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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The chronic phase of Chagas disease (CD) is characterised by a low and intermittent parasitaemia. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) presents a variable sensitivity in this stage limiting its use as a diagnostic tool. Despite this, the use of PCR in untreated patients can provide information on the parasite behaviour and its presence in peripheral blood. METHODS: A timely real-time PCR determination was performed on a cohort of 495 untreated chronic CD patients. Also, a subcohort of 29 patients was followed-up by serial real-time PCR during a period from 8 to 12 months in which they could not have access to the treatment due to lack of supply. RESULTS: The positive percentage of real-time PCR in our series was 42%. Nevertheless, real-time PCR positive results were significantly higher in patients with five years or less of residence in Spain (P=.041). The detection of DNA was not related to the existence of cardiac and/or gastrointestinal abnormalities. In the follow-up subgroup, real-time PCR was consistently positive in 13.8% of patients, consistently negative in 31%, and intermittent in 55.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The different real-time PCR results regarding the time of residence suggests the possible relationship of external factors in the parasite presence in peripheral blood. On the other hand, specific host factors may be involved in the behaviour of parasitaemia over time.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008067, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antitrypanosomal treatment with Benznidazole (BZ) or Nifurtimox may be recommended for patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD) to reduce the onset or progression of symptoms. However, such treatment has limited efficacy and high level of toxic effects. In addition, the current cure biomarker (serology conversion) precludes any treatment assessment unless a prolonged follow-up is arranged. PCR is thus the most useful, alternative surrogate marker for evaluating responses to treatment. The aim of this study is to describe the usefulness of real-time PCR in monitoring BZ treatment within a large cohort of chronic CD cases in Barcelona. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 370 chronic CD patients were monitored with real-time PCR post-BZ treatment. The median follow-up was 4 years (IQR 2.2-5.3y), with a median of 3 clinical visits (IQR 2-4). Only 8 patients (2.2%) presented with at least one incident of positive real-time PCR after treatment and were therefore considered as treatment failure. Four of those failure patients had completed full course treatment, whereas the remaining cases had defaulted with a statistical difference between both groups (p = 0.02). Half of the failure patients had undergone less than 4 years of follow-up monitoring all presented with parasitemia before treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BZ treatment failure was highly infrequent in our cohort. BZ discontinuation was a risk factor for positive real-time PCR results during clinical follow-up. Regular testing with real-time PCR during follow-up allows for early detection of treatment failure in patients with chronic CD.

3.
J Trop Pediatr ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951264

RESUMO

Diagnosis of congenital malaria is complicated by the low density of the parasite circulating in the cord blood and/or the peripheral blood of the newborns. Molecular techniques are significantly more sensitive than blood smears in detecting low-level parasitemia. This study investigated the prevalence of congenital malaria by the use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) in 102 babies born to mothers with microscopically confirmed infected placenta from Blue Nile state, Sudan. At delivery time, placental, maternal peripheral and cord blood samples in addition to samples collected from the newborns' peripheral blood were examined for malaria infection using Giemsa-stained thick smear and parasite DNA detection by real-time PCR. The overall prevalence of congenital malaria includes the total babies with cord blood parasitaemia and peripheral blood parasitaemia was 18.6 and 56.8% using microscopy and real-time PCR, respectively. Even though all the neonates were aparasitaemic by microscopy, 19 (18.6%) of the babies had congenital malaria detected by real-time PCR, 15 (25.9%) of the babies with congenital malaria were born to mothers with both placental and peripheral blood malaria infections detected using the two techniques. Congenital malaria was significantly associated with cord blood malaria infections, maternal age and maternal haemoglobin level (p < 0.001). This first study investigating congenital malaria in Blue Nile state, Sudan shows that malaria-infected placenta resulted in infant and cord blood infections.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 159-163, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701864

RESUMO

It is known that the immunoregulatory networks in human Chagas disease play a key role in parasitemia control during the acute phase. However, little is known regarding the control of parasitemia during the chronic phase. The aim of the study was to describe the serum cytokine profile of Trypanosoma cruzi chronically infected patients and to evaluate its relationship with the presence or absence of parasitemia in peripheral blood. This is a prospective observational study where adult Chagas disease patients were included. Patients previously treated for Chagas disease, pregnant women, and immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Demographic and clinical information was collected, and T. cruzi real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serum cytokine profile were determined in peripheral blood. Forty-five patients were included. Trypanosoma cruzi RT-PCR in peripheral blood resulted positive in 19 (42.2%) patients. No differences in the serum cytokine profile were found depending on cardiac or digestive involvement. However, patients with positive T. cruzi RT-PCR had a higher median concentration of IL-10 and IL-1beta and a lower median concentration of IL-8 than those with negative T. cruzi PCR. These results reinforce the key role that this anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) plays in parasitemia control.

