32.2%) patients showed a reduction in qHBs Ag by >50% after 1 year of antiviral treatment (ETV or TDF). The HCC development (P = .179) or qHBs Ag reduction (P = .524) were similar in the ETV and TDF groups. Patients with a ≥50% decrease in qHBs Ag had a significantly lower incidence of HCC or decompensated cirrhosis complications (P = .005). Multivariate analysis showed that a >50% reduction of qHBs Ag (hazard ratio 0.085, P = .018) and the presence of cirrhosis (hazard ratio 3.32, P = .016) were independent factors predicting the development of HCC.Patients whose qHBs Ag value decreased >50% at 1 year after antiviral treatment for CHB showed a significant decrease in HCC or decompensated cirrhosis events. A reduction in qHBs Ag could be used as a predictive factor of HCC development or critical complications in CHB patients treated with TDF or ETV.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Feminino , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a grim prognosis, and an early diagnostic biomarker has been highly desired. The molecular link between diabetes and PC has not been well-established. METHODS: Bioinformatics screening was performed for a serum PC marker. Experiments in cell lines (5 PC and 1 normal cell lines), mouse models, and human tissue staining (37 PC and 10 normal cases) were performed to test asprosin production from PC. Asprosin's diagnostic performance was tested with serums from multi-center cohorts (347 PC, 209 normal, and 55 additional diabetic subjects) and evaluated according to PC status, stages, and diabetic status, which was compared with that of CA19-9. RESULTS: Asprosin, a diabetes-related hormone, was found from the bioinformatics screening, and its production from PC was confirmed. Serum asprosin levels from multi-center cohorts yielded an age-adjusted diagnostic AUC of 0.987 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.961 to 0.997), superior to that of CA19-9 (AUC = 0.876, 95% CI = 0.847 to 0.905), and a cut-off of 7.18 ng/mL, at which the validation set exhibited a sensitivity of 0.957 and a specificity of 0.924. Importantly, the performance was maintained in early-stage and non-metastatic PC, consistent with the tissue staining. A slightly lower performance against additional diabetic patients (n = 55) was restored by combining asprosin and CA19-9 (AUC = 0.985, 95% CI = 0.975 to 0.995). CONCLUSION: Asprosin is presented as an early-stage PC serum marker that may provide clues for PC-induced diabetes. Larger prospective clinical studies are warranted to solidify its utility.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27470, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713824

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Data from a direct comparison of the long-term survival outcomes of surgical resection (SR) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) versus transarterial therapy in Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP)-class A patients with a single small T1/T2 stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (≤3 cm) are still lacking. This study retrospectively compared the therapeutic outcomes of these treatment types for CTP-A patients with a single small HCC.Using a nationwide Korean registry, we identified 2314 CTP-A patients with SR (n = 722), RFA (n = 731), or transarterial therapy (n = 861) for a single (≤3 cm) T1/T2 stage HCC from 2008 to 2014. The posttreatment overall survival (OS) of transarterial therapy with either SR or RFA were compared using the Inverse Probability of treatment Weighting (IPW). The median follow-up period was 50 months (range 1-107 months).After IPW, the cumulative OS rates after SR or RFA were significantly higher than those after transarterial therapy in all subjects (all P values < .05). The OS rates after SR or RFA were better than those after transarterial therapy in patients with the hepatitis B or C virus (all P values < .05), and in patients aged <65 years (all P values < .05). The cumulative OSs between RFA and transarterial therapy were statistically comparable in patients with a 2 to 3 cm HCC and aged ≥65 years, respectively. For all subjects, the weighted Cox proportional hazards model using IPW provided the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for the OS after SR versus transarterial therapy and after RFA versus transarterial therapy of 0.42 (0.30-0.60) (P < .001) and 0.78 (0.61-0.99) (P = .044), respectively.In CTP-A patients with a single (≤3 cm) T1/T2 HCC, SR or RFA provides a better OS than transarterial therapy, regardless of the HCC etiology (hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus), especially in patients with HCC of <2 cm and aged <65 years.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Hepatectomia/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ablação por Radiofrequência/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18004, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504179

