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1.
Econ Hum Biol ; 44: 101074, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839051

RESUMO

Internal armed conflicts have become more common and more physically destructive since the mid-20th century, with devastating consequences for health and development in low- and middle-income countries. This paper investigates the causal impacts of the long-term internal conflict on child health in Colombia, following an identification strategy based on the temporal and geographic variation of conflict intensity. We estimate the effect of different levels of conflict intensity on height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and weight-for-height z-scores among children under five years old, and explore the underlying potential mechanisms, through maternal health behavior and health care utilization. We find a harmful effect of exposure to conflict violence in utero and in early childhood for HAZ and WAZ, in the full sample and even more strongly in the rural sample, yet these estimates are smaller than those found for shorter term conflicts. The underlying pathways appear to operate around the time of the pregnancy and birth (in the form of maternal alcohol use, use of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance), rather than during the post-birth period (via breastfeeding or vaccination), and the impacts accumulate over the childhood. The most adverse impacts of conflict violence on child health and utilization of maternal healthcare were observed in municipalities which suffered from intermittent presence of armed groups.

3.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 595311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744562

RESUMO

Objectives: Colombia's civil conflict and persistent socio-economic disparities have contributed to mental health inequalities in conflict-affected territories. We explore the magnitude of mental health inequalities, contributing socio-economic factors, and sociodemographic characteristics that explain these differences. Methods: The study draws on data collected in 2018, using the household survey Conflicto, Paz y Salud (CONPAS) applied to 1,309 households in Meta, Colombia. Logistic regression and decomposition analysis were used to analyze the risk of mental health disorders, measured with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire -20 (SRQ-20). Results: Individuals with lower socio-economic status are at a higher risk for mental health disorders. Forced displacement accounts for 31% of the measured mental health inequalities. Disparities in employment, education level, disability and conflict incidence between municipalities are other contributing factors. Women and people with disabilities are respectively 2.3 and 1.2 times more prone to present a mental health disorder. Conclusion: It is necessary to tackle the identified risk factors and sociodemographic circumstances that contribute to mental health inequalities in conflict-affected territories, as these hinder adequate/equitable access to mental health services.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(1): 41, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of "premature mortality" is at the heart of many national and global health measurement and benchmarking efforts. However, despite the intuitive appeal of its underlying concept, it is far from obvious how to best operationalise it. The previous work offers at least two basic approaches: an absolute and a relative one. The former-and far more widely used- approach sets a unique age threshold (e.g. 65 years), below which deaths are defined as premature. The relative approach derives the share of premature deaths from the country-specific age distribution of deaths in the country of interest. The biggest disadvantage of the absolute approach is that of using a unique, arbitrary threshold for different mortality patterns, while the main disadvantage of the relative approach is that its estimate of premature mortality strongly depends on how the senescent deaths distribution is defined in each country. METHOD: We propose to overcome some of the downsides of the existing approaches, by combining features of both, using a hierarchical model, in which senescent deaths distribution is held constant for each country as a pivotal quantity and the premature mortality distribution is allowed to vary across countries. In this way, premature mortality estimates become more comparable across countries with similar characteristics. RESULTS: The proposed hierarchical models provide results, which appear to align with related evidence from  specific countries. In particular, we find a relatively high premature mortality for the United States and Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: While our hybrid approach overcomes some of the problems of previous measures, some issues require further research, in particular the choice of the group of countries that a given country is assigned to and the choice of the benchmarks within the groups. Hence, our proposed method, combined with further study addressing these issues, could provide a valid alternative way to measure and compare premature mortality across countries.

