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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prophylactic antibiotics (PA) and immunoglobulin replacement (IGRT) are commonly used in specific antibody deficiency (SAD); however, optimal treatment is not well-established. Our purpose is to compare treatment outcomes with IGRT and/or PA among SAD patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of SAD patients treated at two tertiary centers between January 2012 and May 2017 was performed. Clinical and laboratory data, and rates of infections prior to and after treatment with IGRT or PA were analyzed. Descriptive analyses, between-group comparisons of rates of infection after 1 year of treatment, and a stepwise logistic regression model were employed to explore factors contributing to treatment outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 65 SAD patients with mean age were 18 years (2-71 years). The baseline mean number of infections in the PA group and IGRT group was 4.71 (SD 3.15) and 7.73 (SD 6.65), respectively. Twenty-nine (44.6%) received IGRT, 7 (10.7%) received PA, 7 (10.7%) received both IGRT and PA, 15 (23.1%) failed PA and switched to IGRT, and 7 did not receive any specific treatment. After 1 year of treatment, the difference in the mean number of infections in PA vs. IGRT was not statistically significant [2.86 (2.73) vs. 4.44 (4.74), p = 0.27]. Reporting autoimmunity increased the odds for persistent infections (OR = 4.29; p = 0.047), while higher IgG levels decreased the odds for persistent infections (OR = 0.68, p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: PA and IGRT are equally effective as first line in preventing infections in SAD patients. However, patients who fail PA would benefit from IGRT.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568798

RESUMO

Genetic testing has become an integral component of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases. Results of genetic testing can have a profound effect on clinical management decisions. Therefore clinical providers must demonstrate proficiency in interpreting genetic data. Because of the need for increased knowledge regarding this practice, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee established a work group that reviewed and summarized information concerning appropriate methods, tools, and resources for evaluating variants identified by genetic testing. Strengths and limitations of tests frequently ordered by clinicians were examined. Summary statements and tables were then developed to guide the interpretation process. Finally, the need for research and collaboration was emphasized. Greater understanding of these important concepts will improve the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency diseases.

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(10): e1008080, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658304

RESUMO

Rubella viruses (RV) have been found in an association with granulomas in children with primary immune deficiencies (PID). Here, we report the recovery and characterization of infectious immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella viruses (iVDRV) from diagnostic skin biopsies of four patients. Sequence evolution within PID hosts was studied by comparison of the complete genomic sequences of the iVDRVs with the genome of the vaccine virus RA27/3. The degree of divergence of each iVDRV correlated with the duration of persistence indicating continuous intrahost evolution. The evolution rates for synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions were estimated to be 5.7 x 10-3 subs/site/year and 8.9 x 10-4 subs/site/year, respectively. Mutational spectra and signatures indicated a major role for APOBEC cytidine deaminases and a secondary role for ADAR adenosine deaminases in generating diversity of iVDRVs. The distributions of mutations across the genes and 3D hotspots for amino acid substitutions in the E1 glycoprotein identified regions that may be under positive selective pressure. Quasispecies diversity was higher in granulomas than in recovered infectious iVDRVs. Growth properties of iVDRVs were assessed in WI-38 fibroblast cultures. None of the iVDRV isolates showed complete reversion to wild type phenotype but the replicative and persistence characteristics of iVDRVs were different from those of the RA27/3 vaccine strain, making predictions of iVDRV transmissibility and teratogenicity difficult. However, detection of iVDRV RNA in nasopharyngeal specimen and poor neutralization of some iVDRV strains by sera from vaccinated persons suggests possible public health risks associated with iVDRV carriers. Detection of IgM antibody to RV in sera of two out of three patients may be a marker of virus persistence, potentially useful for identifying patients with iVDRV before development of lesions. Studies of the evolutionary dynamics of iVDRV during persistence will contribute to development of infection control strategies and antiviral therapies.