RESUMO

Telomere length has been linked to the prevalence and progression of metabolic disease. However, clinical implications of telomere length in biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of telomere length with the histological severity of NAFLD. The cross-sectional data derived from the prospectively enrolled Boramae NAFLD registry (n = 91) were analyzed. The liver tissues and clinical information were obtained from both NAFLD patients and non-NAFLD subjects. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the independent association between telomere length and the histological severity of NAFLD. A total of 83 subjects with or without biopsy-proven NAFLD were included for analysis: non-NAFLD in 23 (27.7%), non-alcoholic fatty liver in 15 (18.1%), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 45 (54.2%). Telomere length measured from liver tissues showed a strong negative correlation (p < 0.001) with age, regardless of NAFLD status. Therefore, telomere length was corrected for age. Age-adjusted telomere length than decreased gradually with an increasing severity of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD (p < 0.028). In multivariate analysis, age-adjusted telomere length (odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95% CI 0.37-0.92; p = 0.019) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.80-0.99; p = 0.039) were independently associated with significant fibrosis. The age-adjusted telomere length tends to decrease along with the fibrosis stage of NAFLD. In particular, among the histological components of NAFLD, fibrosis severity seems to be related to telomere length in the liver.

7.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(10): 877-884, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558866

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to determine the value of hypoxic liver injury (HLI) in the emergency room (ER) for predicting hypoxic hepatitis (HH) and in-hospital mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1537 consecutive STEMI patients were enrolled. HLI in the ER was defined as a ≥2-fold increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST). HH was defined as a ≥20-fold increase in peak serum transaminase. Patients were divided into four groups according to HLI and HH status (group 1, no HLI or HH; group 2, HLI, but no HH; group 3, no HLI, but HH; group 4, both HLI and HH). RESULTS: The incidences of HLI and HH in the ER were 22% and 2%, respectively. In-hospital mortality rates were 3.1%, 11.8%, 28.6%, and 47.1% for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Patients with HLI and/or HH had worse Killip class, higher cardiac biomarker elevations, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HLI in the ER was an independent predictor of HH [odds ratio 2.572, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.166-5.675, p=0.019]. The predictive value of HLI in the ER for the development of HH during hospitalization was favorable [area under the curve (AUC) 0.737, 95% CI 0.643-0.830, sensitivity 0.548, specificity 0.805, for cut-off value AST >80]. Furthermore, in terms of in-hospital mortality, predictive values of HLI in the ER and HH during hospitalization were comparable (AUC 0.701 for HLI at ER and AUC 0.674 for HH). CONCLUSION: Among STEMI patients, HLI in the ER is a significant predictor for the development of HH and mortality during hospitalization (INTERSTELLAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02800421).


Assuntos
Hepatite , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211042812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552667

RESUMO

Background: Ramucirumab as monotherapy or in combination with paclitaxel is a second-line treatment option recommended for patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. However, real-world data from large study cohorts focused on ramucirumab plus paclitaxel in gastric cancer are limited. Methods: The study population comprised all patients with gastric or GEJ cancer who received ramucirumab plus paclitaxel in South Korea between 1 May 2018 and 31 December 2018. We included patients with advanced gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma and disease progression after first-line platinum and fluoropyrimidine-containing combination chemotherapy. Results: In total, 1063 patients were included in the present study. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 15.1% and 57.7%, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 4.03 months (95% confidence interval, 3.80-4.27) and the median overall survival was 10.03 months (95% confidence interval, 9.33-10.73). Grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events with incidence of ⩾5% were neutropenia (35.1%) and anemia (10.5%). Based on multivariable analysis, overall survival was negatively associated with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ⩾2, weight loss ⩾10% in the previous 3 months, GEJ of primary tumor, poor or unknown histologic grade, number of metastatic sites ⩾3, presence of peritoneal metastasis, no prior gastrectomy, and time to second-line since first-line treatment <6 months. Conclusion: Our large-scale, nationwide, real-world data analysis of an unselected real-world population adds evidence for the efficacy and safety of second-line ramucirumab plus paclitaxel in patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma.

