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1.
J Trauma Stress ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384585

RESUMO

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to anger and aggressive behavior in adult and veteran populations. However, research on the associations among anger, aggression, and PTSD in adolescents is lacking, particularly regarding differences between the sexes. To address this research gap, we used self-report data from Russian adolescents (N = 2,810; age range: 13-17 years) to perform a full path analysis examining the associations between PTSD symptoms and the emotional (anger traits) and cognitive (rumination) components of anger as well as physical/verbal and social aggression, after adjusting for depressive symptoms. We also examined the interaction effects between PTSD symptoms and sex on anger and aggression. The results indicated that girls scored higher on measures of anger and PTSD symptoms, ds = 0.20-0.32, whereas boys scored higher on measures of physical and verbal aggression, d = 0.54. Clinical levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with anger rumination, ß = .16, and trait anger, ß = .06, and an interaction effect for PTSD symptoms and sex was found for aggression, whereby boys with clinical levels of PTSD symptoms reported more physical/verbal and social aggression, ßs = .05 and .20, respectively. Our findings suggest that PTSD symptoms may have an important impact on anger, anger rumination, and aggression during adolescence. In particular, boys seem to have an increased risk for aggressive behavior in the presence of PTSD symptoms. The present results highlight the importance of taking anger and aggression into account when evaluating PTSD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood aggression has been linked to white matter abnormalities, but research has been inconsistent with regard to both regions of alterations and directionality of the associations. We examined white matter microstructure correlates of aggression using a novel diffusion imaging analysis technique, fixel-based analysis, which leverages connectivity and crossing-fiber information to assess fiber bundle density. METHODS: The sample included 70 children with aggressive behavior and 25 healthy control children without aggressive behavior. Aggression was measured by the parent-rated Aggressive Behavior scale of the Child Behavior Checklist. Fixel-based analysis was conducted at the whole-brain and region-of-interest levels, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum bundle, and genu, body, isthmus, and splenium of the corpus callosum. RESULTS: Whole-brain analysis of covariance revealed that children with aggressive behavior, relative to control children, had lower fiber density in a cluster of limbic and cortical pathways, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, fornix, middle cerebellar peduncle, and superior thalamic radiations (familywise error-corrected p < .01), and had higher fiber density in the corpus callosum (body and splenium) (familywise error-corrected p < .05). Region-of-interest analyses showed decreased fiber density in cingulum bundles associated with aggression. These effects were independent of age, sex, IQ, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, medications, and head motion. In children with aggressive behavior, co-occurring callous-unemotional traits and anxiety did not moderate the association between aggression and white matter density. CONCLUSIONS: Diminished white matter density in pathways connecting limbic and cortical regions is associated with childhood aggression. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity via corpus callosum may also reflect a potential neural mechanism involved in aggression.

3.
Autism ; 24(2): 400-410, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390873

RESUMO

Anxiety is a common and impairing problem in children with autism spectrum disorder, but little is known about it in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. This article reports on the characteristics of anxiety symptoms in young children with autism spectrum disorder using a parent-completed rating scale. One hundred and eighty children (age 3-7 years) participated in a clinical trial of parent training for disruptive behaviors. Anxiety was measured as part of pre-treatment subject characterization with 16 items from the Early Childhood Inventory, a parent-completed scale on child psychiatric symptoms. Parents also completed other measures of behavioral problems. Sixty-seven percent of children were rated by their parents as having two or more clinically significant symptoms of anxiety. There were no differences in the Early Childhood Inventory anxiety severity scores of children with IQ < 70 and those with ⩾70. Higher levels of anxiety were associated with severity of oppositional defiant behavior and social disability. Anxiety symptoms are common in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. These findings are consistent with earlier work in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder. There were no differences in anxiety between children with IQ below 70 and those with IQ of 70 and above. Social withdrawal and oppositional behavior were associated with anxiety in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

