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1.
Oncologist ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861486

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: This study suggests that trametinib has significant clinical activity in non-V600 BRAF mutation and BRAF fusion metastatic melanoma, albeit in a small cohort. All patients with metastatic melanoma should undergo sequencing of the BRAF gene to identify noncanonical BRAF mutations that may indicate benefit from treatment with trametinib. BACKGROUND: Non-V600 BRAF mutations and BRAF fusions in aggregate occur in approximately 5% of all melanomas. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been implicated as a possible treatment strategy for these patients. METHODS: In this open-label, multicenter, phase II study, patients with advanced melanoma harboring mutations in BRAF outside V600 (non-V600) or BRAF fusions received trametinib 2.0 mg daily. Patients were divided into cohorts based on the intrinsic catalytic activity of BRAF mutation (high, cohort A; low/unknown, cohort B). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) for patients in cohort A; secondary endpoints included ORR in cohort B, safety, and survival in both treatment arms. RESULTS: Among all patients, the ORR was 33% (three of nine patients), including 67% in cohort A and 17% in cohort B. Two patients had stable disease as best response, and six patients had some degree of tumor shrinkage. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.3 months. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in all patients (100%); most (89%) were grade 1-2. CONCLUSION: In contrast to recently described tumor-agnostic studies in a genetically similar population, trametinib had considerable activity in a small population of patients with melanoma harboring BRAF non-V600 mutations and fusions, providing rationale for sequencing in search of these genomic alterations.

2.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 144, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827609

RESUMO

As part of the 2020 Immunotherapy Bridge virtual congress (December 2nd-3rd, Italy), the Great Debate session featured counterpoint views from leading experts on three clinical questions in immunotherapy today. The first of these was whether antitumoral vaccination is still a treatment option. The second topic debated whether anti-programmed death (PD)-1/PD-ligand (L)1 blockade should be the backbone for immunotherapy combination. Finally, the use of innovative study designs and surrogate endpoints was considered from both an academic and industry perspective. For each topic, two experts presented the argument and counter-argument in support of two different points of view. As with previous Bridge congresses, the debates were assigned by meeting Chairs and positions taken by experts during the debates may not have necessarily reflected their respective personal view. The views summarised in this article are based on available evidence but may reflect personal interpretation of these data, clinical experience and subjective opinion of the speaker.

