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1.
J Palliat Med ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826858

RESUMO

Background: Jordan faces complex health care challenges due to refugee influx and an aging population. Palliative care planning and delivery require data to ensure services respond to changing population needs. Objectives: To determine the trend in mortality and place of death in Jordan. Design: Population-based study. Setting/Subjects: Death registry data of adult decedents (n = 143,215), 2005-2016. Measurements: Descriptive statistics examined change in demographic and place of death (categorized as hospital and nonhospital). Binomial logistic regression compared the association between hospital deaths and demographic characteristics in 2008-2010, 2011-2013, and 2014-2016, with 2005-2007. Results: The annual number of deaths increased from 6792 in 2005 to 17,018 in 2016 (151% increase). Hospital was the most common place of death (93.7% of all deaths) in Jordan, and percentage of hospital deaths increased for Jordanian (82.6%-98.8%) and non-Jordanian decedents (88.1%-98.7%). There was an increased likelihood of hospital death among Jordanian decedents who died from nonischemic heart disease (odd ratio [OR]: 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.13, p < 0.001), atherosclerosis (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08-1.13, p < 0.001), renal failure (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08, p < 0.001), hemorrhagic fevers (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.13, p < 0.001), and injury (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.06-1.33, p < 0.001) in the period 2014-2016, compared with 2005-2007. There were similar increases in the likelihood of hospital death among non-Jordanians in 2014-2016 for the following conditions: malignant neoplasms (except leukemia), nonischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, injury, and HIV, compared with 2005-2007. Conclusions: Country-level palliative care development must respond to both internal (aging) and external (refugee influx) population trends. Universal Health Coverage requires palliative care to move beyond cancer and meet population-specific needs. Community-based services should be prioritized and expanded to care for the patients with nonischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, renal failure, hemorrhagic fevers, and injury.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891637

RESUMO

The 57 countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation are suffering from an increasing burden from mental health disorders. We investigated their research outputs during 2008-17 in the Web of Science in order to compare them with the burden from different mental health disorders and in different countries. The papers were identified with a complex filter based on title words and journals. Their addresses were parsed to give fractional country counts, show international collaboration, and also reveal country concentration on individual disorders and types of research. We found 17,920 papers in the decade, with output quadrupling. Foreign contributions accounted for 15% of addresses; they were from Europe (7%), Canada + USA (5%) and elsewhere (3%). They were much greater for Qatar and Uganda (> 60%), but less than 10% for Iran and Turkey. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were over-researched, but suicide and self-harm were seriously neglected, relative to their mental health disorder burdens. Although OIC research has been expanding rapidly, some countries have published little on this subject, perhaps because of stigma. Turkey collaborates relatively little internationally and as a result its papers received few citations. Among the large OIC countries, it has almost the highest relative mental health disorders burden, which is also growing rapidly.

4.
Palliat Med ; : 2692163211000236, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although palliative care is now an essential health service under Universal Health Coverage, ensuring access and appropriate care for refugees is a specific challenge for this large population. AIM: To identify the needs and experiences of adult refugees in Jordan with advanced cancer and informal caregivers. DESIGN: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Participants were purposively sampled at two Jordanian hospitals to achieve heterogeneity by age, gender, country of origin, and primary diagnosis. RESULTS: Twenty-nine refugees (22 patients, 7 caregivers) participated, and four themes were generated: (1) Psychological distress and sustaining social support. Refugees often experienced unmet psychosocial needs. However, psychosocial support was reported either absent or limited. (2) Knowledge and uncertainty. Lack of information and poor communication between healthcare providers and patients caused significant distress due to uncertainty. (3) Family anxiety and support roles. Being away from the home country cut patients and caregivers off from their wider social support network, which added increased anxiety and responsibilities to caregivers. (4) Compounded trauma and poverty. Many refugees have experienced trauma related to war that may affect their physical and mental health. They faced serious financial crises caused by the rising cost of medicines and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the impact of fractured families and networks on social support in advanced cancer, and the compounding trauma of the disease for refugees. Detailed person-centred assessment and emphasis on psychosocial support is essential, and home-based care should not presume community support for patients to remain at home.