9.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(9): 1017-1022, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing clarithromycin resistance has led to the need for an alternative first-line therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Korea, and bismuth containing quadruple therapy (BQT) and tailored therapy (TT) have been proposed as alternative regimens. The aim of this study was to compare the eradication rates of BQT and TT as first-line H. pylori eradication therapies. METHODS: H. pylori infection was diagnosed using the rapid urease test or dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (DPO-PCR) during endoscopy. Patients positive for H. pylori were divided into two groups; those tested using the rapid urease test received empirical BQT (the BQT group) whereas those tested by DPO-PCR received TT (the TT group). Eradication rates, adverse events, and overall medical costs, which included diagnostic test and eradication regimen costs, were compared. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty patients were included in the study (TT group 178, BQT group 182). The modified intention-to-treat eradication rates of BQT and TT were 88.2% (142/161) and 80.3% (118/147), respectively (p = .055), and corresponding eradication rates in the per-protocol population were 88.8% (142/160) and 81.4% (118/145) (p = .07). Compliance and adverse event rates were similar in the two groups. Average medical costs were $90.3 per patient in the TT group and $75.5 in the BQT group (p = .000). CONCLUSIONS: Empirical BQT and tailored therapy were similar in terms of H. pylori eradication rate, safety, and tolerability, but BQT was more cost-effective.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26847, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397892

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Infectious disease pandemics has a great impact on the use of medical facilities. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the use of emergency medical facilities in the Republic of Korea. This single-center, retrospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital located in Incheon Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea. We set the pandemic period as February 19, 2020 to April 18, 2020, and the control period was set to the same period in 2018 and 2019. All consecutive patients who visited the emergency department (ED) during the study period were included. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to age (pediatric patients, younger adult patients and older adult patients). The total number, demographics, clinical data, and diagnostic codes of ED patients were analyzed. The total number of ED patients in the pandemic period was lower than that in the control period, which was particularly pronounced for pediatric patients. The proportion of patients who used the 119 ambulances increased in all 3 groups (P  = .002, P < .001, and P = .001), whereas the proportion of patients who visited on foot was decreased (P  = .006, P < .001, and P = .027). In terms of diagnostic codes, a significant decrease was observed in the proportion of certain infectious or parasitic diseases (A00-B99), and respiratory diseases (J00-J99) in the pediatric and younger adult patient groups (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). The COVID-19 pandemic reduced the number of ED patients; however, the proportion of patients using ambulances increased. In particular, the proportion of patients with diagnostic codes for infectious and respiratory diseases significantly decreased during the pandemic period.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Atherosclerosis ; 328: 92-99, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Herein, we investigate whether statin treatment as primary prevention reduces cardiovascular outcomes in elderly Asian patients. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Senior Cohort database (n = 558,147). A total of 81,729 elderly patients (≥75 years) without clinically recognized atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) were included. The patients who did not have a history of statin use in year 2003 were followed from January 2004 to the end of 2012. New statin users (n = 3670) were matched on the basis of the propensity score in a 1:2 ratio with non-users. Incidences of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and death from CVD were compared using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The risk of cardiovascular death was significantly reduced in the statin treatment group compared with the non-user group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29 to 0.40; p < 0.001). This effect was observed in both patient groups with and without diabetes. In patients with diabetes, the HR for statin use was 0.85 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.33) for myocardial infarction and 0.75 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.93) for ischemic stroke. In participants without diabetes, the HR of statin use was 0.95 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.24) for myocardial infarction and 1.13 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.26) for ischemic stroke. The presence of hypertension was also a significant factor in the prevention of ischemic stroke by statin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients without clinically recognized atherosclerotic CVD, the risk of cardiovascular mortality was significantly reduced with statin treatment than with non-users. In participants with type 2 diabetes, statin treatment was associated with a reduction in ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(3): 1221-1230, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889504

