Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 107
Filtrar
1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829318

RESUMO

Texture and color enhancement imaging (TXI) has been developed as an image-enhanced endoscopy technology. TXI mode2 enhances texture and brightness, and TXI mode1 also enhances color. This study aims to assess the color differences in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) suspicious lesions in the pharynx and esophagus using white light imaging (WLI), TXI mode1, TXI mode2, and narrow-band imaging (NBI). A total of 59 SCC suspicious lesions from 30 patients were analyzed. The color differences (ΔE) between the lesion and the surrounding mucosa were calculated for each modality. The color value was assessed using the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage L*a*b* color space. The visibility of the lesion in each modality was evaluated and compared to that in the WLI by six endoscopists. The mean ΔE values in the WLI, TXI mode1, TXI mode2, and NBI were 11.6; 18.6; 14.3; and 17.2, respectively, and the ΔE values of TXI mode1, TXI mode2, and NBI were significantly higher than those of the WLI (p < 0.001). No lesions had worse visibility, and 62.5% (37/59) had improved visibility, as assessed by more than half of the endoscopists in TXI mode1. TXI mode1 can enhance color changes and improve the visibility of SCC suspicious lesions in the pharynx and esophagus, compared to WLI.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1197, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and immune-suppressive cells, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs), in the tumor microenvironment (TME) play an important role in the prognosis of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: The densities of TILs, programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) + T cells, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) + T cells were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The associations of the immunological status of the PDAC microenvironment with overall survival (OS) time and disease-free survival (DFS) time were evaluated. RESULTS: PDAC patients with a high density of TILs in the TME or PD-1-positive T cells in tertiary lymphoid aggregates (TLAs) demonstrated a significantly better prognosis than those with a low density of TILs or PD-1-negativity, respectively. Moreover, PDAC patients with high levels of Foxp3-expressing T cells showed a worse prognosis than those with low levels of Foxp3-expressing T cells. Importantly, even with a high density of the TILs in TME or PD-1-positive T cells in TLAs, PDAC patients with high levels of Foxp3-expressing T cells showed a worse prognosis than patients with low levels of Foxp3-expressing T cells. A PDAC TME with a high density of TILs/high PD-1 positivity/low Foxp3 expression was an independent predictive marker associated with superior prognosis. CONCLUSION: Combined assessment of TILs, PD-1+ cells, and Foxp3+ T cells in the TME may predict the prognosis of PDAC patients following surgical resection.

3.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533892

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study the relationships among the copper (Cu)/zinc (Zn) ratio, inflammatory biomarkers, and the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 651 patients with type 2 diabetes. DKD was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g creatinine and/or an estimated glomerular filtration rate using cystatin C of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Areas under the curves (AUCs), cutoff values, and thresholds for detecting DKD were determined for the Cu/Zn ratio, soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (sTNFαR1), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Patients were categorized by each cutoff value of sTNFαR1 and the Cu/Zn ratio. Odds ratios (ORs) and biological interactions for the prevalence of DKD were determined. RESULTS: DKD was identified in 220 patients. AUC/optimal cutoff values were 0.777/1300 pg/mL for sTNFαR1, 0.603/1.1648 for the Cu/Zn ratio, and 0.582/305 ng/mL for hsCRP. The ORs for DKD were higher, but not significantly, in the sTNFαR1 < 1300 and Cu/Zn ≥ 1.1648 group, significantly higher in the sTNFαR1 ≥ 1300 and Cu/Zn < 1.1648 group (P < 0.0001), and further synergistically elevated in the sTNFαR1 ≥ 1300 and Cu/Zn ≥ 1.1648 group (P < 0.0001) compared with the sTNFαR1 < 1300 and Cu/Zn < 1.1648 group after multivariable adjustment. Levels of sTNFαR1 were significantly higher in the sTNFαR1 ≥ 1300 and Cu/Zn ≥ 1.1648 group than in the sTNFαR1 ≥ 1300 and Cu/Zn < 1.1648 group (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: Under an inflammatory initiation signal of elevated serum sTNFαR1 levels, an increase in the Cu/Zn ratio may further exacerbate inflammation and is synergistically associated with a high prevalence of DKD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