5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 150: 111925, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818756

RESUMO

Malaria, a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium parasites and transmitted through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitos, is one of the main causes of mortality in many developing countries. Over 200 million new infections and nearly half a million deaths are reported each year, and more than three billion people are at risk of acquiring malaria worldwide. Nevertheless, most malaria cases could be cured if detected early. Malaria eradication is a top priority of the World Health Organisation. However, achieving this goal will require mass population screening and treatment, which will be hard to accomplish with current diagnostic tools. We report an electrochemical point-of-care device for the fast, simple and quantitative detection of Plasmodiumfalciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in whole blood samples. Sample analysis includes 5-min lysis to release intracellular parasites, and stirring for 5 more min with immuno-modified magnetic beads (MB) along with an immuno-modified signal amplifier. The rest of the magneto-immunoassay, including sample filtration, MB washing and electrochemical detection, is performed at a disposable paper electrode microfluidic device. The sensor provides PfLDH quantitation down to 2.47 ng mL-1 in spiked samples and for 0.006-1.5% parasitemias in Plasmodium-infected cultured red blood cells, and discrimination between healthy individuals and malaria patients presenting parasitemias >0.3%. Quantitative malaria diagnosis is attained with little user intervention, which is not achieved by other diagnostic methods.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(1): 150-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674901

RESUMO

Most human hantavirus infections occur in Asia, but some cases have been described in Europe in travelers returning from Asia. We describe a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a previously healthy traveler occurring shortly after he returned to Spain from Nepal. Serologic tests suggested a Puumala virus-like infection.

8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide information regarding the prevalence of strongyloidiasis among migrants coming from Strongyloides stercoralis-endemic areas who reside in Spain. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies showing prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among migrants from Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia and Oceania who reside in Spain. We included articles published until 30 April 2019 without language restriction. The keywords used for the search included 'Strongyloides stercoralis', 'strongyloidiasis', 'Spain', 'screening' and 'migrants'. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included in the review and meta-analysis, comprising 12 386 screened people. Eleven studies (7020 patients) evaluated the presence of S. stercoralis infection only through investigation of larvae in faeces, showing an overall prevalence of 1% (95%CI 1-1%). Thirteen studies (5366 patients) used a serological test, showing an overall prevalence of 14% (95%CI 11-17%). Strongyloidiasis seroprevalence was 20% (95%CI 15-24%) among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, 14% (95%CI 10-18%) among those from Latin America and 8% (95%CI 5-11%) among migrants from North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Migrants coming from strongyloidiasis-endemic areas living in Spain had a high S. stercoralis infection prevalence, particularly those from sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. This population should be screened using serology as the most sensitive test for S. stercoralis infection. This could be easily implemented at primary care level.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 956, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current available treatments (benznidazole and nifurtimox) for Chagas disease (CD) show limited efficacy in chronic phase and frequent undesirable effects. Ergosterol synthesis inhibitors (ESI) had been considered as promising drugs for CD treatment and despite its recent poor results in several clinical trials, different strategies have been proposed to optimize its role in this infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of chronic Chagas disease in patient diagnosed with HIV who received treatment for histoplasmosis with itraconazol during twelve months. Even though T. cruzi rt-PCR was persistently negative during treatment, when itraconazol was stopped she presented with a positive blood rt-PCR. CONCLUSION: Several studies using different ESI had been published for CD treatment. Either in vitro or in vivo assays demonstrated activity against T. cruzi of the different triazole derivatives so different clinical trials had been carried out to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Despite contradictory evidence in the animal model, longer treatments along with other treatment strategies previously proposed suggests that ESI failure rates in positive peripheral blood rt-PCR are higher than that obtained with the current treatments of choice.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 1099-1108, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512516