3.
Oncologist ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize severe immune-related adverse events (irAEs) seen among hospitalized patients and to examine risk factors for irAE admissions and clinically relevant outcomes, including length of stay, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) discontinuation, readmission, and death. METHODS: Patients who received ICI therapy (ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, avelumab, or any ICI combination) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and were hospitalized at MGH following ICI initiation between January 1, 2011, and October 24, 2018, were identified using pharmacy and hospital admission databases. Medical records of all irAE admissions were reviewed, and specialist review with defined criteria was performed. Demographic data, relevant clinical history (malignancy type and most recent ICI regimen), and key admission characteristics, including dates of admission and discharge, immunosuppressive management, ICI discontinuation, readmission, and death, were collected. RESULTS: In total, 450 admissions were classified as irAE admissions and represent the study's cohort. Alongside the increasing use of ICIs at our institution, the number of patients admitted to MGH for irAEs has gradually increased every year from 9 in 2011 to 92 in 2018. The hospitalization rate per ICI recipient has declined over that same time period (25.0% in 2011 to 8.5% in 2018). The most common toxicities leading to hospitalization in our cohort were gastrointestinal (30.7%; n = 138), pulmonary (15.8%; n = 71), hepatic (14.2%; n = 64), endocrine (12.2%; n = 55), neurologic (8.4%; n = 38), cardiac (6.7%; n = 30), and dermatologic (4.4%; n = 20). Multivariable logistic regression revealed statistically significant increases in irAE admission risk for CTLA-4 monotherapy recipients (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; p < .001) and CTLA-4 plus PD-1 combination therapy recipients (OR, 1.88; p < .001), relative to PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy recipients, and patients with multiple toxicity had a 5-fold increase in inpatient mortality. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates that cancer centers must be prepared to manage a wide variety of irAE types and that CTLA-4 and combination ICI regimens are more likely to cause irAE admissions, and earlier. In addition, admissions for patients with multi-organ involvement is common and those patients are at highest risk of inpatient mortality. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:  The number of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital for immune-related adverse events (irAEs) has gradually increased every year and the most common admissions are for gastrointestinal (30.7%), pulmonary (15/8%), and hepatic (14.2%) events. Readmission rates are high (29% at 30 days, 49% at 180 days) and 64.2% have to permanently discontinue immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Importantly, multiple concurrent toxicities were seen in 21.6% (97/450) of irAE admissions and these patients have a fivefold increased risk of inpatient death.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(12): 1503-1516, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis is a potentially fatal complication of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy. Data on the utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 and T2 mapping in ICI myocarditis are limited. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the value of CMR T1 and T2 mapping in patients with ICI myocarditis. METHODS: In this retrospective study from an international registry of patients with ICI myocarditis, clinical and CMR findings (including T1 and T2 maps) were collected. Abnormal T1 and T2 were defined as 2 SD above site (vendor/field strength specific) reference values and a z-score was calculated for each patient. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were a composite of cardiovascular death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and complete heart block. RESULTS: Of 136 patients with ICI myocarditis with a CMR, 86 (63%) had T1 maps and 79 (58%) also had T2 maps. Among the 86 patients (66.3 ± 13.1 years of age), 36 (41.9%) had a left ventricular ejection fraction <55%. Across all patients, mean z-scores for T1 and T2 values were 2.9 ± 1.9 (p < 0.001) and 2.2 ± 2.1 (p < 0.001), respectively. On Siemens 1.5-T scanner (n = 67), native T1 (1,079.0 ± 55.5 ms vs. 1,000.3 ± 22.1 ms; p < 0.001) and T2 (56.2 ± 4.9 ms vs. 49.8 ± 2.2 ms; p < 0.001) values were elevated compared with reference values. Abnormal T1 and T2 values were seen in 78% and 43% of the patients, respectively. Applying the modified Lake Louise Criteria, 95% met the nonischemic myocardial injury criteria and 53% met the myocardial edema criteria. Native T1 values had excellent discriminatory value for subsequent MACE, with an area under the curve of 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 0.98). Native T1 values (for every 1-unit increase in z-score, hazard ratio: 1.44; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.84; p = 0.004) but not T2 values were independently associated with subsequent MACE. CONCLUSIONS: The use of T1 mapping and application of the modified Lake Louise Criteria provides important diagnostic value, and T1 mapping provides prognostic value in patients with ICI myocarditis.

5.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764387

RESUMO

Importance: Agents targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) improve long-term survival across many advanced cancers and are now used as adjuvant therapy for resected stage III and IV melanomas. The incidence and spectrum of chronic immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have not been well defined. Objective: To determine the incidence, time course, spectrum, and associations of chronic irAEs arising from adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted between 2015 and 2020 across 8 academic medical centers in the United States and Australia. Patients with stage III to IV melanomas treated with anti-PD-1 in the adjuvant setting were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence, types, and time course of chronic irAEs (defined as irAEs persisting at least 12 weeks after therapy cessation). Results: Among 387 patients, the median (range) age was 63 (17-88) years, and 235 (60.7%) were male. Of these patients, 267 (69.0%) had any acute irAE, defined as those arising during treatment with anti-PD-1, including 52 (19.5%) with grades 3 through 5 events; 1 patient each had fatal myocarditis and neurotoxicity. Chronic irAEs, defined as those that persisted beyond 12 weeks of anti-PD-1 discontinuation, developed in 167 (43.2%) patients, of which most (n = 161; 96.4%) were mild (grade 1 or 2) and most persisted until last available follow-up (n = 143; 85.6%). Endocrinopathies (73 of 88; 83.0%), arthritis (22 of 45; 48.9%), xerostomia (9 of 17; 52.9%), neurotoxicities (11 of 15; 73.3%), and ocular events (5 of 8; 62.5%) were particularly likely to become chronic. In contrast, irAEs affecting visceral organs (liver, colon, lungs, kidneys) had much lower rates of becoming chronic irAEs; for example, colitis became chronic in 6 of 44 (13.6%) cases, of which 4 of 6 (66.7%) resolved with prolonged follow-up. Age, gender, time of onset, and need for steroids were not associated with the likelihood of chronicity of irAEs. Conclusion and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study, chronic irAEs associated with anti-PD-1 therapy appear to be more common than previously recognized and frequently persisted even with prolonged follow-up, although most were low grade. The risks of chronic irAEs should be integrated into treatment decision-making.