RESUMO

Background: The programmed cell death pathway necroptosis may synergize with the DNA damage response (DDR) in opposing tumor progression. While our basic mechanistic understanding of the necroptotic cell death advances rapidly, its prognostic implications have not been thoroughly examined in cancers. Methods: We included 394 patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent surgical tumor resection between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2011 and measured expression levels of nine proteins involved in necroptosis and the DDR in primary samples from 394 patients using tissue microarray. Protein expression evaluated by using an H-score method was dichotomized by the median value. The overall survival as the endpoint was calculated from the time of diagnosis to the time of the last follow-up or death. Results: We find that low-level expression of the necroptosis markers RIPK3 and PELI1 is associated with high risk of patient death. High-level expression of the key DDR factor p53 in combination with low-level expression of either RIPK3 or PELI1 increases the risk further. These gene expression effects appear to occur specifically in the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) subtype of stage I NSCLC, while not observed in the non-SCC subtypes. Conclusions: Low-level expression of such necroptosis factors as RIPK3 and PELI1 in combination with high-level expression of the DDR factor p53 can serve as a critical indicator in predicting survival of stage I NSCLC patients with the SCC subtype.

13.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 1753466621992735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding provides enteral nutrition to patients with neurological dysphagia. However, the conditions in which PEG should be applied to prevent pneumonia remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of PEG for patients with neurological dysphagia in preventing pneumonia. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective data review of 232 patients with neurological dysphagia who had undergone PEG from January 2008 to December 2018 at Inha University Hospital, in Incheon, Korea. We excluded patients who had not been followed up 6 months pre- and post-PEG feeding. In total, our study comprised 42 patients. We compared pneumonia episodes and incidence pre- and post-PEG. RESULTS: During the median post-PEG follow-up period, the 6-month pneumonia incidence among patients who had undergone PEG had decreased [median 0.3 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.0-0.7) versus 0.1 (IQR 0.1-0.3) episodes, p = 0.04]. In a multiple mixed model, PEG did not decrease the incidence of pneumonia (p = 0.76). However, the association between PEG and the incidence of pneumonia differed significantly depending on the presence or absence of recurrent pneumonia (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PEG could effectively reduce the incidence of pneumonia in patients with neurogenic dysphagia, especially in those who had experienced recurrent pneumonia.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/complicações , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Gastrostomia/métodos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/etiologia , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2020: 5036396, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728350

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to identify mechanical and pharmacological revascularization strategies correlated with the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Background: Microvascular dysfunction (MVD) after STEMI is correlated with infarct size and poor long-term prognosis, and the IMR is a useful analytical method for the quantitative assessment of MVD. However, therapeutic strategies that can reliably reduce MVD remain uncertain. Methods: Patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled. The IMR was measured with a pressure sensor/thermistor-tipped guidewire immediately after primary PCI. High IMR was defined as values ≥66th percentile of IMR in enrolled patients (IMR > 30.9 IU). Results: A total of 160 STEMI patients were analyzed (high IMR = 54 patients). Clinical factors for Killip class (P=0.006), delayed hospitalization from symptom onset (P=0.004), peak troponin-I level (P=0.042), and multivessel disease (P=0.003) were associated with high IMR. Achieving final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade 3 tended to be associated with low IMR (P=0.119), whereas the presence of distal embolization was significantly associated with high IMR (P=0.034). In terms of therapeutic strategies that involved adjusting clinical and angiographic factors associated with IMR, preloading of third-generation P2Y12 inhibitors correlated with reducing IMR value (ß = -10.30, P < 0.001). Mechanical therapeutic strategies including stent diameter/length, preballoon dilatation, direct stenting, and thrombectomy were not associated with low IMR value (all P > 0.05), and postballoon dilatation was associated with high IMR (ß = 8.30, P=0.020). Conclusions: In our study, mechanical strategies were suboptimal in achieving myocardial salvage. Preloading of third-generation P2Y12 inhibitors revealed decreased IMR value, indicative of MVD prevention.