RESUMO

Aim: To describe the molecular types of Treponema pallidum and the proportion of macrolide and tetracycline resistance mutations in Barcelona. Materials & methods: Molecular type was determined using the Enhanced-CDC Typing system and antibiotic resistance was determined by sequencing the 23S and 16S rRNA genes. Results: A total of 183 patients were enrolled and 213 specimens (99 ulcers, 114 bloods) were collected. Sixty-two (70.5%) of 88 ulcers and 0 (0%) of bloods T. pallidum-DNA containing samples were fully typed. Up to 21 different strain types were identified (14d/g in 27.4%; 14f/g in 14.5%). Macrolide resistance mutations were present in 95% and tetracycline in 0%. Conclusion: Several different strains co-exist in Barcelona with a high proportion of macrolide resistance and absence of tetracycline resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Tipagem Molecular , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Treponema pallidum/classificação , Treponema pallidum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha/epidemiologia , Sífilis/microbiologia , Treponema pallidum/genética , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(6): 1388-1391, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549611

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major problem worldwide. In addition, the spectrum of STIs is now expanding, including parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections. The study retrospectively describes the presence of enteric pathogens among 73 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms of enteritis and proctocolitis attending to an STI unit in Barcelona, Spain, between 2015 and 2016. Only patients investigated for intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Different diagnostic procedures were established for the detection of parasites, bacterial enteropathogens, and other STI agents. Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent pathogen in our cohort (20.5%), especially among individuals with proctocolitis. Contrarily, Giardia intestinalis was detected in 11.0% of patients, only associated with enteritis cases. Polymicrobial infections were common in our study (45.2%). Of note, 55.6% of shigellosis cases were coinfected with E. histolytica. The investigation highlights the importance of including parasites as differential gastrointestinal diagnosis, disregarding travel history, particularly among risk populations.

13.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105120, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376368

RESUMO

Chagas disease has become a global health problem due to migration of infected people out of Latin America to non-endemic countries. For more than 40 years, only the nitroimidazole compounds Benznidazole and Nifurtimox, have been used for specific treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with disappointing results, specially due to the long duration of treatment and adverse events in the chronic phase. In the last years, ergosterol inhibitors have been also proposed for specific treatment. Different randomized clinical trials were performed for evaluating their treatment efficacy and safety. One of the greatest concerns in clinical trials is to provide an early surrogate biomarker of response to trypanocidal chemotherapy. Serological response is slow and the classical parasitological tests have poor sensitivity and are time-consuming. Nowadays, PCR is the most helpful tool for assessing treatment response in a short period of time. Different protocols of PCR have been developed, being quantitative real time PCR based on amplification of repetitive satellite or minicircle DNA sequences plus an internal amplification standard, the mostly employed strategies in clinical trials. Standardized protocols and the use of an external quality assessment ensure adequate technical procedures and reliable data. Clinical trials have shown a significant reduction in parasite loads, reaching undetectable DNA levels in bloodstream after specific treatment, however events of treatment failure have also been reported. Treatment failure could be due to inadequate penetrance of the drugs into the affected tissues, to the presence of primary or secondary drug resistance of the infecting strains as well as to the existence of dormant parasite variants reluctant to drug action. The early diagnosis of drug resistance would improve clinical management of Chagas disease patients, allowing dictating alternative therapies with a combination of existing drugs or new anti-T. cruzi agents. The aim of this review was to describe the usefulness of detecting T.cruzi DNA by means of real time PCR assays, as surrogate biomarker in clinical trials for evaluating new drugs for CD or new regimens of available drugs and the possibility to detect treatment failure.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/terapia , Ácidos Nucleicos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Nifurtimox/farmacologia , Nifurtimox/uso terapêutico , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Carga Parasitária , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007708, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers are recognized as a risk factor for reactivation of granulomatous infections. Leishmaniasis has been associated with the use of these drugs, although few cases have been reported. METHODOLOGY: We performed a retrospective observational study including patients with confirmed leishmaniasis acquired in the Mediterranean basin that were under TNF-α blockers therapy at the moment of the diagnosis. Patients diagnosed in our hospital from 2008 to 2018 were included. Moreover, a systematic review of the literature was performed and cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were also included. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-nine patients were analyzed including nine cases from our series. Twenty-seven (55.1%) cases were male and median age was 55 years. Twenty-five (51%) patients were under infliximab treatment, 20 (40.8%) were receiving adalimumab, 2 (4.1%) etanercept, one (2%) golimumab and one (2%) a non-specified TNF-α blocker. Regarding clinical presentation, 28 (57.1%) presented as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), 16 (32.6%) as visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and 5 (10.2%) as mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). All VL and MCL patients were treated with systemic therapies. Among CL patients, 13 (46.4%) were treated with a systemic drug (11 received L-AmB, one intramuscular antimonials and one miltefosine) while 14 (50%) patients were given local treatment (13 received intralesional pentavalent antimonials, and one excisional surgery). TNF-α blockers were interrupted in 32 patients (65.3%). After treatment 5 patients (10.2%) relapsed. Four patients with a CL (3 initially treated with local therapy maintaining TNF-α blockers and one treated with miltefosine) and one patient with VL treated with L-AmB maintaining TNF-α blockers. CONCLUSIONS: This data supports the assumption that the blockage of TNF-α modifies clinical expression of leishmaniasis in endemic population modulating the expression of the disease leading to atypical presentations. According to the cases reported, the best treatment strategy would be a systemic drug and the discontinuation of the TNF-α blockers therapy until clinical resolution.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Leishmaniose/patologia , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
15.
Euro Surveill ; 24(26)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266591

