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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 129: 15-22, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114365

RESUMO

AIM: In 1999, a cooperative tripartite cancer research and training agreement was signed between Ireland (IE), Northern Ireland (NI) and the United States (US) National Cancer Institute, giving rise to the All-Ireland Cancer Consortium (AICC). We wished to consider if AICC increased the amount/impact of cancer research on the island of Ireland and what effect this enhanced research activity had on cancer services and cancer outcomes. METHODS: As comparator, we chose the city regions of Copenhagen and Lund & Malmö, whose physical connection was greatly improved following construction of bridges between Denmark and Sweden around the time AICC was established. We analysed cancer research outputs from all four geographical regions in the Web of Science (1988-2017), with a particular focus on citations and journal impact factors. We evaluated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as an indicator of change in health status. RESULTS: Research outputs increased in all four regions, but more in IE/NI than in the Scandinavian cities, while collaboration between IE and NI and both the US and the Rest of Europe increased even more substantially. Citation scores also showed a greater improvement for IE and NI. Journal citation impact factors indicated that IE/NI papers were increasingly being published in more highly cited journals. Research-enabled cancer service provision improved on the island of Ireland, with concomitant increases in cancer survival. CONCLUSION: The AICC collaborative agreement delivered significant additionality on the island of Ireland, promoting transnational cooperation, enhancing cancer research activity, and underpinning improved cancer services and better cancer outcomes.

2.
World J Surg ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The volume-outcome relationship dictates that high-volume centres lead to improved patient outcomes after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). We conducted a retrospective review to fathom the situation in India for PD and whether referral to high-volume centres would make a positive impact. METHOD: A systematic literature search in MEDLINE was performed, and all articles published from Indian centres from 01.03.2008 to 30.11.2019 were scrutinised. Any series with less than 20 patients, case reports, abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 36 unique series including 6226 patients from 24 institutes across India were identified. Amongst the 24 institutes, 2 institutes reported less than 10 cases/year, 11 reported 10-25 cases/year and 11 reported ≥26 cases/year. Overall perioperative morbidity was 42.4%, 43.4% and 41% for centres doing <10, 10-25 and ≥26 cases/year, respectively. Operative mortality also improved with increasing number of cases/year (5.1% vs. 6.6% vs. 3.2%, respectively). CONCLUSION: With increasing volume of cases per year, trend towards improved PD outcomes is observed. To optimise the use of healthcare facilities, it would be pragmatic to consider building an organised referral system for complex surgeries to deliver unsurpassed patient care with maximum utilisation of the available healthcare infrastructure.

3.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) activates the dorsal column fibers using electrical stimuli. Current SCS systems function in fixed-output mode, delivering the same stimulus regardless of spinal cord (SC) activation. OBJECTIVE: To present long-term outcomes of a novel closed-loop SCS system that aims to maintain the SC activation near a set target level and within a therapeutic window for each patient. SC activation is measured through the evoked compound action potential (ECAP) generated by each stimulus pulse. METHODS: Fifty patients with lower back and/or leg pain who were successfully trialed received a permanent system (Evoke; Saluda Medical, Sydney, Australia). Ratings of pain (visual analog scale), quality of life, function, sleep, and medication use were collected at baseline and at each visit. SC activation levels were reported in summary statistics. The therapeutic window for each individual patient was defined as the range of ECAP amplitudes between sensation threshold and uncomfortably strong stimulation. RESULTS: At 12 mo, the proportion of patients with ≥50% relief was 76.9% (back), 79.3% (leg), and 81.4% (overall), and the proportion with ≥80% pain relief was 56.4% (back), 58.6% (leg), and 53.5% (overall). Patients spent a median of 84.9% of their time with stimulation in their therapeutic window, and 68.8% (22/32) eliminated or reduced their opioid intake. Statistically significant improvements in secondary outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients experienced more than 80% pain relief with stable SC activation, as measured by ECAP amplitude at 12 mo, providing evidence for the long-term effectiveness of the Evoke closed-loop SCS system.