4.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570060

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study examined the associations among personality traits, media exposure regarding COVID-19, and deterioration of mental wellbeing among the public in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire survey among 8000 Japanese men and women aged 25 to 64 years. Approximately half of participants reported deterioration of mental wellbeing. Nearly 20% of participants reported "constant/excessive" exposure to media information regarding COVID-19. As compared with those with low "extraversion" and "less frequent" exposure to media information about COVID-19, those with high "extraversion" and "more frequent" media exposure reported significantly less deterioration of mental wellbeing. In addition, as compared with those with low "neuroticism" and media exposure, those with high "neuroticism" and "constant/excessive" exposure to COVID-19-related information significantly more frequently reported deterioration of mental wellbeing. Under the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, measures for the promotion and maintenance of mental wellbeing should be implemented considering the interaction between personality traits and media exposure.

5.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12254, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has forced many employees to alter both their work style and lifestyle. This study aimed to examine how the combination of changes in overtime working hours and social interaction affects the full-time employees' mental well-being, focusing on the difference in household composition. METHODS: In November 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional Internet survey that included 4388 Japanese men and women aged 25-64 years, who continued the same full-time job during the pandemic. We performed a logistic regression analysis using a combination of the changes in overtime working hours and social interaction as an independent variable, and the presence/absence of deterioration of mental well-being as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Overall, 44% of participants reported the deterioration of mental well-being compared to before the outbreak. The multivariate analysis revealed that the participants coded as "increased overtime/decreased interaction" were significantly associated with the deterioration of mental well-being compared to those with "unchanged overtime/unchanged interaction" (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-2.89). Moreover, this association was relatively stronger among single-person households (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.50-4.69). CONCLUSIONS: The negative combination of increasing overtime working hours and decreasing social interaction may have an impact on the deterioration of mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this association was comparably strong among single-person households. In the pandemic, it is necessary to pay close attention to both overtime working hours and the presence of social interaction to address the mental well-being among employees.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Interação Social , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa Solteira/psicologia , Pessoa Solteira/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275975

RESUMO

Public health communication is an essential component of public health activities to protect and promote the health of all people in all communities. However, research is scarce on how to communicate public health issues effectively to the Japanese population. In this article, I outline the concept of public health communication, present our study findings, and discuss future challenges to developing public health communication programs. More studies are required to establish evidence-based practical guidelines on public health communication in Japan.

7.
Digestion ; 102(6): 921-928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs), tumor size and grading based on cellular proliferative ability indicate biological malignancy but not necessarily clinically efficient prognostic stratification. We analyzed tumor size- and grading-based prevalence of lymphovascular invasion in GI-NETs to establish whether these are true biological malignancy indicators. METHODS: We included 155 cases (165 lesions), diagnosed histologically with GI-NETs, that had undergone endoscopic or surgical resection. Patient age, sex, method of treatment, tumor size, invasion depth, lymphovascular invasion positivity according to Ki-67 index-based neuroendocrine tumor grading, distant metastases, and outcome were evaluated. The primary endpoints were the prevalence of lymphovascular invasion according to tumor size and grading. RESULTS: Overall, 24.8% were positive for lymphovascular invasion. There was a high rate of lymphovascular invasion positivity even among grade 1 cases (22.8%). The rate of lymphovascular invasion was 3.4% for grade 1 cases <5 mm, with a lymphovascular invasion rate of 8.7% for those 5-10 mm. Lymphovascular invasion ≤10% required a tumor size ≤8 mm, and lymphovascular invasion ≤5% required a tumor size ≤6 mm. A cutoff of 6 mm was identified, which yielded a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 63%. Even small GI-NETs grade 1 of the whole GI tract also showed positive for lymphovascular invasion. CONCLUSIONS: GI-NETs ≤10 mm had a lymphovascular invasion prevalence exceeding 10%. The lymphovascular invasion impact in GI-NET development is incompletely understood, but careful follow-up, including consideration of additional surgical resection, is crucial in cases with lymphovascular invasion.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(2): 101-107, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952763