4.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insight into the pathogenesis of very early onset-inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) has expanded through the identification of causative monogenic defects detected in a subset of patients. However, the clinical course of this population remains uncertain. The study objective is to determine whether VEO-IBD is associated with more severe disease, defined as increased surgical intervention and growth failure, than older pediatric IBD. Secondary outcomes included therapeutic response and hospitalizations. METHODS: Subjects with IBD diagnosed younger than 6 years old (VEO-IBD) were compared with children diagnosed 6 to 10 (intermediate-onset) and older than 10 years of age (older-onset IBD). Metadata obtained from the medical record included age of onset, disease phenotype and location, surgeries, medical therapy, and comorbid conditions. Length of follow-up was at least 1 year from diagnosis. RESULTS: There were 229, 221, and 521 subjects with VEO, intermediate-onset, and older-onset IBD, respectively. Very early onset-inflammatory bowel disease subjects underwent more diverting ileostomies (P < 0.001) and colectomies (P < 0.001) than the older children. There was less improvement in weight- and height-for-age Z scores during the follow-up period in subjects with VEO-IBD. Additionally, subjects with VEO-IBD had higher rates of medication failure at 1 year and were more frequently readmitted to the hospital. Targeted therapy was successfully used almost exclusively in VEO-IBD. CONCLUSION: Patients with VEO-IBD can have a more severe disease course with increased surgical interventions and poor growth as compared with older-onset IBD patients. Further, VEO-IBD patients are more likely to be refractory to conventional therapies. Strategies using targeted therapy in these children can improve outcome and, in some cases, be curative.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although chiefly a B-lymphocyte disorder, several research groups have identified common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) subjects with numeric and/or functional TH cell alterations. The causes, interrelationships, and consequences of CVID-associated CD4+ T-cell derangements to hypogammaglobulinemia, autoantibody production, or both remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine how circulating CD4+ T cells are altered in CVID subjects with autoimmune cytopenias (AICs; CVID+AIC) and the causes of these derangements. METHODS: Using hypothesis-generating, high-dimensional single-cell analyses, we created comprehensive phenotypic maps of circulating CD4+ T cells. Differences between subject groups were confirmed in a large and genetically diverse cohort of CVID subjects (n = 69) by using flow cytometry, transcriptional profiling, multiplex cytokine/chemokine detection, and a suite of in vitro functional assays measuring naive T-cell differentiation, B-cell/T-cell cocultures, and regulatory T-cell suppression. RESULTS: Although CD4+ TH cell profiles from healthy donors and CVID subjects without AICs were virtually indistinguishable, T cells from CVID+AIC subjects exhibited follicular features as early as thymic egress. Follicular skewing correlated with IgA deficiency-associated endotoxemia and endotoxin-induced expression of activin A and inducible T-cell costimulator ligand. The resulting enlarged circulating follicular helper T-cell population from CVID+AIC subjects provided efficient help to receptive healthy donor B cells but not unresponsive CVID B cells. Despite this, circulating follicular helper T cells from CVID+AIC subjects exhibited aberrant transcriptional profiles and altered chemokine/cytokine receptor expression patterns that interfered with regulatory T-cell suppression assays and were associated with autoantibody production. CONCLUSIONS: Endotoxemia is associated with early commitment to the follicular T-cell lineage in IgA-deficient CVID subjects, particularly those with AICs.

8.
Allergy ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline-encoded innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are expressed at epithelial surfaces and modulate epithelial defenses. Evidence suggests that stimulation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of PRR may regulate epithelial barrier integrity by upregulating tight junction (TJ) complex protein expression, but it is not known whether this mechanism is utilized in esophageal epithelial cells. TJ complex proteins maintain intact barrier function and are dysregulated in atopic disorders including eosinophilic esophagitis. METHODS: Pattern recognition receptors expression was assessed in EoE and control primary esophageal epithelial cells, demonstrating robust expression of TLR2 and TLR3. The three-dimensional air-liquid interface culture (ALI) model was used to test whether TLR2 or TLR3 stimulation alters epithelial barrier function using an in vitro model of human epithelium. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and FITC-Dextran permeability were evaluated to assess membrane permeability. ALI cultures were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). RESULTS: TLR3 stimulation did not change TEER in the ALI model. TLR2 stimulation increased TEER (1.28- to 1.31-fold) and decreased paracellular permeability to FITC-Dextran, and this effect was abolished by treatment with anti-TLR2 blocking antibody. TJ complex proteins claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 were upregulated following TLR2 stimulation, and ChIP assay demonstrated altered histone 4 acetyl binding at the TJP1 enhancer and CLDN1 enhancer and promoter following zymosan treatment, implying the occurrence of durable chromatin changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implicate the TLR2 pathway as a potential regulator of esophageal epithelial barrier function and suggest that downstream chromatin modifications are associated with this effect.

