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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 483-489, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460654

RESUMO

Herein, the synthetic mechanism of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified corn starch (OSCS) and granule shells (OSCs) based on shells separation pretreatment (SSP) was investigated. High intensity peaks around 1720 and 1570 cm-1 were observed for OSCs in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra after SSP. OSCs showed higher degree of substitution (DS) values (ranging from 0.128 to 0.170) than OSCS (0.121) determined by 1H NMR. The average molecular weight (Mw) of OSA modified CS decreased, due to the introduction of OS groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that esterification mainly took place in the amorphous regions of starch granules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a new peak corresponding to 1s orbital electrons of Na was obtained due to the introduction of OSA molecules. Meanwhile, lower surface DS and higher fluorescence intensity were noticed for OSCs. Conclusively, SSP would significantly increase the reaction efficiency of OSA modification process of CS.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 662-668, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445089

RESUMO

Identifying cognitive dysfunction in the early stages of Bipolar Disorder (BD) can allow for early intervention. Previous studies have shown a strong correlation between cognitive dysfunction and number of manic episodes. The objective of this study was to apply machine learning (ML) techniques on a battery of cognitive tests to identify first-episode BD patients (FE-BD). Two cohorts of participants were used for this study. Cohort #1 included 74 chronic BD patients (CHR-BD) and 53 healthy controls (HC), while the Cohort #2 included 37 FE-BD and 18 age- and sex-matched HC. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The tests examined domains of visual processing, spatial memory, attention and executive function. We trained an ML model to distinguish between chronic BD patients (CHR-BD) and HC at the individual level. We used linear Support Vector Machines (SVM) and were able to identify individual CHR-BD patients at 77% accuracy. We then applied the model to Cohort #2 (FE-BD patients) and achieved an accuracy of 76% (AUC = 0.77). These results reveal that cognitive impairments may appear in early stages of BD and persist into later stages. This suggests that the same deficits may exist for both CHR-BD and FE-BD. These cognitive deficits may serve as markers for early BD. Our study provides a tool that these early markers can be used for detection of BD.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513983

RESUMO

The development of hair follicle in cashmere goats shows significant periodic change, as with mice and humans. However, for cashmere goat with double-coat, the periodic change may be due to other regulatory molecules and signal pathways. To understand the mechanism of periodic development of hair follicle, we performed a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to mine key genes and establish an interaction network by utilizing the NCBI public dataset. Ten coexpression modules, including 7689 protein-coding genes, were constructed by WGCNA, six of which are considered to be significantly related to the development of the hair follicle cycle. A functional enrichment analysis for each model showed that they are closely related to ECM- receptor interaction, focal adhesion, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway, and so on. Combined with the analysis of differential expressed genes, 12 hub genes from coexpression modules were selected as candidate markers, i.e., COL1A1, C1QTNF6, COL1A2, AQP3, KRTAP3-1, KRTAP11-1, FA2H, NDUFS5, DERL2, MRPL14, ANTKMT and XAB2, which might be applied to improve cashmere production.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117314, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357877

RESUMO

Herein, corn starch-based films were prepared by casting method and different concentrations of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil (ZYO) were added to evaluate the morphological, optical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the resultant films. Additionally, structural analysis was carried out via atomic force microscopy and the antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes were assessed. We found that the elongation at break was significantly increased (P < 0.05), whereas tensile strength, moisture content, solubility in water, and water vapor permeability rate were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in films incorporated with ZYO compared with oil-free films. Furthermore, incorporation of ZYO increased the opacity and decreased the gloss of films. Incorporation of ZYO appears to increase the surface roughness and the antibacterial activity of the films. In sum, ZYO can potentially be used in food packaging, particularly food intended to be protected from light and susceptible to spoilage by microorganisms.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157138