5.
J Health Econ ; 80: 102543, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710814

RESUMO

We examine the effect of screen-based activities on obesity and mental well-being for children, using a large survey dataset representative of the UK population and an event study model that exploits exogenous variation in the entry date of the digital television transition in the UK. The digital transition increased the number of available free television channels from 5 to 40, leading to a rise in television viewing time. Our results show that receiving access to digital television signal considerably increases the mental health total difficulties score among children, and that this impact grows over time. We also find suggestive evidence that the digital transition could have increased BMI for children. Underlying the net effects appear to be decreases in participation in social and physical activities.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048860, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigate the prevalence of unmet need arising from wait times, distance/transportation and financial affordability using the European Health Interview Survey. We explore associations between individual characteristics and the probability of reporting unmet need. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted between February and December 2014. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 4004 members of the resident population in private households registered with the health insurance fund in Luxembourg aged 15 years and over. OUTCOME MEASURES: Six binary variables that measured unmet need arising from wait time, distance/transportation and affordability of medical, dental and mental healthcare and prescribed medicines among those who reported a need for care. RESULTS: The most common barrier to access arose from wait times (32%) and the least common from distance/transportation (4%). Dental care (12%) was most often reported as unaffordable, followed by prescribed medicines (6%), medical (5%) and mental health (5%) care. Respondents who reported bad/very bad health were associated with a higher risk of unmet need compared with those with good/very good health (wait: OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.53 to 3.80, distance/transportation: OR 7.12, 95% CI 2.91 to 17.44, afford medical care: OR 5.35, 95% CI 2.39 to 11.95, afford dental care: OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.86 to 5.71, afford prescribed medicines: OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.71, afford mental healthcare: OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.25 to 10.30). Income between the fourth and fifth quintiles was associated with a lower risk of unmet need for dental care (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.53), prescribed medicines (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.82) and mental healthcare (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.61) compared with income between the first and second quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Recent and planned reforms to address waiting times and financial barriers to accessing healthcare may help to address unmet need. In addition, policy-makers should consider additional policies targeted at high-risk groups with poor health and low incomes.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Health Policy ; 125(8): 972-980, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090724

RESUMO

Testing is widely seen as one core element of a successful strategy to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic and many countries have increased their efforts to provide testing at large scale. As most democratic governments refrain from enacting mandatory testing, a key emerging challenge is to increase voluntary participation. Using behavioural economics insights complemented with data from a novel survey in the US and a survey experiment in Luxembourg, we examine behavioural factors associated with the individual willingness to get tested (WTT). In our analysis, individual characteristics that correlate positively with WTT include age, altruism, conformism, the tendency to abide by government-imposed rules, concern about contracting COVID-19, and patience. Risk aversion, unemployment, and conservative political orientation correlate negatively with WTT. Building on and expanding these insights may prove fruitful for policy to effectively raise people's propensity to get tested.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Economia , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043654

RESUMO

The question of whether and how changes to population health impact on economic growth has been actively studied in the literature, albeit with mixed results. We contribute to this debate by reassessing-and extending-[1], one of the most influential studies. We include a larger set of countries (135) and cover a more recent period (1990-2014). We also account for morbidity in addition to mortality and adopt the strategy of providing bounding sets for the effects of interest rather than point estimates. We find that reducing mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs), a measure which combines morbidity and mortality, promotes per capita GDP growth. The magnitude of the effect is moderate, but non negligible, and it is similar for mortality and DALYs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Nível de Saúde , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
10.
Data Brief ; 35: 106939, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686370

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has hit humanity, straining health care systems, economies, and governments worldwide. In one of the responses to the pandemic, a big global effort has been mounted to collect, analyze, and make data publicly available. However, many of the existing COVID-19 public datasets are (i) aggregated at country level, and (ii) tend not to bring the COVID-19-specific data coupled with socio-demographic, economic, public policy, health, pollution and environmental factors, all of which may be key elements to study the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 and its severity. To aid the evaluation of the determinants and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at a large scale, we present here a new dataset with socio-demographic, economic, public policy, health, pollution and environmental factors for the European Union at the small regions level (NUTS3). The database is freely accessible at http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/2ghxnrkr9p.4. This dataset can help to monitor the COVID-19 mortality and infections at the sub-national level and enable analysis that may inform future policymaking.