5.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 68Gallium-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (68Ga-PSMA-11 PET) is a valuable staging tool, but its utility in characterising primary prostate cancer remains unclear. The maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) is a quantification measure of highest radiotracer uptake within PET-avid lesions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of SUVmax in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) on biopsy alone and in combination with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective analysis of 200 men who underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT, mpMRI, and transperineal template prostate biopsy between 2016 and 2018. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary and secondary outcomes were detection of grade group (GG) 3-5 and GG 2-5 prostate cancer, respectively. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to compare SUVmax by GG, and calculated sensitivity and specificity for csPCa detection via 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT, mpMRI, and both. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of csPCa on biopsy. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median SUVmax was greater for GG 3-5 tumours (6.40, interquartile range [IQR] 4.47-11.0) than for benign and GG 1-2 tumours (3.14, IQR 2.55-3.91; p < 0.001). The median SUVmax was greater for GG 3 (5.70, IQR 3.68-8.67) than for GG 2 (3.47, IQR 2.70-4.74; p < 0.001). For GG 3-5 disease, sensitivity was 86.5%, 95.9%, and 98.6%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 88.4%, 88.5%, and 93.3% using SUVmax ≥4, a Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score of 3-5, and both, respectively. This combined model detected more GG 3-5 disease than mpMRI alone (98.6% vs 95.9%; p = 0.04). SUVmax was an independent predictor of csPCa for GG 3-5 disease only (odds ratio 1.27 per unit, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.45). Our results are limited by the retrospective study design. CONCLUSIONS: Greater SUVmax on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT is associated with detection of GG 3-5 cancer on biopsy. The combination of PI-RADS score and SUVmax provides higher sensitivity and NPV than either alone. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT may be useful alongside mpMRI in improving risk stratification for localised disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: The amount of a radioactive tracer taken up in the prostate during a type of scan called PET (positron emission tomography) can predict whether aggressive prostate cancer is likely to be found on biopsy. This may complement the more usual type of scan, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), used to detect prostate cancer.

6.
Pain Pract ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain is a major public health concern, as is the associated use of opioid medications, highlighting the importance of alternative treatments, such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Here, we present the final 24-month results of the Avalon study, which investigated the use of the first closed-loop SCS system in patients with chronic pain. The system measures the evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) elicited by each stimulus pulse and drives a feedback loop to maintain the ECAP amplitude near constant. METHODS: Fifty patients were implanted with the Evoke system (Saluda Medical) and followed over 24-months. Pain, quality of life (QOL), function, sleep, and medication use were collected at baseline and each scheduled visit. ECAP amplitudes and programming adjustments were also monitored. RESULTS: At 24 months, responder rates (≥ 50% pain reduction) and high responder rates (≥ 80% pain reduction) for overall pain were 89.5% and 68.4%, respectively, the latter up from 42.2% at 3 months. Significant improvements from baseline were observed in QOL, function, and sleep over the 24 months, including ≥ 80% experiencing a minimally important difference in QOL and > 50% experiencing a clinically significant improvement in sleep. At 24 months, 82.8% of patients with baseline opioid use eliminated or reduced their opioid intake. Over the course of the study, reprogramming need fell to an average of less than once a year. CONCLUSION: Over a 24-month period, the Evoke closed-loop SCS maintained its therapeutic efficacy despite a marked reduction in opioid use and steady decrease in the need for reprogramming.

7.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 435-442, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited access to adequate cancer surgery training is one of the driving forces behind global inequities in surgical cancer care. Affordable virtual reality (VR) surgical training could enhance surgical skills in low- and middle-income settings, but most VR and augmented reality systems are too expensive and do not teach open surgical techniques commonly practiced in these contexts. New low-cost VR can offer skill development simulations relevant to these settings, but little is known about how knowledge is gained and applied by surgeons training and working in specific resource-constrained settings. This study addresses this gap, exploring gynecologic oncology trainee learning and user experience using a low-cost VR simulator to learn to perform an open radical abdominal hysterectomy in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: Eleven surgical trainees rotating through the gynecologic oncology service were sequentially recruited from the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka to participate in a study evaluating a VR radical abdominal hysterectomy training designed to replicate the experience in a Zambian hospital. Six participated in semi-structured interviews following the training. Interviews were analyzed using open and axial coding, informed by grounded theory. RESULTS: Simulator participation increased participants' perception of their surgical knowledge, confidence, and skills. Participants believed their skills transferred to other related surgical procedures. Having clear goals and motivation to improve were described as factors that influenced success. CONCLUSION: For cancer surgery trainees in lower-resourced settings learning medical and surgical skills, even for those with limited VR experience, low-cost VR simulators may enhance anatomical knowledge and confidence. The VR simulator reinforced anatomical and clinical knowledge acquired through other modalities. VR-enhanced learning may be particularly valuable when mentored learning opportunities are limited.