4.
Autism Res ; 13(1): 93-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643143

RESUMO

Co-occurring anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, inconsistencies across parent and child reports of anxiety may complicate the assessment of anxiety in this population. The present study examined parent and child anxiety ratings in children with ASD with and without anxiety disorders and tested the association between parent-child anxiety rating discrepancy and ASD symptom severity. Participants included children aged 8-16 years in three diagnostic groups: ASD with co-occurring anxiety disorders (ASD + Anxiety; n = 34), ASD without co-occurring anxiety disorders (ASD; n = 18), and typically developing healthy controls (TD; n = 50). Parents and children completed ratings of child anxiety using the Multidimensional Anxiety Rating Scale. Patterns of parent and child anxiety ratings differed among the three groups, with parent ratings exceeding child ratings only in the ASD + Anxiety group. Parents reported higher levels of child anxiety in the ASD + Anxiety versus ASD group, whereas children reported comparable levels of anxiety in the two groups. Among children with ASD, ASD symptom severity was positively associated with the degree to which parent ratings exceeded child ratings. Results suggest that children with ASD and co-occurring anxiety disorders endorse some anxiety symptoms but may underreport overall levels of anxiety. In addition, ASD symptom severity might increase discrepancies in parent-child anxiety ratings. These findings suggest a unique and valuable role of child anxiety ratings and suggest that both parent and child anxiety ratings should be considered in light of children's ASD symptom severity and used to guide further assessment. Autism Res 2020, 13: 93-103. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience anxiety; yet, their perceptions of their anxiety might differ from their parents' perceptions. This study found that, while children with ASD and anxiety disorders acknowledge some anxiety, their parents report them as having higher levels of anxiety. Also, child and parent perceptions of anxiety may differ more for children with more severe ASD symptoms. How these findings may guide research and clinical practice is discussed.

5.
J Atten Disord ; 24(5): 780-794, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27178060

RESUMO

Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of an Integrated Brain, Body, and Social (IBBS) intervention for children with ADHD. Treatment consisted of computerized cognitive remediation training, physical exercises, and a behavior management strategy. Method: Ninety-two children aged 5 to 9 years with ADHD were randomly assigned to 15 weeks of IBBS or to treatment-as-usual. Primary outcome measures included blinded clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms and global clinical functioning. Secondary outcome measures consisted of parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and neurocognitive tests. Results: No significant treatment effects were found on any of our primary outcome measures. In terms of secondary outcome measures, the IBBS group showed significant improvement on a verbal working memory task; however, this result did not survive correction for multiple group comparisons. Conclusion: These results suggest that expanding cognitive training to multiple domains by means of two training modalities does not lead to generalized improvement of ADHD symptomatology.

6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) has been associated with tics in Tourette syndrome (TS). The aim of this study was to test a novel intervention-real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback from the SMA-for reduction of tics in adolescents with TS. METHODS: Twenty-one adolescents with TS were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled, crossover study involving two sessions of neurofeedback from their SMA. The primary outcome measure of tic severity was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale administered by an independent evaluator before and after each arm. The secondary outcome was control over the SMA assessed in neuroimaging scans, in which subjects were cued to increase/decrease activity in SMA without receiving feedback. RESULTS: All 21 subjects completed both arms of the study and all assessments. Participants had significantly greater reduction of tics on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale after real neurofeedback as compared with the sham control (p < .05). Mean Yale Global Tic Severity Scale Total Tic score decreased from 25.2 ± 4.6 at baseline to 19.9 ± 5.7 at end point in the neurofeedback condition and from 24.8 ± 8.1 to 23.3 ± 8.5 in the sham control condition. The 3.8-point difference is clinically meaningful and corresponds to an effect size of 0.59. However, there were no differences in changes on the secondary measure of control over the SMA. CONCLUSIONS: This first randomized controlled trial of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback in adolescents with TS suggests that this neurofeedback intervention may be helpful for improving tic symptoms. However, no effects were found in terms of change in control over the SMA, the hypothesized mechanism of action.

7.
Autism Res ; 12(10): 1472-1483, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347307

RESUMO

Previous studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter (WM) structural connectivity have suggested widespread, although inconsistent WM alterations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as greater reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA). However, findings may lack generalizability because: (a) most have focused solely on the ASD male brain phenotype, and not sex-differences in WM integrity; (b) many lack stringent and transparent data quality control such as controlling for head motion in analysis. This study addressed both issues by using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to separately compare WM differences in 81 ASD (56 male, 25 female; 4-21 years old) and 39 typically developing (TD; 23 males, 16 females; 5-18 years old) children and young people, carefully group-matched on sex, age, cognitive abilities, and head motion. ASD males and females were also matched on autism symptom severity. Two independent-raters completed a multistep scan quality assurance to remove images that were significantly distorted by motion artifacts before analysis. ASD females exhibited significant widespread reductions in FA compared to TD females, suggesting altered WM integrity. In contrast, no significant localized or widespread WM differences were found between ASD and TD males. This study highlights the importance of data quality control in DTI, and outlines important sex-differences in WM alterations in ASD females. Future studies can explore the extent to which neural structural differences might underlie sex-differences in ASD behavioral phenotype, and guide clinical interventions to be tailored toward the unique needs of ASD females and males. Autism Res 2019, 12: 1472-1483. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Previous Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies have found atypical brain structural connectivity in males with autism, although findings are inconclusive in females with autism. To investigate potential sex-differences, we studied males and females with and without autism who showed a similar level of head movement during their brain scan. We found that females with autism had widespread atypical neural connectivity than females without autism, although not in males, highlighting sex-differences.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 278: 248-257, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233935