RESUMO

Herein, the formation of starch-lipid complexes in steamed bread (SBr) free from and supplemented with fatty acids of varying chain lengths, including lauric acid (LA), glycerol monolaurate (GML), stearic acid (SA), and glycerol monostearate (GMS) and their effects on in vitro enzymatic digestibility were investigated. The enthalpy value of SBr samples (1.86-3.46 J/g) was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to wheat starch samples (5.64-7.17 J/g) fortified with fatty acids. The relative crystallinity (16.5%-32.8%) of SBr corresponds to the content of starch-lipid complexes. SBr supplemented with fatty acids exhibited softer texture than lipid-free SBr stored at 4 °C for 0, 1, 4, and 7 days. Higher enzyme resistance was observed in SBr samples supplemented with fatty acids and the content of resistant starch (RS) was increased from 7.54% to 23.13% in SBr supplemented with LA. As demonstrated by microscopic computed tomography (mCT), the crystalline structure of SBr samples supplemented with LA and GML have a higher density than SBr fortified with SA and GMS; the findings which are in line with thermal properties and X-ray diffraction analysis. In sum, the formation of starch-lipid complexes could be considered as a new way to improve the SBr textural features during storage.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18933, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144669

RESUMO

Cognitive biases shape our perception of the world and our interactions with other people. Information related to the self and our social ingroups is prioritised for cognitive processing and can therefore form some of these key biases. However, ingroup biases may be elicited not only for established social groups, but also for minimal groups assigned by novel or random social categorisation. Moreover, whether these 'ingroup biases' are related to self-processing is unknown. Across three experiments, we utilised a social associative matching paradigm to examine whether the cognitive mechanisms underpinning the effects of minimal groups overlapped with those that prioritise the self, and whether minimal group allocation causes early processing advantages. We found significant advantages in response time and sensitivity (dprime) for stimuli associated with newly-assigned ingroups. Further, self-biases and ingroup-biases were positively correlated across individuals (Experiments 1 and 3). However, when the task was such that ingroup and self associations competed, only the self-advantage was detected (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that even random group allocation quickly captures attention and enhances processing. Positive correlations between the self- and ingroup-biases suggest a common cognitive mechanism across individuals. These findings have implications for understanding how social biases filter our perception of the world.

7.
BJPsych Open ; 6(6): e124, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is characterised by negative views of the self. Antidepressant treatment may remediate negative self-schema through increasing processing of positive information about the self. Changes in affective processing during social interactions may increase expression of prosocial behaviours, improving interpersonal communications. AIMS: To examine whether acute administration of citalopram is associated with an increase in positive affective learning biases about the self and prosocial behaviour. METHOD: Healthy volunteers (n = 41) were randomised to either an acute 20 mg dose of citalopram or matched placebo in a between-subjects double-blind design. Participants completed computer-based cognitive tasks designed to measure referential affective processing, social cognition and expression of prosocial behaviours. RESULTS: Participants administered citalopram made more cooperative choices than those administered placebo in a prisoner's dilemma task (ß = 20%, 95% CI: 2%, 37%). Exploratory analyses indicated that participants administered citalopram showed a positive bias when learning social evaluations about a friend (ß = 4.06, 95% CI: 0.88, 7.24), but not about the self or a stranger. Similarly, exploratory analyses found evidence of increased recall of positive words and reduced recall of negative words about others (ß = 2.41, 95% CI: 0.89, 3.93), but not the self, in the citalopram group. CONCLUSIONS: Participants administered citalopram showed greater prosocial behaviours, increased positive recall and increased positive learning of social evaluations towards others. The increase in positive affective bias and prosocial behaviours towards others may, at least partially, be a mechanism of antidepressant effect. However, we found no evidence that citalopram influenced self-referential processing.