6.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1875639, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628621

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) predispose patients to immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Although hepatitis is a potentially lethal toxicity, the timing and outcomes have not been well described. In this retrospective study, patients from six international institutions were included if they were treated with ICIs and developed immune-related hepatitis. Patient and tumor characteristics, and hepatitis management and outcomes were evaluated. Of the 164 patients included, most were male (53.7%) with a median age of 63.0 years. Most patients had melanoma (83.5%) and stage IV disease (86.0%). Median follow-up was 585 days; median OS and PFS were not reached. The initial grade of hepatitis was most often grade 2 (30.5%) or 3 (45.7%) with a median time to onset of 61 days. Patients were most commonly asymptomatic (46.2%), but flu-like symptoms, including fatigue/anorexia (17.1%), nausea/emesis (14.0%), abdominal/back pain (11.6%), and arthralgias/myalgias (8.5%) occurred. Most patients received glucocorticoids (92.1%); the median time to improvement by one grade was 13.0 days, and the median time to complete resolution was 52.0 days. Second-line immunosuppression was required in 37 patients (22.6%), and steroid-dose re-escalation in 45 patients (27.4%). Five patients (3%) died of ICI-hepatitis or complications of hepatitis treatment. Ninety-one patients (58.6%) did not resume ICI; of 66 patients (40 grade 1/2, 26 grade 3/4) that were rechallenged, only 25.8% (n = 17) had recurrence. In this multi-institutional cohort, immune-related hepatitis was associated with excellent outcomes but frequently required therapy discontinuation, high-dose steroids, and second-line immunosuppression. Rechallenge was associated with a modest rate of hepatitis recurrence.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414132

RESUMO

Five years ago, the Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) conducted an assessment of the challenges and opportunities facing the melanoma research community and patients with melanoma. Since then, remarkable progress has been made on both the basic and clinical research fronts. However, the incidence, recurrence and death rates for melanoma remain unacceptably high and significant challenges remain. Hence, the MRF Scientific Advisory Council and Breakthrough Consortium, a group that includes clinicians and scientists, reconvened to facilitate intensive discussions on thematic areas essential to melanoma researchers and patients alike - prevention, detection, diagnosis, metastatic dormancy and progression, response and resistance to targeted and immune-based therapy, and the clinical consequences of COVID-19 for melanoma patients and providers. These extensive discussions helped to crystalize our understanding of the challenges and opportunities facing the broader melanoma community today. In this report, we discuss the progress made since the last MRF assessment, comment on what remains to be overcome and offer recommendations for the best path forward.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer who are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are more likely to develop severe illness and die compared with those without cancer. The impact of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) on the severity of COVID-19 illness is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICI confers an additional risk for severe COVID-19 in patients with cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from 110 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 while on treatment with ICI without chemotherapy in 19 hospitals in North America, Europe and Australia. The primary objective was to describe the clinical course and to identify factors associated with hospital and intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality. FINDINGS: Thirty-five (32%) patients were admitted to hospital and 18 (16%) died. All patients who died had advanced cancer, and only four were admitted to ICU. COVID-19 was the primary cause of death in 8 (7%) patients. Factors independently associated with an increased risk for hospital admission were ECOG ≥2 (OR 39.25, 95% CI 4.17 to 369.2, p=0.0013), treatment with combination ICI (OR 5.68, 95% CI 1.58 to 20.36, p=0.0273) and presence of COVID-19 symptoms (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.57 to 17.89, p=0.0073). Seventy-six (73%) patients interrupted ICI due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, 43 (57%) of whom had resumed at data cut-off. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19-related mortality in the ICI-treated population does not appear to be higher than previously published mortality rates for patients with cancer. Inpatient mortality of patients with cancer treated with ICI was high in comparison with previously reported rates for hospitalized patients with cancer and was due to COVID-19 in almost half of the cases. We identified factors associated with adverse outcomes in ICI-treated patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , /isolamento & purificação
11.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(2): 187-195, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353814