Assuntos
Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Stents/classificação , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Trombectomia/métodos , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21162, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664153

RESUMO

Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) is a distinct low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol subclass that has been reported to be associated with metabolic disease. On the other hand, the relationship between the sdLDL level and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity is unclear. In this study, the sdLDL level was measured in patients with NAFLD to assess its potential as a biomarker for evaluating NAFLD. One hundred and twenty-six patients diagnosed with NAFLD at a single referral hospital from January 2018 to August 2019 were enrolled. The lipoprotein profile was analyzed from a blood test of NAFLD patients, and transient elastography (TE, Fibroscan) was performed to evaluate the degree of NAFLD. Among the 126 patients, 83 patients that could confirm the lipoprotein profile and TE results were finally enrolled in the study. The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) value obtained from TE did not show any correlation with the total cholesterol, LDL. But, the sdLDL level showed a significant positive correlation with the CAP value (r = 0.237, P = .031), and the sdLDL/LDL ratio also showed a significant positive correlation with the CAP value (r = 0.235, P = .032). The liver stiffness (LS) measured by TE and the sdLDL level were positively correlated in patients with NAFLD (rho = 0.217, P = .049). The sdLDL/LDL ratio also showed a significant positive correlation with the LS value (rho = 0.228, P = .038). In addition, the fatty liver index also showed a significant positive correlation with the sdLDL/LDL ratio (r = 0.448, P = .000). In this study, the sdLDL level measured by a blood test of NAFLD patients showed a positive correlation with the CAP value and LS, which indicate the degree of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. These results suggest the possibility of the sdLDL level as a new biomarker of NAFLD, but further studies will be needed to support these results.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
16.
Diabetes Metab J ; 44(6): 875-886, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that the levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) are closely associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to examine the association between serum A-FABP level and rapid renal function decline in patients with T2DM and preserved renal function. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 452 patients with T2DM and preserved renal function who had serial measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rapid renal function decline was defined as an eGFR decline of >4% per year. The association between baseline serum A-FABP level and rapid renal function decline was investigated. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7 years, 82 participants (18.1%) experienced rapid renal function decline. Median A-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients with rapid renal function decline, compared to non-decliners (20.2 ng/mL vs. 17.2 ng/mL, P=0.005). A higher baseline level of A-FABP was associated with a greater risk of developing rapid renal function decline, independent of age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, baseline eGFR, urine albumin creatinine ratio, total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and use of thiazolidinedione, insulin, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor blockers and statin (odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.53 to 6.29; P=0.002). CONCLUSION: A high level of serum A-FABP is associated with an increased risk of rapid renal function decline in patients with T2DM and preserved renal function. This suggests that A-FABP could play a role in the progression of DKD in the early stages.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adipócitos , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(8): e11222, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638512