8.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 20(6): 1200-1215, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089442

RESUMO

During the past two decades, cognitive neuroscientists have sought to elucidate the common neural basis of the experience of beauty. Still, empirical evidence for such common neural basis of different forms of beauty is not conclusive. To address this question, we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on the existing neuroimaging studies of beauty appreciation of faces and visual art by nonexpert adults (49 studies, 982 participants, meta-data are available at https://osf.io/s9xds/ ). We observed that perceiving these two forms of beauty activated distinct brain regions: While the beauty of faces convergently activated the left ventral striatum, the beauty of visual art convergently activated the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC). However, a conjunction analysis failed to reveal any common brain regions for the beauty of visual art and faces. The implications of these results are discussed.

9.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416036

RESUMO

We examined whether differential self-perception influences the salience of emotional stimuli in depressive disorders, using a perceptual matching task in which geometric shapes were arbitrarily assigned to the self and an unknown other. Participants associated shapes with personal labels (e.g. "self" or "other"). Each geometric shape additionally contained a happy, sad or neutral line drawing of a face. Participants then judged whether shape-label pairs were as originally shown or re-paired, whilst facial emotion was task-irrelevant. The results showed biased responses to self-relevant stimuli compared to other-relevant stimuli, regardless of facial emotion, for both control and depressed participants. This was reflected in sensitivity (d') and drift rate (v) measures, suggesting that self-bias and a bias towards emotion may reflect different underlying processes. We further computed bias scores by subtracting the "neutral" value of each measure (acting as baseline) from the "happy" and "sad" values of each measure, indexing an "emotional bias" (EB) score for "self" and "other" separately. Compared to control participants, depressed participants exhibited reduced "happy" and "sad" emotional biases, regardless of the self-relevance of stimuli. This finding indicates that depressed participants may exhibit generalised Emotion Context Insensitivity (ECI), characterised by hyopoattention to both positive and negative information, at short stimulus presentations. The implications of this are discussed.

10.
Neurosci Lett ; 732: 135053, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417388

RESUMO

Consumer ethnocentrism tendency (CET) refers to consumers' belief about the appropriateness and morality of buying foreign products, and this concept characterizes consumers' tendency to differentiate in-group and out-group commercial products and to avoid imported products for nationalistic reasons. In order to identify the neural correlates of individual differences in CET, we conducted a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state fMRI study with 228 healthy adults from mainland China, and examined the associations between self-reported CET scores and gray matter volume (GMV), as well as fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). The VBM and fALFF results consistently associated consumer ethnocentrism with the middle temporal gyrus, and the fALFF results further revealed the roles of the anterior cingulate gyrus and anterior insula in CET. Collectively, these findings provide converging evidence about the neural correlates for dispositional attitudes toward domestic and foreign products.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7864, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398648

RESUMO

Gratitude and joy are critical for promoting well-being. However, the differences between the two emotions and corresponding neural correlates are not understood. Here we addressed these issues by eliciting the two emotions using the same stimuli in an fMRI task. In this help reception task, participants imagined them in a situation where they need financial aid. Critically, we manipulated the benefactor's intention to provide help and the value of the benefit. Behaviorally, gratitude was stronger than joy when the benefactor-intention was strong and the benefit-value was low compared to other conditions. In parallel, gratitude activated mentalizing-related (e.g. precuneus) and reward-related regions (e.g. putamen) more strongly than joy in corresponding conditions compared to others. Moreover, gratitude was more negatively (or less positively) encoded in the region associated with mentalizing (i.e. the left superior temporal gyrus) than joy. Multivariate pattern analysis further demonstrated that the modulation patterns of benefactor-intention and benefit-value in mentalizing-related (e.g. precuneus, temporo-parietal junction) and reward-related regions (e.g. putamen, perigenual anterior cingulate/ventromedial prefrontal cortex) could distinguish the two emotions. The findings suggest that benefactor-intention and benefit-value appraisal and their neural correlates are critical in distinguishing gratitude and joy. Direct implications for gratitude interventions were discussed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Intenção , Neurônios/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
12.
Conscious Cogn ; 77: 102848, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731031