11.
Health Econ ; 30(7): 1543-1558, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728741

RESUMO

Primary healthcare systems are central to achieving universal healthcare coverage. However, in many low- and middle-income country settings, primary care quality is challenged by inadequate facility infrastructure and equipment, limited human resources, and poor provider process. We study the effects of a recent large-scale quality improvement policy in South Africa, the Ideal Clinics Realization and Maintenance Program (ICRMP). The ICRMP introduced a set of standards for facilities and a quality improvement process involving manuals, district-based support, and external assessment. Exploiting differential prioritization of facilities for the ICRMP's quality improvement process, we apply differences-in-differences methods to identify the effects of the program's efforts on standards scores and primary care quality indicators over the first 12 months of implementation. We find large and statistically significant increases in standards scores, but mixed effects on care outcomes-a small magnitude improvement in early antenatal care usage, null effects on childhood immunization and cervical cancer screening, and small negative effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. While the ICRMP process has led to significant improvements in facilities' satisfaction of the program's standards, we were unable to detect meaningful change in care quality indicators.


Assuntos
Setor Público , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Criança , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , África do Sul
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 39, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study seeks to evaluate the change in mental health inequalities in the department of Meta after the signing of Colombia's Peace Agreement in 2016 with the FARC guerrilla group. Using a validated survey instrument composed of 20 questions ('SRQ-20'), we measure changes in mental health inequalities from 2014, before the signing of the agreement, to 2018, after the signing. We then decompose the changes in inequalities to establish which socioeconomic factors explain differences in mental health inequalities over time. METHODS: Our study uses information from the Conflicto, Salud y Paz (CONPAS) survey conducted in the department of Meta, Colombia, in 1309 households in 2018, with retrospective information for 2014. To measure inequalities, we calculate the concentration indices for both years. Through the Oaxaca change decomposition method, we disaggregate changes in mental health inequalities into its underlying factors. This method allows us to explain the relationship between changes in mental health inequalities and changes in inequalities in several sociodemographic factors. It also identifies the extent to which these factors help explain the changes in mental health inequalities. RESULTS: Mental health inequalities in Meta were reduced almost by half from 2014 to 2018. In 2018, the population at the lower and middle socioeconomic levels had fewer chances of experiencing mental health disorders in comparison to 2014. The reduction in mental health differences is mostly attributed to reductions in the influence of certain sociodemographic variables, such as residence in rural zones and conflict-affected territories, working in the informal sector, or experiencing internal displacement. However, even though mental health inequalities have diminished, overall mental health outcomes have worsened in these years. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in the contribution of conflict-related variables for explaining mental health inequalities could mean that the negative consequences of conflict on mental health have started to diminish in the short run after the peace agreement. Nevertheless, conflict and the presence of other socioeconomic inequalities still contribute to persistent adverse mental health outcomes in the overall population. Thus, public policy should be oriented towards improving mental health care services in these territories, given the post-accord context.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Política , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Conflitos Armados/prevenção & controle , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Health Policy Plan ; 36(3): 229-238, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386400

RESUMO

Distributional economic evaluation estimates the value for money of health interventions in terms of population health and health equity impacts. When applied to interventions delivered at the population and health system-level interventions (PSIs) instead of clinical interventions, additional practical and methodological challenges arise. Using the example of the Programme Saúde da Familia (PSF) in Brazil, a community-level primary care system intervention, we seek to illustrate these challenges and provide potential solutions. We use a distributional cost-effectiveness analysis (DCEA) approach to evaluate the impact of the PSF on population health and between-state health inequalities in Brazil. Data on baseline health status, disease prevalence and PSF effectiveness are extracted from the literature and incorporated into a Markov model to estimate the long-term impacts in terms of disability-adjusted life years. The inequality and average health impacts are analysed simultaneously using health-related social welfare functions. Uncertainty is computed using Monte Carlo simulation. The DCEA encountered several challenges in the context of PSIs. Non-randomized, quasi-experimental methods may not be powered to identify treatment effect heterogeneity estimates to inform a decision model. PSIs are more likely to be funded from multiple public sector budgets, complicating the calculation of health opportunity costs. We estimate a cost-per-disability-adjusted life years of funding the PSF of $2640. Net benefits were positive across the likely range of intervention cost. Social welfare analysis indicates that, compared to gains in average health, changes in health inequalities accounted for a small proportion of the total welfare improvement, even at high levels of social inequality aversion. Evidence on the population health and health equity impacts of PSIs can be incorporated into economic evaluation methods, although with additional complexity and assumptions. The case study results indicate that the PSF is likely to be cost-effective but that the inequality impacts are small and highly uncertain.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
14.
Econ Hum Biol ; 41: 100945, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401067