9.
Lung Cancer ; 154: 44-50, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of medical research is usually judged on the basis of citations in the serial literature. A better test of its utility is through its contribution to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness. This study aimed to compare the parameters of lung cancer research papers with those cited as references in lung cancer CPGs from 16 countries, and the Cochrane Collaboration. These comparisons were mainly based on bibliographic data compiled from the Web of Science (WoS). METHODOLOGY: We examined 7357 references (of which 4491 were unique) cited in a total of 77 lung cancer CPGs, and compared them with 73,214 lung cancer papers published in the WoS between 2004 and 2018. RESULTS: References used by lung CPGs were much more clinical than the overall body of research papers on this cancer, and their authors predominantly came from smaller northern European countries. However, the leading institutions whose papers were cited the most on these CPGs were from the USA, notably the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Texas, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, and the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. The types of research cited by the CPGs were primarily clinical trials, as well as three treatment modalities (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery). Genetics, palliative care and quality of life were largely neglected. The median time gap between papers cited on a lung CPG and its publication was 3.5 years longer than for WoS citations. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the references on CPGs allows an alternative means of research evaluation, and one that may be more appropriate for clinical research than citations in academic journals. Own-country references show the direct contribution of research to a country's health care, and other-country references show the esteem in which this research has been held internationally.

11.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 182-189, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing demand for cancer surgery has placed a global strain on health systems. In-depth analyses of the global demand for cancer surgery and optimal workforce requirements are needed to plan service provision. We estimated the global demand for cancer surgery and the requirements for an optimal surgical and anaesthesia workforce, using benchmarks based on clinical guidelines. METHODS: Using models of benchmark surgical use based on clinical guidelines, we estimated the proportion of cancer cases with an indication for surgery across 183 countries, stratified by income group. These proportions were multiplied by age-adjusted national estimates of new cancer cases using GLOBOCAN 2018 data and then aggregated to obtain the estimated number of surgical procedures required globally. The numbers of cancer surgical procedures in 44 high-income countries were divided by the actual number of surgeons and anaesthetists in the respective countries to calculate cancer procedures per surgeon and anaesthetist ratios. Using the median (IQR) of these ratios as benchmarks, we developed a three-tiered optimal surgical and anaesthesia workforce matrix, and the predictions were extrapolated up to 2040. FINDINGS: Our model estimates that the number of cancer cases globally with an indication for surgery will increase by 5 million procedures (52%) between 2018 (9 065 000) and 2040 (13 821 000). The greatest relative increase in surgical demand will occur in 34 low-income countries, where we also observed the largest gaps in workforce requirements. To match the median benchmark for high-income countries, the surgical workforce in these countries would need to increase by almost four times and the anaesthesia workforce by nearly 5·5 times. The greatest increase in optimal workforce requirements from 2018 to 2040 will occur in low-income countries (from 28 000 surgeons to 58 000 surgeons; 107% increase), followed by lower-middle-income countries (from 166 000 surgeons to 277 000 surgeons; 67% increase). INTERPRETATION: The global demand for cancer surgery and the optimal workforce are predicted to increase over the next two decades and disproportionately affect low-income countries. These estimates provide an appropriate framework for planning the provision of surgical services for cancer worldwide. FUNDING: University of New South Wales Scientia Scholarship and UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund.