RESUMO

Recent research has revealed a pervasive bias for self-relevant information during decision-making, a phenomenon termed the self-prioritization effect. Focusing almost exclusively on between-target (e.g., self vs. friend) differences in task performance, however, this work has overlooked the influence stimulus factors potentially exert during decisional processing. Accordingly, based on pertinent social-psychological theorizing (i.e., Identity-Based Motivation Theory), here we explored the possibility that self-prioritization is sensitive to the identity-based relevance of stimuli. The results of three experiments supported this hypothesis. In a perceptual-matching task, stimulus enhancement was greatest when geometric shapes were associated with identity-related information that was important (vs. unimportant) to participants. In addition, hierarchical drift-diffusion modeling revealed this effect was underpinned by differences in the efficiency of visual processing. Specifically, evidence was extracted more rapidly from stimuli paired with consequential compared to inconsequential identity-related components. These findings demonstrate how identity-relevance moderates self-prioritization.

13.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1504, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354563

RESUMO

Two studies investigated associations between habits and identity, in particular what people consider as their "true self." Habit-identity associations were assessed by within-participant correlations between self-reported habit and associated true self ratings of 80 behaviors. The behaviors were instantiations of 10 basic values. In Study 1, significant correlations were observed between individual differences in the strength of habit-identity associations, measures of cognitive self-integration (prioritizing self-relevant information), self-esteem, and an orientation toward an ideal self. Study 2 further tested the assumption that habits are associated with identity if these relate to important goals or values. An experimental manipulation of value affirmation demonstrated that, compared to a control condition, habit-identity associations were stronger if participants explicitly generated the habit and true self ratings while indicating which values the behaviors would serve. Taken together, the results suggest that habits may serve to define who we are, in particular when these are considered in the context of self-related goals or central values. When habits relate to feelings of identity this comes with stronger cognitive self-integration, higher self-esteem, and a striving toward an ideal self. Linking habits to identity may sustain newly formed behaviors and may thus lead to more effective behavior change interventions.

14.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316430

RESUMO

Previous research on cross-culture comparisons found that Western cultures tend to value independence and the self is construed as an autonomous individual, while Eastern cultures value interdependence and self-identity is perceived as embedded among friends and family members (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). The present experiment explored these cultural differences in the context of a paradigm developed by Sui et al. (2012), which found a bias toward the processing of self-relevant information using perceptual matching tasks. In this task, each neutral shape (i.e., triangle, circle, square) is associated with a person (i.e., self, friend, stranger), and faster and more accurate responses were found to formerly neutral stimuli tagged to the self compared to stimuli tagged to non-self. With this paradigm, the current study examined cross-cultural differences in the self-bias effect between participants from Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. Results demonstrated a reliable self-bias effect across groups consistent with previous studies. Importantly, a variation was identified in a larger self-bias toward stranger-associated stimuli in the United Kingdom participants than the Hong Kong participants. This suggested the cultural modulation of the self-bias effect in perceptual matching.

15.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 29: 148-152, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913475

RESUMO

Humans prioritize stimuli related to themselves rather than to other people. How we control these priorities is poorly understood, though it is relevant to the nature of self-processing and a wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, from cases of strokes, dementia to depression and schizophrenia. We update the Self-Attention Network proposed in 2016 by evaluating how self-prioritization interacts with Peterson and Posner's three attentional systems: alerting, orienting and executive control, based on evidence on a variety of behavioral and neuroscientific studies with healthy participants and patients with brain lesions. We suggest that all the three attentional networks contribute to self-prioritization. Understanding the nature of self-prioritization in attentional contexts may provide important clinical implications for a variety of disorders related to self-processing.