9.
J Exp Med ; 216(6): 1255-1267, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040184

RESUMO

The pleiotropic actions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) are essential for regulation of immune responses and maintenance of immune tolerance. The IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) is composed of IL-2Rα, IL-2Rß, and IL-2Rγ subunits, with defects in IL-2Rα and IL-2Rγ and their downstream signaling effectors resulting in known primary immunodeficiency disorders. Here, we report the first human defect in IL-2Rß, occurring in two infant siblings with a homozygous IL2RB mutation in the WSXWS motif, manifesting as multisystem autoimmunity and susceptibility to CMV infection. The hypomorphic mutation results in diminished IL-2Rß surface expression and dysregulated IL-2/15 signaling, with an anticipated reduction in regulatory T cells. However, in contrast to the IL-2Rß-/- animal model, which lacks NK cells, these siblings demonstrate an expansion of NK cells, particularly the CD56bright subset, and a lack of terminally differentiated NK cells. Thus, the early-onset autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are linked to functional deficits arising from altered IL-2Rß expression and signaling in T and NK cells.

10.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-12, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104557

RESUMO

Objectives: Prolactin is known to be associated with autoimmune disease; however, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Previous studies have highlighted the effects on B-cell tolerance and monocyte/macrophage activation. One study found that prolactin could activate IRF1, a transcription factor implicated in SLE and interferon responses. We hypothesized that prolactin elicited transcriptional regulation though an epigenetic process related to IRF1 activation in monocytes. This study examined IRF1 activation and downstream epigenetic effects. Methods: Protein analysis, qRT-PCR, and ChIP assays were used in a human monocytic cell line and primary monocytes to define changes related to acute and chronic prolactin exposure. Results: We found that prolactin acutely induced both expression and activation of IRF1. Prolactin induced interactions of IRF1 with the histone acetyltransferase co-activators CBP and p300. Chronic prolactin induced expression of multiple histone modifying proteins and genes within the interferon signature suggesting that the prolonged exposure to prolactin resets the landscape and balance of chromatin modifying enzymes. Conclusion: These data provide insight into the mechanism of the association of prolactin with autoimmunity. We found effects at the level of epigenetics, an area not previously explored. Our data support a role for chronic prolactin regulating the expression of genes setting the landscape of chromatin modifying enzymes and driving the interferon signature. This novel finding is of relevance in systemic lupus erythematosus, where clinical effects of hyperprolactinemia have been recognized.

12.
Dev Cell ; 49(1): 10-29, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930166

RESUMO

Single-cell gene expression analyses of mammalian tissues have uncovered profound stage-specific molecular regulatory phenomena that have changed the understanding of unique cell types and signaling pathways critical for lineage determination, morphogenesis, and growth. We discuss here the case for a Pediatric Cell Atlas as part of the Human Cell Atlas consortium to provide single-cell profiles and spatial characterization of gene expression across human tissues and organs. Such data will complement adult and developmentally focused HCA projects to provide a rich cytogenomic framework for understanding not only pediatric health and disease but also environmental and genetic impacts across the human lifespan.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Pediatria/tendências , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Distribuição Tecidual/genética
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 112-117, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nitazoxanide was recently reported as having in vitro effectiveness against the rubella virus. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella occurs in some patients who have an inherited immunodeficiency and who received the MMR vaccine. This study investigated the in vivo effectiveness of nitazoxanide therapy. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of seven patients treated with nitazoxanide as salvage therapy for immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella infection. The patients were recruited from an ongoing rubella detection surveillance project. RESULTS: Seven patients with persistent rubella were treated with nitazoxanide and one demonstrated significant clinical improvement. Two additional patients exhibited diminished viral capsid production with one patient having transient slowing of progression. The cohort overall generally had low T cell counts and had a high burden of comorbidities. There were three deaths. Two deaths were from PML and one was related to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Nitazoxanide has limited in vivo anti-viral effects for immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella. Most patients did not exhibit clinical improvement.