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe interventional oncology therapies combined with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy targeting the programmed death 1 pathway in patients with different neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent tumor-directed thermal ablation, embolization, or selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) between January 1, 2011, and May 1, 2019, and received anti-programmed death 1/PD-L1 agents ≤ 90 days before or ≤ 30 days after the interventional procedure. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and procedural complications ≤ 90 days after the procedure were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. The study included 65 eligible patients (49% female; age 63 years ± 11.1). The most common tumors were metastatic melanoma (n = 28) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (n = 12). Patients underwent 78 procedures (12 patients underwent > 1 procedure), most frequently SIRT (35.9%) and cryoablation (28.2%). The most common target organs were liver (46.2%), bone (24.4%), and lung (9.0%). Most patients received ICI monotherapy with pembrolizumab (n = 30), nivolumab (n = 22), and atezolizumab (n = 6); 7 patients received ipilimumab and nivolumab. RESULTS: Seven (10.8%) patients experienced an irAE (71.4% grade 1-2), mostly affecting the skin. Median time to irAE was 33 days (interquartile range, 19-38 days). Five irAEs occurred in patients with melanoma, and no irAEs occurred in patients with NSCLC. Management required corticosteroids (n = 3) and immunotherapy discontinuation (n = 1); all irAEs resolved to grade ≤ 1. There were 4 intraprocedural and 32 postprocedural complications (77.8% grade < 3). No grade 5 irAEs and/or procedural complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: No unmanageable or unanticipated toxicities occurred within 90 days after interventional oncology therapies combined with ICIs.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Braquiterapia , Embolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias/terapia , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Segurança do Paciente , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving dabrafenib and trametinib. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study examining the kidney outcomes of patients in a large healthcare system who received dabrafenib/trametinib between 2010 and 2019. The primary outcome was AKI, defined as a 1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine from baseline within a 12-month study period. AKI severity and etiology was determined for each case by chart review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate baseline predictors of AKI. RESULTS: 199 patients who received dabrafenib in our healthcare system from 2010-2019 were included in the analysis. Forty-two patients (21%) experienced AKI within 12 months; 10 patients (5% of total cohort, 24% of AKI) experienced AKI occurring during a dabrafenib/trametinib-induced febrile syndrome characterized by fever, chills, gastrointestinal symptoms, and elevated liver enzymes. Pre-existing liver disease was the only significant predictor of AKI in the cohort. One patient had biopsy-proven granulomatous acute interstitial nephritis that resolved with corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Oncologists and nephrologists should be aware that AKI is common after dabrafenib/trametinib and a substantial number of cases occur in the setting of treatment-induced pyrexia.

13.
Sci Adv ; 6(46)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188016

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) show promise, but most patients do not respond. We identify and validate biomarkers from extracellular vesicles (EVs), allowing non-invasive monitoring of tumor- intrinsic and host immune status, as well as a prediction of ICI response. We undertook transcriptomic profiling of plasma-derived EVs and tumors from 50 patients with metastatic melanoma receiving ICI, and validated with an independent EV-only cohort of 30 patients. Plasma-derived EV and tumor transcriptomes correlate. EV profiles reveal drivers of ICI resistance and melanoma progression, exhibit differentially expressed genes/pathways, and correlate with clinical response to ICI. We created a Bayesian probabilistic deconvolution model to estimate contributions from tumor and non-tumor sources, enabling interpretation of differentially expressed genes/pathways. EV RNA-seq mutations also segregated ICI response. EVs serve as a non-invasive biomarker to jointly probe tumor-intrinsic and immune changes to ICI, function as predictive markers of ICI responsiveness, and monitor tumor persistence and immune activation.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e018306, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190570

RESUMO

Background Myocarditis attributable to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is a potentially fatal immune-related adverse event. Limited data have suggested an association between baseline and on-treatment absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the development of other immune-related adverse events; there are no data characterizing the role of ALC and NLR in ICI-associated myocarditis. Methods and Results This was a case control study of 55 patients with ICI myocarditis and 55 controls without any post-ICI immune-related adverse events. We leveraged clinical testing, where patients underwent routine serial blood counts before and with each ICI cycle to compare the baseline and change in ALC and NLR between cases and controls. The association between the change in these parameters with clinical variables and major adverse cardiac events was also tested. In cases, there was a statistically significant decrease in ALC with myocarditis from baseline (1.6 thousands per cubic milliliter (K/µL); interquartile range, 1.1-1.9 K/µL) to admission (1.1 K/µL; interquartile range, 0.7-1.3 K/µL; P<0.001). Similarly, there was an increase in NLR from baseline (3.5; interquartile range, 2.3-5.4) to admission (6.6; interquartile range, 4.5-14.1; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant change in controls. In follow-up, there were 20 events; larger decreases in ALC (44.6% versus 18.2%; P<0.001) or increases in NLR (156.5% versus 65.1%; P=0.019) were associated with major adverse cardiac events. Conclusions A reduction in ALC and an increase in NLR was seen with ICI myocarditis. A greater decrease in ALC or increase in NLR was associated with subsequent major adverse cardiac events.