Assuntos
Anestesia/tendências , Planos de Sistemas de Saúde/tendências , Mão de Obra em Saúde/tendências , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Anestesia/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Saúde Global/economia , Planos de Sistemas de Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/economia
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 173-181, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimating a population-level benchmark rate for use of surgery in the management of cancer helps to identify treatment gaps, estimate the survival impact of such gaps, and benchmark the workforce and other resources, including budgets, required to meet service needs. A population-based benchmark for use of surgery in high-income settings to inform policy makers and service provision has not been developed but was recommended by the Lancet Oncology Commission on Global Cancer Surgery. We aimed to develop and validate a cancer surgery benchmarking model. METHODS: We examined the latest clinical guidelines from high-income countries (Australia, the UK, the EU, the USA, and Canada) and mapped surgical treatment pathways for 30 malignant cancer sites (19 individual sites and 11 grouped as other cancers) that were notifiable in Australia in 2014, broadly reflecting contemporary high-income models of care. The optimal use of surgery was considered as an indication for surgery where surgery is the treatment of choice for a given clinical scenario. Population-based epidemiological data, such as cancer stage, tumour characteristics, and fitness for surgery, were derived from Australia and other similar high-income settings for 2017. The probabilities across the clinical pathways of each cancer were multiplied and added together to estimate the population-level benchmark rates of cancer surgery, and further validated with the comparisons of observed rates of cancer surgery in the South Western Sydney Local Health District in 2006-12. Univariable and multivariable sensitivity analyses were done to explore uncertainty around model inputs, with mean (95% CI) benchmark surgery rates estimated on the basis of 10 000 Monte Carlo simulations. FINDINGS: Surgical treatment was indicated in 58% (95% CI 57-59) of newly diagnosed patients with cancer in Australia in 2014 at least once during the course of their treatment, but varied by site from 23% (17-27) for prostate cancer to 99% (96-99) for testicular cancer. Observed cancer surgery rates in South Western Sydney were comparable to the benchmarks for most cancers, but were higher for some cancers, such as prostate (absolute increase of 29%) and lower for others, such as lung (-14%). INTERPRETATION: The model provides a new template for high-income and emerging economies to rationally plan and assess their cancer surgery provision. There are differences in modelled versus observed surgery rates for some cancers, requiring more in-depth analysis of the observed differences. FUNDING: University of New South Wales Scientia Scholarship, UK Research and Innovation-Global Challenges Research Fund.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias Testiculares/economia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Benchmarking/economia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Dados , Guias como Assunto/normas , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(3): 379-385, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507236

RESUMO

Importance: The burden of cancer falls disproportionally on low-middle-income countries (LMICs). It is not well known how novel therapies are tested in current clinical trials and the extent to which they match global disease burden. Objectives: To describe the design, results, and publication of oncology randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and examine the extent to which trials match global disease burden and how trial methods and results differ across economic settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, a literature search identified all phase 3 RCTs evaluating anticancer therapies published from 2014 to 2017. Randomized clinical trials were classified based on World Bank economic classification. Descriptive statistics were used to compare RCT design and results from high-income countries (HICs) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs). Statistical analysis was conducted in January 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in the design, results, and output of RCTs between HICs and LMICs. Results: The study cohort included 694 RCTs: 636 (92%) led by HICs and 58 (8%) led by LMICs. A total of 601 RCTs (87%) tested systemic therapy and 88 RCTs (13%) tested radiotherapy or surgery. The proportion of RCTs relative to global deaths was higher for breast cancer (121 RCTs [17%] and 7% of deaths) but lower for gastroesophageal cancer (38 RCTs [6%] and 14% of deaths), liver cancer (14 RCTs [2%] and 8% of deaths), pancreas cancer (14 RCTs [2%] and 5% of deaths), and cervical cancer (9 RCTs [1%] and 3% of deaths). Randomized clinical trials in HICs were more likely than those in LMICs to be funded by industry (464 [73%] vs 24 [41%]; P < .001). Studies in LMICs were smaller than those in HICs (median, 219 [interquartile range, 137-363] vs 474 [interquartile range, 262-743] participants; P < .001) and more likely to meet their primary end points (39 of 58 [67%] vs 286 of 636 [45%]; P = .001). The observed median effect size among superiority trials was larger in LMICs compared with HICs (hazard ratio, 0.62 [interquartile range, 0.54-0.76] vs 0.84 [interquartile range, 0.67-0.97]; P < .001). Studies from LMICs were published in journals with lower median impact factors than studies from HICs (7 [interquartile range, 4-21] vs 21 [interquartile range, 7-34]; P < .001). Publication bias persisted when adjusted for whether a trial was positive or negative (median impact factor: LMIC negative trial, 5 [interquartile range, 4-6] vs HIC negative trial, 18 [interquartile range, 6-26]; LMIC positive trial, 9 [interquartile range, 5-25] vs HIC positive trial, 25 [interquartile range, 10-48]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that oncology RCTs are conducted predominantly by HICs and do not match the global burden of cancer. Randomized clinical trials from LMICs are more likely to identify effective therapies and have a larger effect size than RCTs from HICs. This study suggests that there is a funding and publication bias against RCTs led by LMICs. Policy makers, research funders, and journals need to address this issue with a range of measures including building capacity and capability in RCTs.