RESUMO

A primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of an Integrated Brain, Body, and Social (IBBS) intervention (multi-faceted treatment consisting of computerized cognitive training, physical exercise, and behavior management) on ERPs of attentional control (P3 & N2) in children with ADHD. The secondary goal was to test the differences between children with and without ADHD on ERP and Go/No-Go behavioral measures. A total of twenty-nine participants (M age = 7.14 years; 52% male; 41.4% white) recruited from the IBBS efficacy study comparing IBBS to Treatment-As-Usual (TAU) completed a Go/No-Go task before and after treatment as brain activity was recorded using EEG. Thirty-four matched healthy controls (HC) completed the same EEG procedures at a single time point. Following treatment, the Go P3 latency was significantly earlier for the IBBS group relative to the TAU group. No treatment effects were found on any behavioral measures. Prior to treatment, there was a significant difference between the ADHD group and HC group for the N2 difference wave. Children with ADHD also showed slower reaction times on behavioral measures. Although this pilot study did not reveal robust treatment effects, it suggests that IBBS may prevent the worsening of attentional systems in the brain and larger studies are needed for replication purposes.

9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(9): 3656-3668, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144231

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to have greater levels of anger rumination than typically developing children. This study examined anger rumination in children with ASD in comparison to children with disruptive behavior disorder without ASD. We also tested if anger rumination is associated with aggression and the core ASD symptoms of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). This study included three groups of children aged 8-16 years: 63 had ASD (ASD group), 79 had disruptive behavior disorder (DB group), and 40 healthy controls (HC). ASD and DB groups showed greater anger rumination relative to the HC group. Anger rumination was associated with RRBs in children with ASD, suggesting the link to core ASD symptoms.


Assuntos
Ira , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Ruminação Cognitiva , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruptive behaviors are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and often cause substantial impairments. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of disruptive behaviors remain poorly understood in ASD. In children without ASD, disruptive behavior is associated with amygdala hyperactivity and reduced connectivity with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). This study examined amygdala reactivity and connectivity in children with ASD with and without co-occurring disruptive behavior disorders. We also investigated differential contributions of externalizing behaviors and callous-unemotional traits to variance in amygdala connectivity and reactivity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved behavioral assessments and neuroimaging in three groups of children 8 to 16 years of age: 18 children had ASD and disruptive behavior, 20 children had ASD without disruptive behavior, and 19 children were typically developing control participants matched for age, gender, and IQ. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants completed an emotion perception task of fearful versus calm faces. Task-specific changes in amygdala reactivity and connectivity were examined using whole-brain, psychophysiological interaction, and multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Children with ASD and disruptive behavior showed reduced amygdala-vlPFC connectivity compared with children with ASD without disruptive behavior. Externalizing behaviors and callous-unemotional traits were associated with amygdala reactivity to fearful faces in children with ASD after controlling for suppressor effects. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced amygdala-vlPFC connectivity during fear processing may differentiate children with ASD and disruptive behavior from children with ASD without disruptive behavior. The presence of callous-unemotional traits may have implications for identifying differential patterns of amygdala activity associated with increased risk of aggression in ASD. These findings suggest a neural mechanism of emotion dysregulation associated with disruptive behavior in children with ASD.