Assuntos
Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/efeitos dos fármacos , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/virologia , Vacinação/métodos
14.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/virologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Adolescente , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/genética , Cabelo/anormalidades , Cabelo/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/virologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

16.
Immunol Rev ; 287(1): 186-201, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565249

RESUMO

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. The effects are protean and highly variable, making a unified approach difficult. Nevertheless, commonalities have been identified and white papers with recommended evaluations and anticipatory guidance have been published. This review will cover the immune system in detail and discuss both the primary features and the secondary features related to thymic hypoplasia. A brief discussion of the other organ system involvement will be provided for context. The immune system, percolating throughout the body can impact the function of other organs through allergy or autoimmune disease affecting organs in deleterious manners. Our work has shown that the primary effect of thymic hypoplasia is to restrict T cell production. Subsequent homeostatic proliferation and perhaps other factors drive a Th2 polarization, most obvious in adulthood. This contributes to atopic risk in this population. Thymic hypoplasia also contributes to low regulatory T cells and this may be part of the overall increased risk of autoimmunity. Collectively, the effects are complex and often age-dependent. Future goals of improving thymic function or augmenting thymic volume may offer a direct intervention to ameliorate infections, atopy, and autoimmunity.

17.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 39(1): 63-79, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466773

RESUMO

The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease has changed over the past 4 decades. The incidence is rising dramatically and the age of onset has become younger. This changing landscape of inflammatory bowel disease reflects the new recognition that the youngest children with inflammatory bowel disease are enriched in cases with underlying primary immunodeficiency and monogenic causes. The management of these cases can be quite different, with specific genetic etiologies supporting unique interventions and some requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation for effective treatment.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2058-2069, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380191

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by recurrent, chromosome-specific, low copy repeat (LCR)-mediated copy-number losses of chromosome 22q11. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia has been involved in the clinical care of individuals with what is now known as 22q11.2DS since our initial report of the association with DiGeorge syndrome in 1982. We reviewed the medical records on our continuously growing longitudinal cohort of 1,421 patients with molecularly confirmed 22q11.2DS from 1992 to 2018. Most individuals are Caucasian and older than 8 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 3.9 years. The majority of patients (85%) had typical LCR22A-LCR22D deletions, and only 7% of these typical deletions were inherited from a parent harboring the deletion constitutionally. However, 6% of individuals harbored other nested deletions that would not be identified by traditional 22q11.2 FISH, thus requiring an orthogonal technology to diagnose. Major medical problems included immune dysfunction or allergies (77%), palatal abnormalities (67%), congenital heart disease (64%), gastrointestinal difficulties (65%), endocrine dysfunction (>50%), scoliosis (50%), renal anomalies (16%), and airway abnormalities. Median full-scale intelligence quotient was 76, with no significant difference between individuals with and without congenital heart disease or hypocalcemia. Characteristic dysmorphic facial features were present in most individuals, but dermatoglyphic patterns of our cohort are similar to normal controls. This is the largest longitudinal study of patients with 22q11.2DS, helping to further describe the condition and aid in diagnosis and management. Further surveillance will likely elucidate additional clinically relevant findings as they age.

20.
Mol Immunol ; 103: 312-321, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352365

RESUMO

We observed increased expression of ADAMDEC1 RNA in monocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The precise role of ADAMDEC1 is uncertain and uniquely among metalloproteinases it utilizes a zinc-coordinating aspartic acid residue which allows it to escape inhibition by tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-3 (TIMP-3). A closely related gene encodes the protein ADAM28, which is not up-regulated in lupus. We leveraged the ability to look at both gene's promoters and enhancers simultaneously. ADAMDEC1 was up-regulated by LPS while ADAM28 was not upregulated in the short term. We identified MAP kinases and NFκB as critical cell pathways regulating the expression of ADAMDEC1. These same pathways were implicated in driving the expression of the ADAMDEC1 upstream enhancer RNAs. We demonstrated that binding of the enhancer RNAs produced from the upstream enhancer were critically important and that p300 bound to both the RNA from the enhancer and the DNA at the enhancer. P300 binding to the enhancer was dependent on NFκB. These data define the critical pathways regulating the expression of ADAMDEC1 and extend our knowledge of the roles of enhancer RNAs and mechanistically links p300 and enhancer RNAs.

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