14.
Cancer Control ; 28: 1073274821989315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491475

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is having major effects on cancer research, including major reductions in participant accrual to cancer clinical trials. Existing research has indicated that these steep drops in accrual rates to cancer clinical trials may be disproportionately affecting women. We sought to determine if there were gender differences in a dataset collected to examine participants' concerns about taking part in cancer research during the pandemic. METHODS: Between 5-19 June 2020, we distributed a fully anonymized survey via social media. We contacted 85 UK cancer patient organizations/charities and asked them to share our questionnaire on their platforms, of which 26 obliged. Patients aged 18 with a cancer diagnosis were eligible to participate and asked about their clinical and demographic characteristics, concerns about research participation given the COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety levels measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale, amongst other questions. Anxiety levels and concerns about participating were compared between men and women using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: 93 individuals, comprising n = 37 women and n = 56 men of various cancer types, provided survey responses. Independent t-tests showed that women reported higher anxiety scores, and concerns about participating in cancer research during COVID-19, than men. Linear regression analyses showed that anxiety scores predicted concerns about research participation in women but not men (pinteraction = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients have concerns about participating in research during the COVID-19 pandemic that range from mild to serious. Furthermore, the relationship between general anxiety and concerns about research participation may be both more relevant and more pronounced in women than in men. Future work should examine the reasons why women are less likely to enrol in cancer trials during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Comp Eff Res ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274643

RESUMO

The race to find an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still on, with only two treatment options currently authorized for emergency use and/or recommended for patients hospitalized with severe respiratory symptoms: low-dose dexamethasone and remdesivir. The USA decision to stockpile the latter has resulted in widespread condemnation and in similar action being taken by some other countries. In this commentary we discuss whether stockpiling remdesivir is justified in light of the currently available evidence.

16.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 14: 1132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281924

RESUMO

Although smoking is declining in high-income countries, the relative burden from its most well-known consequence, lung cancer, continues to increase, especially in low-income countries. We examined the amount, types, geographical origins and funding of research on lung cancer as revealed by papers in the Web of Science over the 15 years, 2004-2018. The annual number of lung cancer research papers increased over the study period from 2,157 to 8,202, but as a percentage of all biomedical research in Western Europe and North America they only accounted for one-eighth of the percentage of the disease burden. Lung cancer increased its share of cancer research from 4.4% to 6.5%, mainly because of the greatly expanded output from China in 2014-2018 which published almost one-third of the world's total on a fractional count basis. For almost all other countries, their lung cancer presence in cancer research has declined over the 15 years. However, only 15% of the Chinese papers were co-authored internationally and its research was focussed on treatment rather than prevention. Support for lung cancer research is primarily from the government rather than charity. There is therefore an urgent need to increase support for lung cancer research, and for more international collaboration, especially in low-income countries where the disease burden is growing rapidly, and in neglected domains, such as screening and palliative care.

17.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 14: 1134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281926

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may worsen the existing financial vulnerabilities of cancer survivors who may be experiencing a double financial hit, both from cancer-induced financial toxicity as well as economic strains arising from loss of income and prolonged unemployment following the pandemic. The impact of the pandemic is likely to be more pronounced on cancer survivors living in resource-limited settings, such as in Southeast Asia. As health care systems in the region try to streamline resources and accommodate the influx of patients from COVID-19, many in the cancer community have experienced severe disruptions in their care. The delays and disruption of timely access to cancer care could lead to patients presenting with worsened conditions and at more advanced cancer stages in which treatment options tended to be costlier. Similar to countries around the world, the various forms of movement restrictions that were enforced have aggravated the rates of unemployment, loss of wages and the limited access to support from family or friends around Southeast Asia. The economic impact of COVID-19 hits even harder on the large proportion of the population in the region that works in the informal sector, who are often one paycheque or one episode of illness away from financial catastrophe. More worryingly, the lack of a robust social security system in many Southeast Asian countries, especially in terms of income protection, could ultimately force many cancer survivors to choose between paying for their treatments, or to forego treatments, and feed their families. Early identification of cancer patients experiencing financial toxicity following the pandemic will enable timely and appropriate interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders, potentially averting a cascade of other economic fallouts that may last for years after cancer treatment.