RESUMO

Since 2011, pharmaceutical companies in Japan have been required to issue two types of documents regarding severe adverse drug reactions reported post-marketing, namely the Rapid Safety Communication Materials for Patients and the Related Materials. However, the adequacy of these documents has not yet been systematically assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of these two types of materials. The Rapid Safety Communications for Patients were obtained from the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) website. The Related Materials were obtained from pharmaceutical companies or the PMDA website. Three assessors independently scored the Rapid Safety Communication for Patients and the Related Materials using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clear Communication Index (CCI). In addition, the contents and descriptions of the materials were analyzed. In total, 13 materials for seven drugs were assessed. Almost all materials contained the "main message" and "call to action". However, the average CCI scores for the Rapid Safety Communication for Patients and Related Materials for Patients were 68.8 and 74.3 (out of 100), respectively. Further, none of the evaluated materials were scored above the CCI threshold score (i.e., ≥ 90%). Descriptions regarding "language", "state of science", and "risk" were not adequate. In particular, the terminology used in materials seemed difficult for patients to understand. In conclusion, the Japanese Rapid Communication Materials for Patients require improvement. Furthermore, a system for evaluating these materials prior to publication should be established.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Preparações Farmacêuticas/normas , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Gestão de Riscos
10.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined factors regarding help-seeking intentions in terms of the balance between treatment and job content among Japanese employees working for small- and medium-sized enterprises. In doing so, we focused upon a cooperative organizational culture and workers' attitudes toward seeking help from others. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey on cooperative organizational culture, workers' attitudes toward help-seeking, and job-related factors via a representative sample of Japanese employees in terms of industry and company size. Participants included 3,286 full-time employees aged 20-64 years who had not had a history of sick leave beyond one month or health-related work restrictions. After they were provided a leaflet regarding the balance between treatment and job content - as advocated by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare - participants were asked to answer their intention of help-seeking in an imaginary situation where they had been diagnosed as having a severe physical illness. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis using cooperative organizational culture and workers' attitudes toward help-seeking as explanatory variables, and the intention of help-seeking as the dependent variable, adjusted for relevant job-related and demographic variables. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of participants reported an active intention to seek help regarding the balance between treatment and job content. Those who reported the highest levels of cooperative organizational culture revealed the intention of seeking out help significantly more frequently than those who reported the lowest levels of cooperative organizational culture in the workplace (odds ratio: 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.9). Similarly, those with the highest attitude reported help-seeking intentions significantly more frequently (odds ratio: 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.7). Other job-related factors - such as the presence/absence of consultation desks or occupational health staff - were also significantly associated with the intention to seek help. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an increase in awareness of the system regarding the balance between treatment and job content may enhance workers' intention to seek help regarding their health-related issues. After the adjustment of relevant job-related factors, cooperative organizational culture and workers' attitudes toward help-seeking were significantly associated with the intention to seek help. For those who are passive in seeking help regarding their health-related issues despite their awareness of the support system, the enhancement of a cooperative organizational culture, along with a positive attitude toward help-seeking via workplace improvement programs and in-company training, may promote the intention of help-seeking among employees working for small- and medium-sized companies.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793594

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of therapeutic strategies initiated at different stages of liver fibrosis using three direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), sofosbuvir-ledipasvir (SL), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir (GP), and elbasvir plus grazoprevir (E/G), for Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1. METHODS: We created an analytical decision model reflecting the progression of liver fibrosis stages to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative therapeutic strategies applied at different fibrosis stages. We compared six treatment strategies: treating all patients regardless of fibrosis stage (TA), treating individual patients with one of four treatments starting at four respective stages of liver fibrosis progression (F1S: withholding treatment at stage F0 and starting treatment from stage F1 or higher, and three successive options, F2S, F3S, and F4S), and administering no antiviral treatment (NoRx). We adopted a lifetime horizon and Japanese health insurance payers' perspective. RESULTS: The base case analysis showed that the incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gain of TA by SL, GP, and E/G compared with the strategies of starting treatments for patients with the advanced fibrosis stage, F2S, varied from 0.32 to 0.33, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were US$24,320, US$18,160 and US$17,410 per QALY, respectively. On the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve, TA was most likely to be cost-effective, with the three DAAs at the willingness to pay thresholds of US$50,000. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that administration of DAA treatment for all Japanese patients with genotype 1 CHC regardless of their liver fibrosis stage would be cost-effective under ordinary conditions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ciclopropanos/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Japão , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Quinoxalinas/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 406(3): 703-711, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830337