4.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 9-18, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031437

RESUMO

This study sought to investigate the amount of global research activity and investment in pediatric cancer research, using publications as a proxy measure, and to understand geographical differences in research activity. To do this, we used a quantitative method-bibliometrics-to analyze Web of Science publications in the 10 years from 2007 to 2016. We found that global pediatric cancer research outputs have increased from 2,937 in 2007 to 4,513 in 2016, at an annual growth rate of 4.3%. This rate is slower than for both cancer research as a whole and general pediatric research. The increase in output was due almost entirely to China. International collaboration was similar to that in cancer research overall, with the highest levels among countries in close geographical proximity. Hematological and CNS childhood cancers are the main areas for research. Genetics and prognosis were the main research domains, and there was little work on radiotherapy or palliative care. In terms of citations, the best-performing countries were the Netherlands, the United States, and the United Kingdom. On the basis of estimates of the cost of research papers in different countries, the total world pediatric cancer research expenditure is estimated to have been 1.54 billion US dollars (USD) in 2013, and 1.79 billion USD in 2016. Our data suggest that current global policy toward pediatric cancer needs significant review and change to increase investments, balance research portfolios, and improve research that is relevant to low- and middle-income countries.

5.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 23(1): 15-20, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of mental health disorders in Europe is well above the world average and has increased from 11.5% to 13.9% of the total disease burden in 2000 and 2015. That from dementia has increased rapidly, and overtaken that from depression as the leading component. There have been no analyses of the research activity in Europe to combat this burden. METHODOLOGY: We identified research papers in the Web of Science (WoS) with a complex mental health disorders filter based on title words and journal names in the years 2001-18, and downloaded their details for analysis. RESULTS: European mental health disorders research represented less than 6% of the total biomedical research. We estimate that research expenditure in Europe on mental health disorders amounted to about €5.4 billion in 2018. The Scandinavian countries, with Croatia and Estonia, published the most relative to their wealth, but the outputs of France and Romania were less than half the amounts expected. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The burden from mental health disorders is increasing rapidly in Europe, but research was only half what would have been proportional. Suicide & self-harm, and alcohol misuse, were also neglected by researchers, particularly since the latter also causes many physical burdens, such as foetal alcohol syndrome, interpersonal violence, and road traffic accidents. Other relatively neglected subjects are sexual disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity and sleep disorders. There is an increasing volume of research on alternative (non-drug) therapies, particularly for post-traumatic stress and eating disorders, notably in Germany.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(12): e672-e684, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797794

RESUMO

Childhood cancers caused an estimated 75 000 deaths in children aged 0-14 years in 2018, of which 90% were in low-income and middle-income countries, and yet this group is missing from global health agendas. We examined global patterns in public and philanthropic funding for childhood cancer research-a proxy for global research activity-to address the critical gaps in knowledge. We used data from the Dimensions database to systematically search for and analyse 3414 grants from 115 funders across 35 countries between 2008 and 2016, organised by funding source, recipient, tumour type, research focus, and pipeline categories, to investigate trends over time. During this period, global funding for childhood cancer research was US$2 billion, of which $772 million (37·9%) was for general childhood cancer, $449 million (22·0%) was for leukaemias, and $330 million (16·2%) was for CNS tumours. $1·6 billion (77·7%) of funding was awarded from, and to, institutions based in the USA. Preclinical research received $1·2 billion (59·3%), and around $525 million (25·7%) included support for clinical trials, but only $113 million (5·5%) supported health-care delivery research. Overall, funding was inadequate and geographically inequitable, and new commitments to funding have declined since 2011.

7.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785060

RESUMO

Many Indigenous Australians in northern Australia living with chronic hepatitis B are unaware of their diagnosis due to low screening rates. A venous blood point of care test (POCT) or oral fluid laboratory test could improve testing uptake in this region. The purpose of this study was to assess the field performance of venous blood POCT and laboratory performance of an oral fluid hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test in Indigenous individuals living in remote northern Australian communities. The study was conducted with four very remote communities in the tropical north of Australia's Northern Territory. Community research workers collected venous blood and oral fluid samples. We performed the venous blood POCT for HBsAg in the field. We assessed the venous blood and oral fluid specimens for the presence of HBsAg using standard laboratory assays. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the POCT and oral fluid test, using serum laboratory detection of HBsAg as the gold standard. From 215 enrolled participants, 155 POCT and 197 oral fluid tests had corresponding serum HBsAg results. The POCT had a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100%. Based on a population prevalence of 6%, the PPV was 100% and NPV was 99.5%. The oral fluid test had a sensitivity of 56.8%, specificity of 98.1%, PPV of 97.3% and NPV of 65.9%. The venous blood POCT has excellent test characteristics and could be used to identify individuals with chronic HBV infection in high prevalence communities with limited access to health care. Oral fluid performance was suboptimal.