RESUMO

BackgroundChagas disease is endemic in Latin America and affects 8 million people worldwide. In 2010, Catalonia introduced systematic public health surveillance to detect and treat congenital Chagas disease.AimThe objective was to evaluate the health outcomes of the congenital Chagas disease screening programme during the first 6 years (2010-2015) after its introduction in Catalonia.MethodsIn a surveillance system, we screened pregnant women and newborns and other children of positive mothers, and treated Chagas-positive newborns and children. Diagnosis was confirmed for pregnant women and children with two positive serological tests and for newborns with microhaematocrit and/or PCR at birth or serology at age 9 months.ResultsFrom 2010 to 2015, the estimated screening coverage rate increased from 68.4% to 88.6%. In this period, 33,469 pregnant women were tested for Trypanosoma cruzi and 937 positive cases were diagnosed. The overall prevalence was 2.8 cases per 100 pregnancies per year (15.8 in Bolivian women). We followed 82.8% of newborns until serological testing at age 9-12 months and 28 were diagnosed with Chagas disease (congenital transmission rate: 4.17%). Of 518 siblings, 178 (34.3%) were tested and 14 (7.8%) were positive for T. cruzi. Having other children with Chagas disease and the heart clinical form of Chagas disease were maternal risk factors associated with congenital T. cruzi infection (p < 0.05).ConclusionThe increased screening coverage rate indicates consolidation of the programme in Catalonia. The rate of Chagas disease congenital transmission in Catalonia is in accordance with the range in non-endemic countries.

16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(3): 502-509, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333153

RESUMO

Treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is associated with adverse events (AE). Patients treated with an MDR TB regimen in Hospital Nossa Senhora da Paz, Cubal, Angola, were prospectively enrolled from May 2013 to July 2015. Baseline characteristics, AE, and clinical and microbiological outcomes were recorded. A total of 216 patients were treated with an MDR TB regimen and 179 (82.9%) patients developed at least one AE. The most common AE were elevation of liver enzymes (46.8% of patients), elevated creatinine (44.4% of patients), and ototoxicity (40.7% of patients). Previous TB treatment was associated with the occurrence of AE (OR 4.89, 95% CI: 2.09-11.46, P < 0.001) and months on treatment was associated to severe AE (OR 1.11 95% CI: 1.04-1.18, P = 0.001). Successful treatment was achieved in 117 (54.2%) patients. Incidence of AE was associated with an unsuccessful outcome (OR 1.23, 95% CI: 1.09-1.40, P = 0.001). Patients treated with MDR TB treatment frequently experience AE, and these are related with previous TB treatment and duration of treatment. Given the high percentage of patients experiencing AE and the low treatment success rates, more effective and less toxic drugs to treat MDR TB are urgently needed.

17.
J Community Health ; 44(4): 704-711, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222620

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CHD) has become a challenge in Spain due to the high prevalence of immigrants coming from endemic areas. One of the main difficulties for its control and elimination is its underdiagnosis. The identification and integral treatment of CHD are key to increasing rates of diagnosis, overcoming psycho-social barriers and avoiding CHD progression. Community interventions with in situ screening have proven to be a useful tool in detecting CHD among those with difficulties accessing health services. To determine the underdiagnosis rate of the population most susceptible to CHD among those attending two different Bolivian cultural events celebrated in Barcelona; to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of the people screened; and to analyse the results of the screening. The community interventions were carried out at two Bolivian cultural events held in Barcelona in 2017. Participants were recruited through community health agents. A questionnaire was given to determine the participants' prior knowledge of CHD. In situ screening was offered to those who had not previously been screened. Those who did not wish to be screened were asked for the reason behind their decision. Results were gathered in a database and statistical analyses were performed using STATA v14. 635 interviews were carried out. 95% of the subjects reported prior knowledge of CHD. 271 subjects were screened: 71.2% women and 28.8% men, of whom 87.8% were of Bolivian origin. The prevalence of CHD was 8.9%. Community health interventions with in situ screening are essential to facilitating access to diagnosis.