11.
Neuroimage ; 181: 807-813, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729393

RESUMO

Neurofeedback - learning to modulate brain function through real-time monitoring of current brain state - is both a powerful method to perturb and probe brain function and an exciting potential clinical tool. For neurofeedback effects to be useful clinically, they must persist. Here we examine the time course of symptom change following neurofeedback in two clinical populations, combining data from two ongoing neurofeedback studies. This analysis reveals a shared pattern of symptom change, in which symptoms continue to improve for weeks after neurofeedback. This time course has several implications for future neurofeedback studies. Most neurofeedback studies are not designed to test an intervention with this temporal pattern of response. We recommend that new studies incorporate regular follow-up of subjects for weeks or months after the intervention to ensure that the time point of greatest effect is sampled. Furthermore, this time course of continuing clinical change has implications for crossover designs, which may attribute long-term, ongoing effects of real neurofeedback to the control intervention that follows. Finally, interleaving neurofeedback sessions with assessments and examining when clinical improvement peaks may not be an appropriate approach to determine the optimal number of sessions for an application.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Neurorretroalimentação/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Tourette/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 48(8): 2748-2757, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536216

RESUMO

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly the α7 nAChR, are implicated in the pathophysiology of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and aggressive behavior. We explored the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of targeting nAChRs using transdermal nicotine to reduce aggressive symptoms in adults with ASD. Eight subjects were randomized in a double-blind crossover trial of 7 mg transdermal nicotine or placebo, each for 1 week. All participants tolerated nicotine treatment well. Five subjects contributed data to the primary outcome, Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale change from baseline, which was improved by nicotine compared to placebo. Sleep ratings were also improved by nicotine and correlated with ABC-I improvement. These findings support further investigation of nAChR agonists for aggression and sleep in ASD.


Assuntos
Agressão , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Humor Irritável , Nicotina/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Nicotínicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/efeitos adversos , Adesivo Transdérmico
13.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 27(9): 762-770, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28723227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of extended-release guanfacine in children with chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's disorder (collectively referred to as CTD). METHODS: This was a multisite, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total score. Key secondary outcomes included the Improvement item of Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale and the Tic Symptom Self-report (TSSR). Adverse events were monitored at each visit. RESULTS: Thirty-four subjects (23 boys and 11 girls) of ages 6 to 17 years (mean = 11.1 ± 3.1) with CTD were randomly assigned to extended-release guanfacine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 18). At baseline, the mean YGTSS total score was 26.3 ± 6.6 for the guanfacine group versus 27.7 ± 8.7 for the placebo group. Within the guanfacine group (mean final daily dose of 2.6 ± 1.1 mg, n = 14), the mean YGTSS total score declined to 23.6 ± 6.42 [t(15) = 1.84, p = 0.08; effect size = 0.35]. The results were similar in the placebo group with a score of 24.7 ± 10.54 at week 8 [t(17) = 1.83, p = 0.08; effect size = 0.38]. There was no significant difference in the rate of positive response on the CGI-I between the guanfacine group and placebo (19% [3/16] vs. 22% [4/18], p = 1.0). The most common adverse events were fatigue, drowsiness, dry mouth, headache, and irritability. Two subjects in the guanfacine group discontinued early-one because of an adverse event (depressed mood) and one because of lack of efficacy; two subjects in the placebo group discontinued because of lack of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study did not confirm a clinically meaningful effect size within the guanfacine group. These results do not support the launch of a larger efficacy trial for tics in children and adolescents with CTD.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Guanfacina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Tique/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Neurology ; 88(11): 1029-1036, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine moderators and predictors of response to behavior therapy for tics in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. METHODS: Data from 2 10-week, multisite studies (1 in children and 1 in adults; total n = 248) comparing comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST) were combined for moderator analyses. Participants (177 male, 71 female) had a mean age of 21.5 ± 13.9 years (range 9-69). Demographic and clinical characteristics, baseline tic-suppressing medication, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders were tested as potential moderators for CBIT vs PST or predictors of outcome regardless of treatment assignment. Main outcomes measures were the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale Total Tic score and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score assessed by masked evaluators. RESULTS: The presence of tic medication significantly moderated response to CBIT vs PST (p = 0.01). Participants showed tic reduction after CBIT regardless of tic medication status, but only participants receiving tic medication showed reduction of tics after PST. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders, age, sex, family functioning, tic characteristics, and treatment expectancy did not moderate response. Across both treatments, greater tic severity (p = 0.005) and positive participant expectancy (p = 0.01) predicted greater tic improvement. Anxiety disorders (p = 0.042) and premonitory urge severity (p = 0.005) predicted lower tic reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or anxiety disorders did not moderate response to CBIT. Although participants on tic medication showed improvement after CBIT, the difference between CBIT and PST was greater for participants who were not on tic-suppressing medication. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIERS: The child and adult CBIT studies are listed on clinical trials.gov (NCT00218777 and NCT00231985, respectively). CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that CBIT is effective in reducing tic severity across subgroups of patients with chronic tic disorders, although the difference between treatments was smaller for participants on tic-suppressing medications, suggesting reduced efficacy in this subgroup.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Tiques/etiologia , Tiques/reabilitação , Síndrome de Tourette/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/reabilitação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Neurodev Disord ; 9: 1, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruptive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important clinical problem, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. The current research aims to better understand the neural underpinnings of disruptive behavior in ASD, while addressing whether the neural basis is shared with or separable from that of core ASD symptoms. METHODS: Participants consisted of 48 male children and adolescents: 31 ASD (7 had high disruptive behavior) and 17 typically developing (TD) controls, well-matched on sex, age, and IQ. For ASD participants, autism symptom severity, disruptive behavior, anxiety symptoms, and ADHD symptoms were measured. All participants were scanned while viewing biological motion (BIO) and scrambled motion (SCR). Two fMRI contrasts were analyzed: social perception (BIO > SCR) and Default Mode Network (DMN) deactivation (fixation > BIO). Age and IQ were included as covariates of no interest in all analyses. RESULTS: First, the between-group analyses on BIO > SCR showed that ASD is characterized by hypoactivation in the social perception circuitry, and ASD with high or low disruptive behavior exhibited similar patterns of hypoactivation. Second, the between-group analyses on fixation > BIO showed that ASD with high disruptive behavior exhibited more restricted and less DMN deactivation, when compared to ASD with low disruptive behavior or TD. Third, the within-ASD analyses showed that (a) autism symptom severity (but not disruptive behavior) was uniquely associated with less activation in the social perception regions including the posterior superior temporal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus; (b) disruptive behavior (but not autism symptom severity) was uniquely associated with less DMN deactivation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and lateral parietal cortex; and (c) anxiety symptoms mediated the link between disruptive behavior and less DMN deactivation in both anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and MPFC, while ADHD symptoms mediated the link primarily in ACC. CONCLUSIONS: In boys with ASD, disruptive behavior has a neural basis in reduced DMN deactivation, which is distinct and separable from that of core ASD symptoms, with the latter characterized by hypoactivation in the social perception circuitry. These differential neurobiological markers may potentially serve as neural targets or predictors for interventions when treating disruptive behavior vs. core symptoms in ASD.