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 15: 42-50, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709413

RESUMO

Background: Causes of variations in outcomes from cancer care in developed countries are often unclear. Australia has developed health system pathways describing consensus standards of optimal cancer care across the phases of prevention through to follow-up or end-of-life. These Optimal Care Pathways (OCP) were introduced from 2013 to 14. We investigated whether care consistent with the OCP improved outcomes for colon cancer patients. Methods: Colon patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2014 were identified from the Australian State of Victoria Cancer Registry (VCR) and cases linked with State and Federal health datasets. Surrogate variables describe OCP alignment in our cohort, across three phases of the pathway; prevention, diagnosis and initial treatment and end-of-life. We assessed the impact of alignment on (1) stage of disease at diagnosis and (2) overall survival. Findings: Alignment with the prevention phase of the OCP occurred for 88% of 13,539 individuals and was associated with lower disease stage at diagnosis (OR = 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.42), improved crude three-year survival (69.2% versus 62.2%; p < 0.001) and reduced likelihood of emergency surgery (17.7% versus 25.6%, p < 0.001). For patients treated first with surgery (n = 10,807), care aligned with the diagnostic and treatment phase indicators (44% of patients) was associated with a survival benefit (risk-adjusted HRnon-aligned vs aligned = 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.35), better perioperative outcomes and higher alignment with follow-up and end-of-life care. The survival benefit persists adjusting for potential confounding factors, including age, sex, disease stage and comorbidity.Interpretation.This population-based study shows that care aligned to a pathway based on best principles of cancer care is associated with improved outcomes for patients with colon cancer. Funding: None.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740928

RESUMO

Investigation of the environmental impacts of armed conflict has been made easier in recent years with the development of new and improved methods for documenting and monitoring environmental damage and pollution. For decades, research into conflict-linked environmental damage and its links to human health have been overlooked and research underfunded, hindering a complete humanitarian response and effective post-conflict reconstruction. Recent developments in the field of open-source investigation have shown promising results due to the increased use of mobile phones, access to the internet and freely available methods for remote observation by satellite. Utilizing and analysing these sources of data can help us to understand how conflicts are associated with environmental damage, pollution and their negative impacts upon public health. Further research and development in this field will help to inform more effective humanitarian responses, mitigate risks to health and identify priorities for post-conflict reconstruction programs. Data-driven open-source research can also strengthen international discussions on state accountability for military activities and build a case for the responsibility of warring parties to protect the environment as well as the people who depend on it.

12.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779734

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the World Health Summit (WHS) has provided a global platform for policy-makers and decision-makers to interact with academics and practitioners on global health. Recently the WHS adopted health security into their agenda for transnational disease risks (eg, Ebola and antimicrobial resistance) that increasingly threaten multiple sectors. Global health engagement (GHE) focuses efforts across interdisciplinary and interorganizational lines to identify critical threats and provide rapid deployment of key resources at the right time for addressing health security risks. As a product of subject matter experts convening at the WHS, a special side-group has organically risen with leadership and coordination from the German Institute for Defense and Strategic Studies in support of GHE activities across governmental, academic, and industry partners. Through novel approaches and targeted methodology that maximize outcomes and streamline global health operational process, the Global Health Security Alliance (GloHSA) was born. This short conference report describes in more detail the GloHSA.

13.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 13: 953, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552126

RESUMO

While progress in oncology has been remarkable in recent decades, not every cancer patient is benefitting from the advances made in treating their disease. The contrast in diagnosis, treatment and its outcome between high-resource and low-resource countries is dramatic. Africa presents an enormous challenge with population growth and life expectancy increasing in many countries as the toll of AIDS and other communicable diseases declines. However, there has been little investment in capacity of any sort to deal with the current cancer problem, never mind the rapid increase in incidence which is underway. This is a critical area for investment and not only of a purely financial nature. It is bad to have cancer and worse to have cancer if you are poor. The gap between rich and poor, highly educated and less educated and the North-South divide is substantial and continuing to grow. Radical solutions are urgently needed: the status quo is not an appropriate response to the current situation. Recognising that no single government or source of philanthropy has the means to solve this problem, new models are needed to cope with and improve this situation.