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although pancreatectomy with lymph node (LN) and nerve plexus dissection has usually been performed for pancreatic cancer, recent randomized controlled trials have questioned its survival benefits. However, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) LN dissection has still been included in standard treatment guidelines. METHODS: A total of 94 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for resectable pancreatic cancer without LN enlargement around the SMA on imaging were identified between 2008 and 2017. Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and complications were compared between those with LN and hemicircumferential nerve plexus dissection around the SMA (SMA ly+) and those without thorough LN and nerve plexus dissection around the SMA (SMA ly-) after adjusting for major prognostic factors. RESULTS: A total of 78 and 16 patients with SMA ly+ and SMA ly- were identified, respectively. Our data demonstrated no difference in DFS and OS rates between both groups (P = 0.18 and 0.83, respectively). Patients with SMA ly+ had significantly more complications, particularly severe diarrhea, compared to those with SMA ly- (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LN and nerve plexus dissection around the SMA did not prolong survival and significantly increased the frequency of severe diarrhea, suggesting that performing in all cases carries less practical significance.


Assuntos
Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Prognóstico
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 37, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the change in health status of the general public after starting the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with changes in workload and lifestyle. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted in November 2020, about 9 months after starting the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, among 8000 Japanese men and women aged 25-64 years. Participants asked for the changes after starting the COVID-19 pandemic in health status, workload, daily life, and health behavior. Ordinal logistic regression was performed to elucidate factors associated with deterioration in general health status. RESULTS: A deterioration in general health status was reported by 17.0% of male and 19.4% of female. There has been a clear shift to sedentary life with decreasing moderate activity and increasing screen time. The multivariate analysis revealed that deteriorated work style, increased burden of housework, decreased moderate activity, increased digital media exposure, and increased body weight were significantly associated with deteriorating health status. CONCLUSION: Both men and women have experienced significant changes in workload and lifestyle since the COVID-19 pandemic started. People should be aware of the risks associated with their recent life changes and take self-care measures to prevent serious health consequences.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(5): 886-893, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918856

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To identify thresholds for postprandial hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia predictive of all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,928 patients with type 2 diabetes visited our clinic for the first time from 1995 to 1999 and were followed up for ≥1 year. During the first year, 2-h post-breakfast blood glucose (2h-BG) levels were measured in 1,122 patients (BG cohort) and postprandial serum triglyceride (ppTG) levels were measured in 1,826 patients (TG cohort). Patients were retrospectively followed until 2017 and administered questionnaires. Associations between 2h-BG and ppTG levels and mortality risk were assessed by the multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Over of 17,429 person-years, 162 deaths occurred in the BG cohort, and over 28,026 person-years, 253 deaths occurred in the TG cohort. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality per 1-standard deviation increases in 2h-BG and ppTG were 1.34 (1.08-1.67) and 1.24 (1.06-1.45), respectively. HRs showed increasing trends across quintiles of 2h-BG (P = 0.034) and ppTG (P = 0.007). The HR was significantly elevated (2.37, 1.26-4.47) in the fifth quintile of 2h-BG (≥13.8 mmol/L) compared with the first quintile (<7.0 mmol/L; P = 0.008). The HR was also significantly elevated (1.63, 1.03-2.60) in the fifth quintile of ppTG (≥2.30 mmol/L) compared with the first quintile (<0.91 mmol/L; P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Postprandial hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. We propose thresholds of 13.8 mmol/L 2h-BG and 2.30 mmol/L ppTG to identify patients at increased risk of mortality.