Assuntos
Atenção , Comportamento , Ego , Função Executiva , Humanos , Orientação
16.
Neuropsychologia ; 127: 66-74, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797830

RESUMO

We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study and a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study to investigate the functional and structural basis of how visual search for flavor labels in packaging is influenced by the color of the packaging. The participants were cued by a flavor word before searching for a package with this flavor label. The behavioral results of both studies revealed that the participants were slower to find the target when its color was incongruent with the flavor label in terms of color-flavor associations than when it was congruent with the flavor label, which is indicative of a color-flavor incongruency effect in the reaction times. The fMRI results revealed that this behavioral effect was associated with enhanced activation in the right putamen. The VBM results further revealed a significant positive correlation between the magnitude of the behavioral effect and volume of gray matter in the right putamen. Taken together, these findings suggest that the color-flavor incongruency effect may be attributed to the violation of color expectation in the incongruent condition and that the putamen may be one of the important areas for processing events in violation of expectation.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Embalagem de Alimentos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychol Sci ; 30(3): 415-423, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653399

RESUMO

People preferentially attend to external stimuli that are related to themselves compared with others. Whether a similar self-reference bias applies to internal representations, such as those maintained in working memory (WM), is presently unknown. We tested this possibility in four experiments, in which participants were first trained to associate social labels (self, friend, stranger) with arbitrary colors and then performed a delayed match-to-sample spatial WM task on color locations. Participants consistently responded fastest to WM probes at locations of self-associated colors (Experiments 1-4). This self-bias was driven not by differential exogenous attention during encoding or retrieval (Experiments 1 and 2) but by internal attentional prioritization of self-related representations during WM maintenance (Experiment 3). Moreover, self-prioritization in WM was nonstrategic, as this bias persisted even under conditions in which it hurt WM performance. These findings document an automatic prioritization of self-referential items in WM, which may form the basis of some egocentric biases in decision making.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Viés , China/epidemiologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Ego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(5): 1068-1083, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747554

RESUMO

Self-related information is under many circumstances processed in a preferred and biased way, leading to what has been termed the self-prioritisation effect (SPE). The SPE has been demonstrated with arbitrary stimuli assigned to self and others, thereby controlling the influence of familiarity, and originally been attributed to facilitated perceptual processing of self-related stimuli. Subsequent studies, however, casted doubts on this interpretation and suggested further possible sources for the SPE. In the present four experiments, we used the well-established psychological refractory period paradigm together with the locus of slack and the effect propagation logic to pinpoint the source of the SPE. The data consistently demonstrated the SPE across all experiments. More important, the results converge on the notion that the SPE has its source in a capacity-limited stage of central processing. The implications of these results are discussed in light of possible candidate processes as sources for the SPE, such as memory-related processing.


Assuntos
Ego , Lógica , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Período Refratário Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 13(12): 1225-1234, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351412

RESUMO

Differing from basic emotions such as happiness, gratitude and elevation are important other-praising emotions. Previous behavioral studies have established that these complex emotions differ from each other; however, it remains under-investigated whether proneness to these emotions have common or distinct neuroanatomical correlates. Here we used voxel-based morphometry to identify the common and distinct neuroanatomical correlates of trait (i.e. proneness to) gratitude and elevation. We used the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 and the trait elevation scale to measure these affective traits. We demonstrated that trait gratitude was positively correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the left cerebellum extending to fusiform gyrus, and also the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) extending to posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and temporoparietal junction (TPJ), while trait elevation was negatively correlated with GMV in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. While controlling each other, all the regions still held significant, except the right MOG and pSTS/TPJ. The results indicate that there are distinct neuroanatomical correlates for proneness to gratitude and elevation, while the evidence is mixed that pSTS/TPJ may be the common correlates for them. The implications of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções , Adulto , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Individualidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(9)2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177629

RESUMO

The gyroscope, accelerometer and angular encoder are the most important components in a dual-axis rotation inertial navigation system (RINS). However, there are asynchronies among the sensors, which will thus lead to navigation errors. The impact of asynchrony between the gyroscope and angular encoder on the azimuth error and the impact of asynchrony between the gyroscope and accelerometer on the velocity error are analyzed in this paper. A self-calibration method based on navigation errors is proposed based on the analysis above. Experiments show that azimuth and velocity accuracy can be improved by compensating the asynchronies.

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