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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477493

RESUMO

Chloropropanols such as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) have drawn increasing attention due to their release from food contact paper and their potential carcinogenic effects. In this study, the effects were investigated of water extraction conditions on release of chloropropanols from food contact paper, and the extraction efficiencies of chloropropanols by water extract and migration method were compared. Cold water was found to be more severe than hot water for extraction of chloropropanols, with the highest water extraction value obtained at 23°C. Two hours of extraction was sufficient as the chloropropanols can be fully extracted from food contact paper within a short period of time. Increase of temperature in the range of 10°C-60°C had little impact on release of chloropropanols, however, the extraction of chloropropanols decreased when high temperatures (80°C or above) were applied due to volatilisation losses. Hence, attention should be paid when choosing extract conditions representing the worst-case scenario. The water extraction value using EN 645 method gives higher results compared to migration test described in GB 31604.1 and GB 5009.156, suggesting that the water extract method was probably more severe. For migration test, aqueous-based simulants were found to be more conservative than oil-based simulants, suggesting the conventional experiment conditions applicable for compliance test of chloropropanols migration can be simplified and optimised.

2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 29(5): 365-73, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27353711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. METHODS: The BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 food categories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. RESULTS: It was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged ⋝2 years was 1.03 µg/kg bw per day and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 µg/kg bw per day). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. . CONCLUSION: The health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Dieta , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 217(6): 695-701, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24680371

RESUMO

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in food contact materials that has been reported as an endocrine disruptor. In the present study, DEHP concentrations were analyzed in foods in order to determine dietary exposure among the Chinese population, including the general population (aged 2-100) and four age group, that is children aged 2-6, adolescent aged 7-12, young people aged 13-17 and adults aged 18 years old and above. 1704 food samples were collected during 2011-2012 and categorized into 12 food groups which covered major foods in China. Food consumption data were taken from China National Nutrient and Health Survey which was performed in 2002 and includes data from 68,959 subjects. Mean concentrations of DEHP were combined with individual food consumption data to estimate dietary exposure. It was found that DEHP levels in foods ranged from not detected to 3.41 mg/kg, with highest mean values in meat (0.23 mg/kg) and vegetable oils (0.21 mg/kg). Mean dietary intakes of DEHP in the general population, children, and adults were 2.34, 4.51, 2.03 µg/kg bw per day, respectively. The 97.5% intakes in these populations were 5.22, 8.43, 3.64 µg/kg bw per day, respectively. The main food sources of DEHP dietary intake were cereals (39.44%), drinking water (16.94%) and meat (15.81%) in children, and cereals (44.57%), meat (15.70%) and drinking water (12.28%) for adults. These findings suggested that dietary exposure to DEHP among Chinese population was lower than tolerable daily intake of DEHP and there are no health concerns based on generally accepted exposure limits.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 47(6): 569-72, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24113111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the threshold of toxicological concern(TTC) approach and to apply it in the risk assessment of metabolites, degradation and reaction products of pirimicarb. METHODS: TTC decision tree approach based on Cramer classification was established and Lazar software was used to predict the genotoxicity of the seven transformation products of pirimicarb, namely, R34836, R34885, R35140, R31805, R34865, R16210 and R16192. Dietary exposure in general population as well as in six age population groups was estimated by using data from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey and pirimicarb residue data from national chemical surveillance data in 2011. TTC decision tree approach was used for risk assessment and the exposure was compared with the corresponding TTC values. RESULTS: Of the seven transformations of pirimicarb active substance, namely, R34836, R34885, R35140, R31805, R34865, R16210 and R16192, the maximum dietary exposure of mean and large portion(P 97.5) were all belong to 2-6 age group. The mean exposures of the seven transformation products for 2-6 age group,were 0.0290, 0.0207, 0.0015, 0.0320, 0.0005, 0.6918 and 0.1274 µg/kg,respectively, and the corresponding P 97.5 exposures were 0.0817,0.0581,0.0042,0.0900,0.0014, 1.9459 and 0.3585 µg/kg. Besides, the mean and P 97.5 exposure of R16210 for 2-6 age group was the largest,which were 0.6918 and 1.9459 µg/kg, accounting for 46.12% and 129.73% of the TTC threshold,respectively. CONCLUSION: TTC decision tree approach is a useful tool for prior screening and primary risk assessment of the transformation products of pesticide active substance.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Humanos , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Medição de Risco
5.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 24(6): 617-23, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22365397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population. METHODS: Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level (UL) and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). RESULTS: In areas with water iodine concentration (WI) lower than 150 µg/L, 80.8% of residents had iodine intake between the RNI and UL, 5.8% higher than UL, and the remaining (13.4%) lower than RNI if iodized salt was consumed. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.0% of residents between RNI and UL, 1.4% higher than UL, and a large part of residents (97.6%) lower than RNI. In areas with WI higher than 150 µg/L, all residents had iodine intake between RNI and UL if iodized salt was consumed, except 10.5% and 24.9% of residents higher than UL in areas with WI at 150-300 µg/L and higher than 300 µg/L respectively. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.5% and 1.7% of residents had higher iodine intake than UL respectively. CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that in general, the dietary iodine intake by the Chinese population was appropriate and safe at the present stage. People in areas with WI lower than 150 µg/L were more likely to have iodine deficiency. While people in areas with WI higher than 150 µg/L were more likely to have excessive iodine intake if iodized salt was consumed.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Iodo , Estado Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Dieta , Água Potável/química , Água Potável/normas , Feminino , Bócio/epidemiologia , Bócio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/análise , Iodo/deficiência , Masculino , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
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