15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(2): 668-681, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405687

RESUMO

Nutritional zinc deficiency aggravates inflammation, subsequently causing anemia and splenomegaly in rats; however, the mechanism underlying such splenomegaly remains poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the splenomegaly and anemia occurring in zinc-deficient rats and investigate whether these effects of zinc deficiency could be reversed by interleukin (IL)-4 administration or zinc supplementation. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet; fed a zinc-deficient diet (n = 7 each) and injected with saline or IL-4; or fed a zinc-deficient diet for 6 weeks followed by a standard diet for 4 weeks thereafter. White blood cells, segmented neutrophils, platelets, CD4+ T cells, CD11b/c+ granulocytes, CINC/GRO+ cells, and myeloperoxidase-positive cells in the blood and spleen of the zinc-deficient rats were significantly higher than those in all the other groups. Conversely, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, lymphocytes, and CD8+ T cells in the blood of the zinc-deficient rats were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Furthermore, serum aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, indirect bilirubin concentrations, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility in the zinc-deficient rats were significantly higher than those in the other groups. Moreover, zinc deficiency significantly decreased the GATA1 protein levels in the spleen. Collectively, these results indicate that zinc deficiency aggravates the inflammatory response and causes hemolytic anemia and splenomegaly. Importantly, IL-4 administration and zinc supplementation can reverse the zinc deficiency-induced hemolytic anemia and splenomegaly.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica , Zinco , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Interleucina-4 , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esplenomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Esplenomegalia/prevenção & controle
16.
Toxicology ; 448: 152647, 2021 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259820

RESUMO

In a Japanese chemical factory, a lung disease like pneumoconiosis appeared at a high rate among workers handling cross-linked water-soluble acrylic acid polymer (CWAAP). To our knowledge, no such case was known in the world until very recently. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of single intratracheal CWAAP instillation on the lung of rats. The CWAAP group had a significant increase in relative lung weight accompanied by a significant elevation in the number of total cells, total protein concentrations, and myeloperoxidase concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared to the control group. The histopathological study revealed acute lung inflammation with the destruction of alveoli. The factors promoting fibrosis, macrophages, TGF-ß1, collagen and fibronectin vs. the factors suppressing fibrosis, matrix metalloproteinases were more powerfully driven in the CWAAP group, resultantly leading to fibrotic formation. In turn, we examined if acute lung inflammation and the subsequent fibrotic formation seen in the CWAAP group appeared in the other water-soluble polymer groups. Their histopathological findings were observed only in the polyacrylic acid sodium (PAAS), a monomer of CWAAP, group. The degree of inflammation and fibrogenesis was stronger in the CWAAP group than in the PAAS group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the induction of acute lung inflammation and the subsequent fibrotic formation by single intratracheal CWAAP instillation. The structural features of CWAAP that contains many carboxyl groups and cross-linked chains may be responsible for enhanced inflammation and fibrogenesis in the lung.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/toxicidade , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/toxicidade , Polímeros/toxicidade , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Acrilatos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Polímeros/administração & dosagem , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueia/metabolismo , Traqueia/patologia
17.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 40(6): 599-606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc plays an important role in appetite regulation. L-Carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, may also regulate eating behavior via its histaminergic and antiglutamatergic properties. Polaprezinc (zinc-L-carnosine complex) is a medication for gastric ulcers. A small case series reported successful treatment of binge eating with add-on polaprezinc. METHODS: This was an open trial of add-on polaprezinc in patients with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 22) or bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 7) receiving antidepressants. A 4-week baseline period was followed by a 16-week polaprezinc treatment at 150 mg/d (containing 34 mg zinc and 116 mg L-carnosine) in addition to ongoing psychotropic medications. We also assessed their zinc status via a laboratory index and zinc deficiency-related symptoms. RESULTS: At the study end, both conditions showed a significant reduction in the 4-week frequency of combined objective and subjective binge eating episodes, the 4-week frequency of days when at least 1 such episode occurred (only in BED), several aspects of eating disorder psychopathology (rated by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), and comorbid depressive symptoms (rated by the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology [Self-Report]). Serum copper/zinc ratio decreased from 1.4 to 1.1 on average in both conditions. All patients had multiple zinc deficiency-related symptoms at baseline that substantially improved after polaprezinc treatment. Overall, the effectiveness of polaprezinc was greater in BED patients than in BN patients, with minor adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: These findings offer preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of polaprezinc in treating BED and BN and suggest the involvement of zinc deficiency in these conditions.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Bulimia Nervosa/tratamento farmacológico , Carnosina/análogos & derivados , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Zinco/deficiência , Adulto , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/sangue , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bulimia Nervosa/sangue , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Carnosina/efeitos adversos , Carnosina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organometálicos/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/sangue , Compostos de Zinco/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico
18.
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) ; 60(9): 450-457, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801276