14.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(9): e535-e548, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395475

RESUMO

Cancer is a leading cause of death in small island nations and is forecast to increase substantially over the coming years. Governments, regional agencies, and health services of these nations face daunting challenges, including small and fragile economies, unequal distribution of resources, weak or fragmented health services, small population sizes that make sustainable workforce and service development problematic, and the unavailability of specialised cancer services to large parts of the population. Action is required to prevent large human and economic costs relating to cancer. This final Series paper highlights the challenges and opportunities for small island nations, and identifies ways in which the international community can support efforts to improve cancer control in these settings. Our recommendations focus on funding and investment opportunities to strengthen cancer-related health systems to improve sharing of technical assistance for research, surveillance, workforce, and service development, and to support small island nations with policy changes to reduce the consumption of commodities (eg, tobacco and unhealthy food products) that increase cancer risk.

16.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(12): 2895-2903, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kaplan fibers (KFs) of the iliotibial band have been suggested to play a role in anterolateral rotational instability of the knee, particularly in the setting of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Description of the normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the KFs may facilitate subsequent investigation into the MRI signs of injury. PURPOSE: To assess if the KF complex can be identified on 3-T MRI using standard knee protocols. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: 3-T MRI scans of 50 ACL-intact knees were reviewed independently by a musculoskeletal radiologist and 2 orthopaedic surgeons. Identification of the KFs was based on radiological diagnostic criteria developed a priori. Identification of the KFs in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes was recorded. Interobserver reliability was assessed using the Kappa statistic. Detailed anatomy including distance to the joint line and relationship to adjacent structures was recorded. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 43 years (range, 15-81 years), 58% were male, and 50% were right knees. The KFs were identified by at least 2 reviewers on the sagittal images in 96% of cases, on the axial images in 76% of cases, and on the coronal images in 4% of cases. The mean distance from the KF distal femoral insertion to the lateral joint line was 50.1 mm (SD, 6.6 mm) and the mean distance to the lateral gastrocnemius tendon origin was 10.8 mm (SD, 8.6 mm). The KFs were consistently identified immediately anterior to the superior lateral geniculate artery on sagittal imaging. Interobserver reliability for identification was best in the sagittal plane (Kappa 0.5) and worst in the coronal plane (Kappa 0.1). CONCLUSION: The KF complex can be identified on routine MRI sequences in the ACL-intact knee; however, there is low to moderate interobserver reliability. Imaging in the sagittal plane had the highest rate of identification and the coronal plane the lowest. There is a consistent relationship between the most distal KF femoral attachment and the lateral joint line, lateral gastrocnemius tendon, and superior lateral geniculate artery.