RESUMO

Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas. However, little is known about the genes associated with pancreatitis severity. Our microarray analysis of pancreatic tissues from mild and severe acute pancreatitis mice models identified angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) as one of the most significantly upregulated genes. Clinically, ANGPTL4 expression was also increased in the serum and pancreatic tissues of pancreatitis patients. The deficiency in ANGPTL4 in mice, either by gene deletion or neutralizing antibody, mitigated pancreatitis-associated pathological outcomes. Conversely, exogenous ANGPTL4 exacerbated pancreatic injury with elevated cytokine levels and apoptotic cell death. High ANGPTL4 enhanced macrophage activation and infiltration into the pancreas, which increased complement component 5a (C5a) level through PI3K/AKT signaling. The activation of the C5a receptor led to hypercytokinemia that accelerated acinar cell damage and furthered pancreatitis. Indeed, C5a neutralizing antibody decreased inflammatory response in LPS-activated macrophages and alleviated pancreatitis severity. In agreement, there was a significant positive correlation between C5a and ANGPTL4 levels in pancreatitis patients. Taken together, our study suggests that targeting ANGPTL4 is a potential strategy for the treatment of pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Células Acinares , Doença Aguda , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pâncreas , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Regulação para Cima
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 305: 19-25, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sarcopenia leads to metabolic and vascular abnormalities. However, little is known regarding the independent relationship between skeletal muscle mass and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to evaluate the association between skeletal muscle mass and carotid atherosclerosis in men and women with T2DM. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 8202 patients with T2DM were recruited from the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome cohort. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using bioimpedance analysis, while skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, %) was defined as total skeletal muscle mass (kg)/body weight (kg) × 100. Both carotid arteries were examined by B-mode ultrasound. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by having a carotid plaque or mean carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) ≥1.1 mm. RESULTS: Among the entire population, 4299 (52.4%) subjects had carotid atherosclerosis. The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis increased with decreasing SMI quartiles for both sexes. The odds ratios for carotid atherosclerosis were 2.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-4.63) and 2.24 (95% CI, 1.06-4.741) in the lowest versus highest SMI quartile in men and women, respectively, after the adjustment for clinical risk factors. In men, the risk of atherosclerosis increased linearly with decreasing SMI quartiles (p for trend = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Low skeletal muscle mass was independently associated with the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in men and women with T2DM.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sarcopenia/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Seul
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8347, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Body mass index (BMI) is known to be closely related to the prognosis and mortality of various diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate differences in post-treatment overall survival (OS) according to BMI with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to understand the meaning of BMI. Among the records of 10,578 HCC patients registered at the Korean Central Cancer Registry from 2008 through 2014, we selected Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) 0, A, and B staged HCC patients (n = 4,926). HCC patients showed a good prognosis in the order of overweight, normal weight, obesity, and underweight. However, comparing normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) to overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) after propensity score matching (PSM), there was no significant difference in OS (p = 0.153). Overweight males had a better prognosis than normal-weight males (p = 0.014), but, normal-weight females had a better prognosis than overweight. To determine the gender-specific OS differences, we examined the differences according to the HCC treatment type. In males, overweight patients had better OS after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) (p = 0.039) than normal-weight, but not after surgical resection (p = 0.618) nor radiofrequency ablation (p = 0.553). However, in females, all of those HCC treatments resulted in significantly better OS in normal-weight patients than overweight. In patients with HCC of BCLC stages 0-B, unlike females, overweight males had a better prognosis than normal-weight, especially among TACE-treated patients. Our results carefully suggest that the meaning of normal BMI in patients with HCC may have gender difference.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Ablação por Cateter/estatística & dados numéricos , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Magreza/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Mens Health ; 14(3): 1557988320908102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456508

RESUMO

Gynecomastia is a common incidental finding on thoracic computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to retrospectively determine the prevalence, imaging characteristics, and possible causes of incidental gynecomastia on thoracic CT. Records of male patients who underwent thoracic CT in 2015 were reviewed. The size and morphologic types (nodular, dendritic, and diffuse) were recorded for patients with breast glandular tissue larger than 1 cm, and the cutoff value of gynecomastia was defined as 2 cm. Additionally, the possible causes of gynecomastia obtained by reviewing patients' charts were recorded. CT-depicted gynecomastia was identified in 12.7% (650 of 5,501) of patients. The median size of the breast glandular tissue was 2.5 cm (interquartile range 2.2-3.1), and 36.8% of patients (239 of 650) had unilateral gynecomastia. The age distribution provided a bimodal pattern with two peaks in the age groups from 20 to 29 years old and greater than 70 years old. Chronic liver disease (CLD; p < .001), all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD; p < .001), and medications (p = .002) were significantly associated with gynecomastia. Gynecomastia did not correlate with body mass index (p = .962). The size of breast glandular tissue was identified to be correlated with the morphologic type of breast tissue and the severity of CLD or CKD. The prevalence of incidental gynecomastia seen on thoracic CT was 12.7%. CT-depicted gynecomastia is not associated with obesity but with CLD, CKD, and medications. When gynecomastia is detected on CT, further evaluations and management might be required for patients with a treatable cause.


Assuntos
Ginecomastia/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Ginecomastia/epidemiologia , Ginecomastia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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