RESUMO

Worldwide, concern about physical inactivity and excessive car dependence has encouraged ambitious targets and policies to promote cycling. But policy making is hindered by limited knowledge about why cycling prevalence and trends vary greatly between different geographic areas (e.g. in London (UK) <1% cycle to work in Harrow compared to>15 % in Hackney) and individuals (e.g. by age or gender). The role of cycle infrastructure investment in explaining part of these patterns and trends is also unknown. We linked individual-level data on 317,117 London commuters (including 11,199 cyclists) in the 2001 and 2011 UK census to relevant geographic data, including on area-level cycling infrastructure investment during the period. Whilst cycle commuting increased over time on average, concentration curves and indices demonstrated that in contrast with England as a whole, cycling in London shifted from being dominated by commuters with lower socioeconomic status to commuters with higher socioeconomic status. In our first set of regression analyses, we showed that observed differences and time trends in cycling prevalence were partially explained by area-level differences in topography, greenspace, footpaths and crime levels and by differences and changes in population structures. In the second, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis which showed that expenditure on cycling infrastructure was associated with increased cycling at a marginal rate of £4915 per additional commuter cyclist, with some variation between groups: ethnic minorities were more responsive, and females, older people and those with lower socioeconomic status appeared less responsive. If planned increases in expenditure in England for the period 2020-25 were as cost-effective, and were sustained for the whole decade, our study suggests that commuter cycling prevalence could increase in England by 0.5 to 1.1 percentage points (this equates to a 16% to 34% increase in commuter cycling prevalence if compared to 2011 levels). More research is necessary to assess the impact on broader measures of cycling, active travel and overall physical activity, and to determine whether such expenditure constitutes good or equitable value for money.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Censos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Transportes , Reino Unido
15.
Health Policy Plan ; 36(1): 14-25, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263730

RESUMO

Community-based health insurance (CBHI) has gained popularity in many low- and middle-income countries, partly as a policy response to calls for low-cost, pro-poor health financing solutions. In Africa, Rwanda has successfully implemented two types of CBHI systems since 2005, one of which with a flat rate premium (2005-10) and the other with a stratified premium (2011-present). Existing CBHI evaluations have, however, tended to ignore the potential distributional aspects of the household contributions made towards CBHI. In this paper, we investigate the pattern of socioeconomic inequality in CBHI household premium contributions in Rwanda within the implementation periods. We also assess gender differences in CBHI contributions. Using the 2010/11 and 2013/14 rounds of national survey data, we quantify the magnitude of inequality in CBHI payments, decompose the concentration index of inequality, calculate Kakwani indices and implement unconditional quantile regression decomposition to assess gender differences in CBHI expenditure. We find that the CBHI with stratified premiums is less regressive than CBHI with a flat rate premium system. Decomposition analysis indicates that income and CBHI stratification explain a large share of the inequality in CBHI payments. With respect to gender, female-headed households make lower contributions towards CBHI expenditure, compared with male-headed households. In terms of policy implications, the results suggest that there may be a need for increasing the premium bracket for the wealthier households, as well as for the provision of more subsidies to vulnerable households.