16.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 52: 108-123, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to problems with attention and hyperactivity, children with ADHD present with poor organizational skills required for managing time and materials in academic projects. Organizational skills training (OST) has been increasingly used to address these deficits. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of OST in children with ADHD. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence of the effects of OST for children with ADHD for organizational skills, attention, and academic performance. METHODS: We searched 3 electronic databases to locate randomized controlled trials published in English in peer-reviewed journals comparing OST with parent education, treatment-as-usual, or waitlist control conditions. Standardized mean difference effect sizes from the studies were statistically combined using a random-effects meta-analyses across six outcomes: teacher- and parent-rated organizational skills, teacher- and parent-rated inattention, teacher-rated academic performance, and Grade Point Average (GPA). Risk of bias was assessed for randomization, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and treatment personnel, blinding of outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data, and selective outcome reporting. RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 1054 children (576 treatment, 478 control) were included in the meta-analyses. Weighted mean effect sizes for teacher- and parent-rated outcome measures of organizational skills were g=0.54 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.91) and g=0.83 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.34), respectively. Weighted mean effect sizes of teacher- and parent-rated symptoms of inattention were g=0.26 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.52) and g=0.56 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.74), respectively. Weighted standardized mean effect size for teacher-rated academic performance and GPA were g=0.33 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.51) and g=0.29 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.51), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: OST leads to moderate improvements in organizational skills of children with ADHD as rated by teachers and large improvements as rated by parents. More modest improvements were observed on the ratings of symptoms of inattention and academic performance. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42015019261).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Gerenciamento do Tempo/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Pais , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Res Autism Spectr Disord ; 43-44: 1-7, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29333196

RESUMO

Up to 40% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit co-occurring anxiety symptoms. Despite recent success in mitigating anxiety symptoms in school-aged children with ASD (mean age >9 years) using adapted versions of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, little is known about potential treatment outcomes for younger children. To address the gap in the literature, this open-label study evaluated change in anxiety following a 16-week open-label trial of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) in children with ASD aged 4-8 years. PRT is a behavioural treatment based on the principles of Applied Behaviour Analysis and has a primary aim of increasing social communication skills in children with ASD through natural reinforcements. To minimise conflation of anxiety and other co-occurring symptoms such as disruptive behaviour and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, we measured anxiety using the autism anxiety subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI) devised by Sukhodolsky et al. (2008). We observed significant anxiety reduction over 16-weeks of PRT. Furthermore, anxiety reduction was independent of changes in autism symptom severity. This study shows promising results for PRT as an intervention for reducing anxiety in young children with ASD.