18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007399, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported strongyloidiasis is increasingly being diagnosed in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with imported strongyloidiasis in Spain. METHODOLOGY: This is an observational retrospective study that included all patients diagnosed of strongyloidiasis registered in the +REDIVI Collaborative Network from 2009 to 2017. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical information was collected from the +REDIVI database, and extra information regarding microbiological techniques, treatment and follow-up was requested to participant centers. FINDINGS: Overall, 1245 cases were included. Most of them were immigrants (66.9%), and South America was the most frequent area of origin. Detection of larvae in stool samples was observed in 21.9% of the patients, and serological tests allowed making the diagnosis in the rest of the cases. Eosinophilia was present in 82.2% of cases. Treatment with ivermectin (compared with albendazole) was the most strongly associated factor to achieve the cure (OR 2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Given the long latency of the infection and the risk of developing a severe presentation, screening of S. stercoralis infection should be mandatory in patients coming from or had traveling to endemic areas, especially in those with immunosuppressant conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , América do Sul , Espanha/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloides stercoralis/fisiologia , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15532, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused one of the most challenging global infectious epidemics in recent years because of its causal association with severe microcephaly and other congenital malformations. The diagnosis of viral infections usually relies on the detection of virus proteins or genetic material in clinical samples as well as on the infected host immune responses. Serial serologic testing is required for the diagnosis of congenital infection when diagnostic molecular biology is not possible. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 2-year-old girl, born to a mother with confirmed ZIKV infection during pregnancy, with a confirmed ZIKV infection in utero, showed at birth a severe microcephaly and clinical characteristics of fetal brain disruption sequence compatible with a congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZS). DIAGNOSIS: ZIKV-RNA and ZIKV-IgM serological response performed at birth and during the follow-up time tested always negative. Serial serologic ZIKV-IgG tests were performed to assess the laboratory ZIKV diagnosis, ZIKV-IgG seroreversion was observed at 21 months of age. ZIKV diagnosis of this baby had to be relied on her clinical and radiological characteristics that were compatible with a CZS. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was followed-up as per protocol at approximately 1, 4, 9, 12, 18-21, and 24 months of age. Neurological, radiological, audiological, and ophthalmological assessment were performed during this period of time. Prompt rehabilitation was initiated to prevent potential adverse long-term neurological outcomes. OUTCOMES: The growth of this girl showed a great restriction at 24 months of age with a weight of 8.5 kg (-2.5 z-score) and a head circumference of 40.5 cm (-4.8 z-score). She also had a great neurodevelopmental delay at the time of this report. CONCLUSION: We presume that as a consequence of prenatal ZIKV infection, the fetal brain and other organs are damaged before birth through direct injury. Following this, active infection ends during intrauterine life, and as a consequence the immune system of the infant is unable to build up a consistent immune response thereafter. Further understanding of the mechanisms taking part in the pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital infection is needed. This finding might change our paradigm regarding serological response in the ZIKV congenital infection.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Microcefalia/etiologia , Gravidez , Testes Sorológicos , Espanha , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 260, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a protozoan infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease has a chronic course in which 20-30% of the patients would develop progressive damage to the cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tube. We are still unable to predict who will develop end-organ damage but there are some acquired and genetic risk factors already known. RESULTS: We reviewed data from 833 patients with serologically confirmed Chagas disease in this retrospective study. Patients were classified as siblings or non-siblings (controls) and the results of pre-treatment blood PCR assay, end-organ damage (cardiac and/or gastrointestinal), and the presence of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin involvement in patients treated with benznidazole were analyzed. Siblings were grouped by family and we randomly generated groups of 2 or 3 persons with the remaining controls. We classified the results of each variable as concordant or discordant and compared the concordance in these results among the sibling groups with that among control groups. We identified 71 groups of siblings and randomly generated 299 groups of non-related patients. Pre-treatment blood PCR concordance was significantly higher (19%) among siblings compared to controls (P = 0.02), probably due to a higher frequency in pre-treatment positive results. No other statistically significant differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: A significant difference was found in the concordance of pre-treatment blood PCR for T. cruzi among siblings compared to non-related controls.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/etnologia , Doença de Chagas/genética , Irmãos , Adulto , Bolívia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/etiologia , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi
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