15.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203734

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed by cancer into the bloodstream, where a viable subset overcomes oxidative stress to initiate metastasis. We show that single CTCs from melanoma patients coordinately upregulate lipogenesis and iron homeostasis pathways. These are correlated with both intrinsic and acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors across clonal cultures of BRAF-mutant CTCs. The lipogenesis regulator SREBF2 directly induces transcription of the iron carrier Transferrin (TF), reducing intracellular iron pools, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, thereby conferring resistance to inducers of ferroptosis. Knockdown of endogenous TF impairs tumor formation by melanoma CTCs, and their tumorigenic defects are partially rescued by the lipophilic anti-oxidants Ferrostatin-1 and Vitamin E. In a prospective melanoma cohort, presence of CTCs with high lipogenic and iron metabolic RNA signatures is correlated with adverse clinical outcome, irrespective of treatment regimen. Thus, SREBF2-driven iron homeostatic pathways contribute to cancer progression, drug resistance and metastasis.

16.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(10): 1700-1705, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102962

RESUMO

Background: Programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with a side effect profile that may differ from other classes of ICIs such as those directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1). Being the more recently approved class of checkpoint inhibitors, there are no studies investigating the frequency, etiology and predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving PD-L1 inhibitors. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who received PD-L1 inhibitors during 2017 to 2018 in our healthcare system. AKI was defined by a ≥1.5-fold rise in serum creatinine from baseline. The etiology of all cases of sustained AKI (lasting >48 hours) and clinical course were determined by review of electronic health records. Results: The final analysis included 599 patients. Within 12 months of ICI initiation, 104 patients (17%) experienced AKI, and 36 (6%) experienced sustained AKI; however, only 5 (<1%) experienced suspected PD-L1-related AKI. The PD-L1-related AKI occurred a median of 99 days after starting therapy. All patients concurrently received another medication known to cause acute interstitial nephritis (proton pump inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or antibiotics) at the time of the suspected PDL1-related AKI. Conclusion: Although AKI is common in patients receiving PD-L1 therapy, the incidence of suspected PD-L1-related AKI is low (<1%) and may be less common when compared to other classes of ICIs. This cohort provides further validation that other drugs associated with acute interstitial nephritis may be involved in the pathogenesis of ICI-related AKI.

17.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003973

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) treat an expanding range of cancers. Consistent basic data suggest that these same checkpoints are critical negative regulators of atherosclerosis. Therefore, our objectives were to test whether ICIs were associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a higher risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events. Methods: The study was situated in a single academic medical center. The primary analysis evaluated whether exposure to an ICI was associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in 2842 patients and 2842 controls, matched by age, a history of cardiovascular events and cancer type. In a second design, a case-crossover analysis was performed with an "at-risk period" defined as the two-year period after and the "control period" as the two-year prior to treatment. The primary outcome was a composite of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization and ischemic stroke). Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. Additionally, in an imaging sub-study (n=40), the rate of atherosclerotic plaque progression was compared from before and after starting an ICI. All study measures and outcomes were blindly adjudicated. Results: In the matched cohort study, there was a 3-fold higher risk for cardiovascular events after starting an ICI (HR, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.0-5.5]; P<0.001). There was a similar increase in each of the individual components of the primary outcome. In the case-crossover, there was also an increase in cardiovascular events from 1.37 to 6.55 per 100 person-years at two years (adjusted HR, 4.8 [95% CI, 3.5-6.5]; P<0.001). In the imaging study, the rate of progression of total aortic plaque volume was >3-fold higher with ICIs (from 2.1%/year pre-to 6.7%/year post). This association between ICI use and increased atherosclerotic plaque progression was attenuated with concomitant use of statins or corticosteroids. Conclusions: Cardiovascular events were higher after initiation of ICIs, potentially mediated by accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Optimization of cardiovascular risk factors and increased awareness of cardiovascular risk, prior to, during and after treatment, should be considered among patients on an ICI.