18.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 84, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that over 40% of the half a million humanitarian workers who provide frontline care during emergencies, wars and disasters, are women. Women are at the forefront of improving health for conflict-affected populations through service delivery, education and capacity strengthening, advocacy and research. Women are also disproportionately affected by conflict and humanitarian emergencies. The growing evidence base demonstrating excess female morbidity and mortality reflects the necessity of evaluating the role of women in leadership driving health research, policy and programmatic interventions in conflict-related humanitarian contexts. Despite global commitments to improving gender equality, the issue of women leaders in conflict and humanitarian health has been given little or no attention. The aim of this paper focuses on three domains: importance, barriers and opportunities for women leaders in conflict and humanitarian health. Following thematic analysis of the material collected, we discuss the following themes: barriers of women's leadership domain at societal level, and organisational level, which is subcategorized into culture and strategy. Building on the available opportunities and initiatives and on inspirational experiences of the limited number of women leaders in this field, recommendations for empowering and supporting women's leadership in conflict health are presented. METHODS: A desk-based literature review of academic and grey sources was conducted followed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: There is very limited evidence on women leaders in conflict and humanitarian health. Some data shows that women have leadership skills that help to support more inclusive solutions which are incredibly important in this sector. However, deeply imbedded discrimination against women at the organisational, cultural, social, financial and political levels is exacerbated in conflict which makes it more challenging for women to progress in such settings. CONCLUSION: Advocating for women leaders in conflict and health in the humanitarian sector, governmental bodies, academia and the global health community is crucial to increasing effective interventions that adequately address the complexity and diversity of humanitarian crises.

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e043828, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer care services and overall (direct and indirect) excess deaths in people with cancer. METHODS: We employed near real-time weekly data on cancer care to determine the adverse effect of the pandemic on cancer services. We also used these data, together with national death registrations until June 2020 to model deaths, in excess of background (pre-COVID-19) mortality, in people with cancer. Background mortality risks for 24 cancers with and without COVID-19-relevant comorbidities were obtained from population-based primary care cohort (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) on 3 862 012 adults in England. RESULTS: Declines in urgent referrals (median=-70.4%) and chemotherapy attendances (median=-41.5%) to a nadir (lowest point) in the pandemic were observed. By 31 May, these declines have only partially recovered; urgent referrals (median=-44.5%) and chemotherapy attendances (median=-31.2%). There were short-term excess death registrations for cancer (without COVID-19), with peak relative risk (RR) of 1.17 at week ending on 3 April. The peak RR for all-cause deaths was 2.1 from week ending on 17 April. Based on these findings and recent literature, we modelled 40% and 80% of cancer patients being affected by the pandemic in the long-term. At 40% affected, we estimated 1-year total (direct and indirect) excess deaths in people with cancer as between 7165 and 17 910, using RRs of 1.2 and 1.5, respectively, where 78% of excess deaths occured in patients with ≥1 comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Dramatic reductions were detected in the demand for, and supply of, cancer services which have not fully recovered with lockdown easing. These may contribute, over a 1-year time horizon, to substantial excess mortality among people with cancer and multimorbidity. It is urgent to understand how the recovery of general practitioner, oncology and other hospital services might best mitigate these long-term excess mortality risks.

20.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1772-1790, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To critically review the evidence and opinions expressed about mammographic screening (MS) in research reports on breast cancer in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) and to assess whether benefits and harms in MS are presented in a balanced way. METHODS: Searches of PubMed, Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and gray literature identified 14 eligible research reports relating to the oPt. We reviewed these documents and then used a thematic analysis to describe and analyze the evidence and the opinions about MS expressed in them. RESULTS: All 14 research reports mentioned that MS would improve survival rates in the oPt. Only three gave information on major harmful effects, and only two emphasized that MS must be accompanied by effective treatment to have any beneficial effects on population mortality. There was no consistency in the recommended frequency of MS. CONCLUSION: Most information presented by Palestinian health researchers was selective and failed to address the important established harms of MS. Thus, calls to support MS in the oPt are not based on a measured discussion of the risks and benefits for women or grounded in the systemic readiness of health care necessary for its effectiveness. As long as diagnostic and treatment facilities remain deficient, screening cannot lead to reduced mortality from breast cancer.

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