Assuntos
Seguro de Saúde Baseado na Comunidade , África , Características da Família , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Ruanda , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Econ Hum Biol ; 39: 100925, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038852

RESUMO

We use longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, covering the years 1997-2011, to estimate the effect of a diabetes diagnosis on an economic outcome (employment probabilities) and behavioural risk factors (alcohol consumption, smoking cessation, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and hypertension) for men and women. We apply two complementary statistical techniques-marginal structural models (MSMs) and fixed effects (FE) models-to deal with confounding. Both methods suggest, despite their different underlying assumptions, similar patterns that indicate important differences between men and women. Employment probabilities decline substantially after the diagnosis for women (-12.4 (MSM) and -15.5 (FE) percentage points), but do not change significantly for men. In particular, the MSM estimates indicate an increase in hypertension (13 percentage points) and a decrease in physical activity for women, while men have small and statistically insignificant changes in these outcomes. For BMI, the MSM results indicate statistically significant changes for men (-.76), but not for women, while the FE estimates show similar reductions for men and women (-.80 and -.73 respectively). Men also reduce their alcohol consumption, but do not cease to smoke. For women these risk factors have a prevalence close to zero to begin with, though women seem to still reduce alcohol consumption somewhat. These results suggest important gender differences in the impact of diabetes in China. To narrow these inequities policies supporting women to reduce diabetes related risk factors are likely important.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003046, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of people do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. There is a need for effective, scalable interventions to promote activity. Self-monitoring by pedometer is a potentially suitable strategy. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a very brief (5-minute) pedometer-based intervention ('Step It Up') delivered as part of National Health Service (NHS) Health Checks in primary care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Very Brief Intervention (VBI) Trial was a two parallel-group, randomised controlled trial (RCT) with 3-month follow-up, conducted in 23 primary care practices in the East of England. Participants were 1,007 healthy adults aged 40 to 74 years eligible for an NHS Health Check. They were randomly allocated (1:1) using a web-based tool between October 1, 2014, and December 31, 2015, to either intervention (505) or control group (502), stratified by primary care practice. Participants were aware of study group allocation. Control participants received the NHS Health Check only. Intervention participants additionally received Step It Up: a 5-minute face-to-face discussion, written materials, pedometer, and step chart. The primary outcome was accelerometer-based physical activity volume at 3-month follow-up adjusted for sex, 5-year age group, and general practice. Secondary outcomes included time spent in different intensities of physical activity, self-reported physical activity, and economic measures. We conducted an in-depth fidelity assessment on a subsample of Health Check consultations. Participants' mean age was 56 years, two-thirds were female, they were predominantly white, and two-thirds were in paid employment. The primary outcome was available in 859 (85.3%) participants. There was no significant between-group difference in activity volume at 3 months (adjusted intervention effect 8.8 counts per minute [cpm]; 95% CI -18.7 to 36.3; p = 0.53). We found no significant between-group differences in the secondary outcomes of step counts per day, time spent in moderate or vigorous activity, time spent in vigorous activity, and time spent in moderate-intensity activity (accelerometer-derived variables); as well as in total physical activity, home-based activity, work-based activity, leisure-based activity, commuting physical activity, and screen or TV time (self-reported physical activity variables). Of the 505 intervention participants, 491 (97%) received the Step it Up intervention. Analysis of 37 intervention consultations showed that 60% of Step it Up components were delivered faithfully. The intervention cost £18.04 per participant. Incremental cost to the NHS per 1,000-step increase per day was £96 and to society was £239. Adverse events were reported by 5 intervention participants (of which 2 were serious) and 5 control participants (of which 2 were serious). The study's limitations include a participation rate of 16% and low return of audiotapes by practices for fidelity assessment. CONCLUSIONS: In this large well-conducted trial, we found no evidence of effect of a plausible very brief pedometer intervention embedded in NHS Health Checks on objectively measured activity at 3-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN72691150).