18.
Oncologist ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As indications for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy have increased in recent years, so has the proportion of patients eligible for this type of therapy. However, a lack of data exists about the risks and benefits of ICI therapy in hospitalized patients, who tend to be frailer and sicker than patients enrolled in clinical trials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among hospitalized patients with metastatic solid tumors who received ICI therapy at a large academic cancer center over the course of 4 years. We analyzed the characteristics and outcomes of these patients and identified demographic and clinical factors that could be used to predict mortality. RESULTS: During the 4-year study period, 106 patients were treated with ICI therapy while admitted to the hospital; 70 (66%) had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≥2, which would have prevented them from enrolling in most clinical trials of ICIs. Fifty-two patients (49%) died either during admission or within 30 days of discharge; median overall survival was 1.0 month from discharge, and 16 patients (15%) were alive 6 months after discharge. Independent predictors of death following receipt of inpatient ICI included a diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer relative to melanoma and prior treatment with two or more lines of therapy. CONCLUSION: The poor overall outcomes observed in this study may give clinicians pause when considering ICI therapy for hospitalized patients, particularly those with characteristics that are associated with a greater risk of mortality. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Immunotherapy strategies for patients with cancer are rapidly evolving and their use is expanding, but not all patients will develop a response, and secondary toxicity can be significant and challenging. This is especially evident in hospitalized patients, where the economic cost derived from inpatient immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) administration is important and the clinical benefit is sometimes unclear. The poor overall outcomes evidenced in the ICI inpatient population in this study highlight the need to better identify the patients that will respond to these therapies, which will also help to decrease the financial burden imposed by these highly priced therapies.

19.
Oncologist ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103803

RESUMO

Brain metastases account for considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Despite increasing prevalence, limited therapeutic options exist. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of the tumor immune microenvironment and the immune evasive mechanisms employed by tumor cells have shed light on how immunotherapies may provide therapeutic benefit to patients. The development and evolution of immunotherapy continue to show promise for the treatment of brain metastases. Positive outcomes have been observed in several studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of these treatments. However, many challenges persist in the application of immunotherapies to brain metastases. This review discusses the potential benefits and challenges in the development and use of checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, and oncolytic viruses for the treatment of brain metastases. Future studies are necessary to further evaluate and assess the potential use of each of these therapies in this setting. As we gain more knowledge regarding the role immunotherapies may play in the treatment of brain metastases, it is important to consider how these treatments may guide clinical decision making for clinicians and the impact they may have on patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Immunotherapies have produced clinically significant outcomes in early clinical trials evaluating patients with brain metastases or demonstrated promising results in preclinical models. Checkpoint inhibitors have been the most common immunotherapy studied to date in the setting of brain metastases, but novel approaches that can harness the immune system to contain and eliminate cancer cells are currently under investigation and may soon become more common in the clinical setting. An understanding of these evolving therapies may be useful in determining how the future management and treatment of brain metastases among patients with cancer will continue to advance.

20.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant targeted therapy (TT) improves relapse free survival in patients with resected BRAF mutant stage III melanoma. The outcomes and optimal management of patients who relapse after adjuvant TT is unknown. METHODS: Patients from twenty-one centres with recurrent melanoma after adjuvant TT were included. Disease characteristics, adjuvant therapy, recurrence, treatment at relapse and outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients developed recurrent melanoma; nineteen (22%) during adjuvant TT. Median time to first recurrence was 18 months and median follow-up from first recurrence was 31 months. Fifty-eight (68%) patients received immunotherapy (IT) or TT as 1st line systemic therapy at either first or subsequent recurrence and had disease that was assessable for response. Response to anti-PD-1 (±trial agent), combination ipilimumab-nivolumab, TT rechallenge and ipilimumab monotherapy was 63%, 62% 25% and 10% respectively. Twenty-eight (33%) patients had died at census, all from melanoma. Two-year OS was 84% for anti-PD-1 therapy (±trial agent), 92% for combination ipilimumab and nivolumab, 49% for TT and 45% for ipilimumab monotherapy (p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who relapse after adjuvant TT respond well to subsequent anti-PD-1 based therapy and have outcomes similar to those seen when first line anti-PD-1 therapy is used in stage IV melanoma.

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