17.
Intern Med J ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a major cause of death in New Zealand. In recent years, targeted therapies have improved outcomes. AIM: To determine the uptake of ALK testing, and the prevalence, demographic profile and outcomes of ALK-positive NSCLC, in NZ, where no national ALK-testing guidelines or subsidized ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies are available. METHODS: A population-based observational study reviewed databases to identify patients presenting with nonsquamous NSCLC over 6.5 years in northern NZ. We report the proportion tested for ALK gene rearrangements and the results. NSCLC samples tested by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) were retested by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC). A survival analysis compared ALK-positive patients treated or not treated with ALK TKI therapy. RESULTS: From a total of 3130 patients diagnosed with nonsquamous NSCLC, 407 (13%) were tested for ALK gene rearrangements, and patient selection was variable and inequitable. Among those tested, 34 (8.4%) had ALK-positive NSCLC. ALK-positive disease was more prevalent in younger versus older patients, nonsmokers versus smokers, and in MAori, Pacific or Asian ethnic groups than in NZ Europeans. FISH, IHC and NGS showed broad concordance for detecting ALK-positive disease under local testing conditions. Among patients with ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC, those treated with ALK TKIs survived markedly longer than those not treated with ALK TKIs (median overall survival 5.12 versus 0.55 years). CONCLUSION: Lung cancer outcomes in NZ may be improved by providing national guidelines and funding policy for ALK testing and access to subsidized ALK TKI therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
BJU Int ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of 68 Gallium prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT) with mpMRI in detecting and localising primary prostate cancer when compared with radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of men who underwent 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI for primary prostate cancer prior to RP across four centres between 2015 and 2018. Patients undergoing imaging for recurrent disease or prior to non-surgical treatment were excluded. We defined pathological index tumour as the lesion with highest ISUP Grade Group (GG) on RP. Our primary outcomes were rates of accurate detection and localisation of RP index tumour using 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT or mpMRI. We defined tumour detection as imaging lesion corresponding with RP tumour on any imaging plane, and localisation as imaging lesion matching RP index tumour in all sagittal, axial and coronal planes. Secondary outcomes included localisation of clinically significant and transition zone index tumours. We defined clinically significant disease as GG 3-5. We used descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U test to define and compare demographic and pathological characteristics between detected, missed and localised tumours using either imaging modality. We used the McNemar test to compare detection and localisation rates using 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI. RESULTS: 205 men were included in our analysis, including 133 with clinically significant disease. There was no significant difference between 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI in the detection of any tumour (94% vs 95%, p>0.9). There was also no significant difference between localisation of all index tumours (91% vs 89%, p=0.47), clinically significant index tumours (96% vs 91%, p=0.15), or transition zone tumours (85% vs 80%, p>0.9) using 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI. Limitations include retrospective study design and non-central review of imaging and pathology. CONCLUSION: We found no significant difference in the detection or localisation of primary prostate cancer between 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI. Further prospective studies are required to evaluate a combined PET/MRI model in minimising tumours missed by either modality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
J Sch Nurs ; : 1059840519863094, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337243

RESUMO

Research on enacted stigma, or stigma- and bias-based victimization, including bullying and harassment, among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth often focuses on one context (e.g., school) or one form (e.g., bullying or microaggressions), which limits our understanding of these experiences. We conducted qualitative go-along interviews with 66 LGBTQ adolescents (14-19 years) in urban, suburban, town, and rural locations in the United States and Canada identified through purposive and snowball sampling. Forty-six participants (70%) described at least one instance of enacted stigma. Three primary themes emerged: (1) enacted stigma occurred in many contexts; (2) enacted stigma restricted movement; and (3) second-hand accounts of enacted stigma shaped perceptions of safety. Efforts to improve well-being among LGBTQ youth must address the diverse forms and contexts of enacted stigma that youth experience, which limit freedom of movement and potential access to opportunities that encourage positive youth development. School nurses can play a critical role in reducing enacted stigma in schools and in collaboration with community partners.

20.
Oncotarget ; 10(36): 3408-3423, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164962

RESUMO

An increased understanding of the biology of colorectal cancer (CRC) has fuelled identification of biomarkers with potential to drive a stratified precision medicine care approach in this common malignancy. We conducted a systematic review of health economic assessments of molecular biomarkers (MBMs) and their employment in patient stratification in CRC. Our analysis revealed scenarios where health economic analyses have been applied to evaluate the cost effectiveness of MBM-guided clinical interventions: (i) evaluation of Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) status to identify patients susceptible to 5-Fluouracil toxicity; (ii) determination of Uridine 5'-diphospho- glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 gene (UGT1A1) polymorphism status to help guide irinotecan treatment; (iii) assessment of RAS/RAF mutational status to stratify patients for chemotherapy or Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) therapy and (iv) multigene expression analysis (Oncotype Dx) to identify and spare non-responders the debilitating effects of particular chemotherapy interventions. Our findings indicate that Oncotype Dx is cost-effective in high income settings within specific price points, by limiting treatment toxicity in CRC patients. DPYD status testing may also be cost effective in certain settings to avoid specific 5-FU toxicities post treatment. In contrast, current research does not support UGT1A1 polymorphism status as a cost-effective guide to irinotecan dosing, while the health economic evidence to support testing of KRAS/NRAS mutational status and chemo/EGFR therapy choice was inconclusive, despite its widespread adoption in CRC treatment management. However, we also show that there is a paucity of high-quality cost-effectiveness studies to support clinical application of precision medicine approaches in CRC.

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