Assuntos
Actigrafia/instrumentação , Exercício Físico , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Medicina Estatal , Actigrafia/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Medicina Estatal/economia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 18(2): 249-259, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health is among the growing number of noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Despite poor mental health accounting for an already considerable and growing burden of disease in many low- and middle-income countries, policy action to confront the challenge has been limited, at both international and national levels. Recently, several low- and middle-income countries have embarked on the journey toward universal health coverage by expanding their public health insurance provision, with the ultimate objective of improving population health, in addition to other health system objectives. Mental health interventions typically may not have been specifically covered in the publicly funded benefit package, and this raises the question of whether, and if so, by how much, the expansion of public health insurance may have directly or indirectly contributed to improved mental health. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of Ghana's implementation of national health insurance on psychological distress. METHODS: Our study used the first wave of the 2009-2010 Ghana Social Economic Panel survey, including 10,007 respondents. We employed instrumental variable and propensity score matching methods to estimate the causal impact of health insurance on psychological distress, measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Higher K10 values indicate greater psychological distress. RESULTS: The median K10 score in Ghana was 16 (P < 0.001), with a minimum of 10 (P < 0.001) and a maximum of 45 (P < 0.001). The results from the instrumental variable estimations, without matching, indicated that the K10 score for the insured was 11.8% lower (P < 0.001) than that of the uninsured. After running the instrumental variable regression on the matched sample, the K10 score for the insured was 10.6% (P < 0.001) lower than that of the uninsured. Similarly, the estimates based on propensity score matching indicated that the insured had a lower K10 score (- 0.023; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the beneficial impact of health insurance on psychological distress is larger for wealthier than poorer insurance members and varies across regions in Ghana. The findings were robust to the various estimation methods. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that having health insurance is associated with reduced psychological distress and hence improved mental health, even though mental illness treatment or prevention were at best only partially covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana.


Assuntos
Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Scand J Public Health ; 48(4): 351-361, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291826

RESUMO

Aims: It is unclear how economic factors impact on the epidemiology of infectious disease. We evaluated the relationship between incidence of selected infectious diseases and economic factors, including economic downturn, in 13 European countries between 1970 and 2010. Methods: Data were obtained from national communicable disease surveillance centres. Negative binomial forms of the generalised additive model (GAM) and the generalised linear model were tested to see which best reflected transmission dynamics of: diphtheria, pertussis, measles, meningococcal disease, hepatitis B, gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis A and salmonella. Economic indicators were gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc), unemployment rates and (economic) downturn. Results: GAM models produced the best goodness-of-fit results. The relationship between GDPpc and disease incidence was often non-linear. Strength and directions of association between population age, tertiary education levels, GDPpc and unemployment were disease dependent. Overdispersion for almost all diseases validated the assumption of a negative binomial relationship. Downturns were not independently linked to disease incidence. Conclusions: Social and economic factors can be correlated with many infections. However, the trend is not always in the same direction, and these associations are often non-linear. Economic downturn or recessions as indicators of increased disease risk may be better replaced by GDPpc or unemployment measures.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 245: 112708, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862547

RESUMO

Chile is one of several countries that recently implemented a fiscal policy to reduce soft drink (SD) intake and obesity. In 2014 the government increased the existing ad-valorem tax on high-sugar SD by 5% and decreased by 3% the tax on low-sugar SD, based on a 6.25gr/100 ml sugar threshold. This study aims to evaluate the tax modification passed-on to consumers through prices, and to calculate changes in affordability of SDs. We analysed nationally representative consumer price index data of 41 soft drinks within 6 beverage categories between 2009 and 2016. Price change post-tax implementation was estimated for different categories (carbonates, juices, concentrates, waters and energy-sport drinks), using time-series analyses. In addition, changes in affordability were evaluated by estimating the changes in prices relative to wages. The price of carbonates increased by 5.60% (CI 95% 3.18-8.03%) immediately after the tax was implemented. A sustained increase in the prices of concentrates was observed after the implementation. Unexpectedly, a smaller increase was also seen for the price of bottled water - a category that saw no tax change. There were no effects for juices and energy-sports drinks. There was a reduction in affordability for carbonates, concentrates and waters. Overall, the fiscal policy was effective in increasing prices and there are some signs of reduced affordability. Results varied substantially among categories directly affected by the tax policy. While for carbonates the price increase exceeded the tax change ('over-shifting'), in other categories subject to a tax cut, a price reduction was expected but the opposite occurred. As the effect of the tax on prices differed between categories, the effects of the tax policy on consumption patterns are likely to be mixed. Our findings underline the need to better understand and anticipate price setting behaviour of firms in response to a tax.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Impostos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos
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