18.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 45(6): 1235-1245, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27917460

RESUMO

We conducted a 6 month, randomized trial of parent training (PT) versus a parent education program (PEP) in 180 young children (158 boys, 22 girls), ages 3-7 years, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PT was superior to PEP in decreasing disruptive and noncompliant behaviors. In the current study, we assess moderators of treatment response in this trial. Thirteen clinical and demographic variables were evaluated as potential moderators of three outcome variables: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale (ABC-I), Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ), and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (CGI-I). We used an intent-to-treat model and random effects regression. Neither IQ nor ASD severity moderated outcome on the selected outcome measures. Severity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety moderated outcomes on the ABC-I and HSQ. For instance, there was a 6.6 point difference on the ABC-I between high and low ADHD groups (p = .05) and a 5.3 point difference between high and low Anxiety groups (p = .04). Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms and household income moderated outcomes on the HSQ. None of the baseline variables moderated outcome on the CGI-I. That IQ and ASD symptom severity did not moderate outcome suggests that PT is likely to benefit a wide range of children with ASD and disruptive behavior.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/reabilitação , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/reabilitação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Comportamento Infantil , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Comportamento Problema , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Trauma Stress ; 29(5): 406-414, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602880

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, and anger in street children by a randomized controlled trial of CBT versus a waitlist control. It was conducted in 8 residential facilities for street children in Mexico City, with assessments at baseline, posttreatment, and 3 months later. Children who reported at least moderate posttraumatic stress, and fulfilled the study requirement were enrolled in the study (N = 100, 12-18 years old, 36 boys). There were 51 children randomized to CBT and 49 to the waitlist condition. Randomization was stratified by gender. CBT consisted of 12 individual 1-hour sessions administered weekly by 2 trained, master's-level clinicians. Outcome measures included self-reports of PTS, depression, anxiety, and anger; global improvement was assessed by the independent evaluator. Compared to participants in the waitlist condition participants in CBT showed a significant reduction in all symptoms, with effects sizes of 1.73 to 1.75. At follow up there was attrition (n = 36), and no change from posttreatment scores. The study did find statistically significant improvement in symptoms in the CBT group compared to the waitlist condition; symptoms remained stable at 3 months. The study found that CBT for trauma in a sample of street children provided a reduction of a broad range of mental health symptoms.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adolescente , Ira , Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 55(7): 602-609.e3, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27343887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of parent training on adaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. METHODS: This was a 24-week, 6-site, randomized trial of parent training versus parent education in 180 children with ASD (aged 3-7 years; 158 boys and 22 girls) and moderate or greater behavioral problems. Parent training included specific strategies to manage disruptive behavior over 11 to 13 sessions, 2 telephone boosters, and 2 home visits. Parent education provided useful information about autism but no behavior management strategies over 12 core sessions and 1 home visit. In a previous report, we showed that parent training was superior to parent education in reducing disruptive behavior in young children with ASD. Here, we test whether parent training is superior to parent education in improving daily living skills as measured by the parent-rated Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II. The long-term impact of parent training on adaptive functioning is also presented. RESULTS: At week 24, the parent training group showed a 5.7-point improvement from baseline on the Daily Living domain compared to no change in parent education (p = .004; effect size = 0.36). On the Socialization domain, there was a 5.9-point improvement in parent training versus a 3.1-point improvement in parent education (p = .11; effect size = 0.29). Gains in the Communication domain were similar across treatment groups. The gain in Daily Living was greater in children with IQ of >70. However, the interaction of treatment-by-IQ was not significant. Gains in Daily Living at week 24 were maintained upon re-evaluation at 24 weeks posttreatment. CONCLUSION: These results support the model that reduction in disruptive behavior can lead to improvement in activities of daily living. By contrast, the expected trajectory for adaptive behavior in children with ASD is often flat and predictably declines in children with intellectual disability. In the parent training group, higher-functioning children achieved significant gains in daily living skills. Children with intellectual disability kept pace with time. Clinical trial registration information-Randomized Trial of Parent Training for Young Children With Autism (RUBI); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01233414.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Pais/educação , Comportamento Problema , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Educação não Profissionalizante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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