RESUMO

Although it is important for patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) to live independently and maintain good quality of life (QOL), no study has examined the social independence status in this patient population. This study aimed to examine the state of social independence and its contributing factors in patients with NF2 using data from a national registry in Japan during the past decade. A database provided by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan that contained information about all patients with newly submitted claims for medical expense subsidies for NF2 in Japan between fiscal years 2004 and 2013 was analyzed. Individuals aged 6 to 64 years were deemed eligible for the present study. Categories of "employed," "studying," and "housekeeping" were classified as "socially independent." Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine associations between demographic variables, neurological features, and social independence status. Of 334 participants, 79% were socially independent at the time of registration. Socially dependent participants had more neurological features than those who were socially independent, whereas sex, age, and family history had no significant associations with social independence status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants with bilateral hearing loss, unilateral hearing loss, blindness, hemiplegia, or seizures had significantly higher odd ratios for being socially dependent compared to participants without these features. Our findings, which suggest that these neurological features could restrict social independence, could contribute to the maintenance of better social functioning and QOL in patients with NF2.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Neurofibromatose 2/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibromatose 2/complicações , Neurofibromatose 2/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(12): 832-838, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association between near-misses/minor injuries and moderate/severe injuries has yet to be investigated longitudinally. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association between near-misses/minor injuries and moderate/severe injuries by the presence/absence of depressive symptoms using 1-year follow-up data obtained from a nationally representative sample of workers in Japan. METHODS: Of the 18 231 eligible participants at time 1 (T1), 12 127 who responded to the 1-year follow-up survey at time 2 (T2) (response rate: 66.5%; 4370 females and 7757 males; mean age (SD), 45.3 (10.5) years) were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with the presence/absence of moderate/severe injuries at T2 as the dependent variable. RESULTS: In total, 36.4% of participants reported depressive symptoms at T1. During the follow-up period, 1.6% of participants reported moderate/severe injuries in industrial settings. After adjusting for relevant variables, participants who reported near-misses (OR=1.7 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4)) and minor injuries (OR=2.5 (95% CI, 1.3 to 4.7)) at T1 were more likely to have moderate/severe injuries at T2 compared to those who reported no near-misses/minor injuries. However, this association was stronger in participants who did not have depressive symptoms at T1 than in those who had depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: While the predictive value of near-misses/minor injuries for the occurrence of moderate/severe injuries by the presence/absence of depressive symptoms should be cautiously interpreted, our findings suggest that the development and utilisation of near-miss/minor injury reporting systems may help reduce the likelihood of moderate/severe injuries among workers, especially those without depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(7): e318-e327, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine age-dependent trends in weight and lifestyle changes in Japanese workers. METHODS: Using annual health examination data, 60,143 eligible Japanese workers aged 20 to 59 years were examined for their 2-year changes in weight and smoking, eating, exercise, drinking, and sleep habits. RESULTS: Young male workers aged 20 to 24 years showed the greatest weight gain and the highest incidence of unhealthy lifestyle habits. Multivariate analyses indicated that quitting "exercise less than two times/week," "walking less than 60 min/d," and "smoking everyday" contributed to weight gain to a considerable extent except in young female workers aged 20 to 24 years. CONCLUSIONS: Greater weight gain associated with unhealthy lifestyle changes tended to occur in early rather than middle-to-old adulthood. It is important to deliver health promotion programs targeting young male workers.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...