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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246934, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285605

RESUMO

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; o filo Mollusca possui importante posição na teia alimentar e atua como bioindicador, praga e hospedeiro intermediário. Por serem resistentes, são chamadas baratas de malacologia. Os caramujos físidos foram coletados em diferentes corpos d'água de Faisalabad (Punjab) e identificados até as espécies por meio de marcadores morfológicos. A morfometria dos corpos de prova foi realizada com auxílio de paquímetro digital Vernier em milímetros (mm) por meio de medida linear dos caracteres da casca. A análise de regressão linear da razão AL / SW vs. AL e razão SL / SW vs. AL indicou que o crescimento alométrico existe apenas em Physa acuta quando comparado com P. gyrina e P. fontinalis. Este estudo levará a avaliar a situação das espécies de físido no Punjab Central. A análise do componente principal mostra que o componente 1 (comprimento da casca) e o componente 2 (largura da casca) são os componentes mais prolíficos e quase 80% da identificação. A distância entre P. acuta e P. fontinalis é 5,4699, P. acuta e P. gyrina é 7,6411, P. fontinalis e P. gyrina é 16,6080, mostrando que P. acuta se assemelha a P. fontinalis, e ambos os espécimes não se parecem com P. gyrina. P. acuta é uma espécie invasora e apresenta bioatividade, tornando-se uma candidata potente para substâncias bioativas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246984, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285632

RESUMO

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; pertencem ao filo Mollusca e, sendo bioindicadores, hospedeiros intermediários de parasitas e pragas, ocupam uma posição-chave no ecossistema. Existem três espécies do gênero Physa, ou seja, P. fontinalis, Physa acuta e P. gyrina em corpos d'água do Punjab Central e foram caracterizadas com base em marcadores moleculares. Alto nível de diversidade genética foi revelado por RAPD polimórfico, no entanto os marcadores SSR não foram amplificados. A análise multivariada revelou polimorfismo variando de 9,09% a 50% entre as três espécies de Physid. Um número total de 79 loci foi observado para as três espécies em estudo e 24 loci foram observados como polimórficos. Esses fragmentos RAPD podem ser desenvolvidos em marcadores codominantes (SCAR) por clonagem e podem ser posteriormente sequenciados para o desenvolvimento de marcadores específicos da espécie Physa para identificar as espécies introduzidas e nativas no Paquistão.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interferential current (IFC) is one of the most common electrotherapeutic modalities used in the treatment of painful conditions. Patients seeking medical help in order to reduce their musculoskeletal pain can be treated using IFC. OBJECTIVE: The current review aims to analyze the recently available information regarding the efficacy of IFC in alleviating the pain of musculoskeletal origin. METHODS: This study used Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, and EBSCOas as data sources. The initial selection of the studies, thorough assessment of the full articles, and extraction of the necessary study characteristics were carried out by two independent reviewers. Another two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of each included trial against 39 criteria. These criteria were integrated from several popular scales. Pain intensity-measured using the visual analog scale, numeric pain rating scale, or McGill Questionnaire-was the outcome of interest. RESULTS: This review included 35 trials of variable methodological quality from which 19 trials were selected for the meta-analysis. In general, IFC alone versus placebo demonstrated a significant pain-relieving effect. On the other hand, IFC showed no significant difference when added to standard treatment compared to placebo plus standard treatment or standard treatment alone. Similarly, IFC showed no significant difference when compared to other single interventions (laser, TENS, cryotherapy). CONCLUSION: IFC alone is better than placebo at discharge. However, the low number of studies raises suspicions about this conclusion. IFC alone or added to other interventions is not more effective than comparative treatments in relieving musculoskeletal pain.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 814-821, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153402

RESUMO

Abstract Untreated sewage and industrial wastes from Faisalabad city are disposed to River Chenab through Chakbandi Main Drain (CMD). The present project is planned to investigate the effects of this freshwater pollution on the body of fish Ictalurus punctatus. The specimens of this fish species were collected upstream and downstream of the entrance of CMD into River Chenab. Fish gills, liver, kidney and muscles from dorsolateral regions of fish were subjected to histopathology. Farmed fish and fish from upstream areas were used as control. Fish collected from polluted experimental sites showed significant damage in selected organs. Gill tissues showed an abnormality in the form of an uplifting of the primary epithelium, fusion, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and necrosis. While liver tissues subjected to hepatocytes degeneration, necrosis, mitochondrial granular hepatocyte, and sinusoids dilation. Kidney tissues indicated increased bowmen space and constricted glomerulus and degenerated nephrons. Edema, necrosis, and atrophy were observed in muscle tissues of fish from polluted areas. Fish from the upstream area showed fused gill lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, hypertrophy and vacuolation in hepatocytes. Kidney tissues indicated the presence of nuclear tubular cells, destructive renal tubules, hemorrhage, and necrosis at tubular epithelium. Intra myofibril spaces were also observed in muscles. Specimens of control fish indicated no variation in gills, liver, kidney, and muscles. The present study revealed a strong correlation between the degree of tissue damage and environmental contamination. Present findings also compel global warnings to protect our water bodies and fish to rescue the human population.


Resumo O esgoto não tratado e os resíduos industriais da cidade de Faisalabad, no Paquistão, são descartados no Rio Chenab através do dreno principal de Chakbandi (CMD). O presente projeto busca investigar os efeitos dessa poluição de água doce no corpo de peixes Ictalurus punctatus. Os espécimes deste peixe foram coletados a montante e a jusante da entrada do CMD no Rio Chenab. Brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos das regiões dorsolaterais dos peixes foram submetidos à histopatologia. Peixes de criação e peixes de áreas a montante foram utilizados como controle. Peixes coletados em locais experimentais poluídos mostraram danos significativos em órgãos selecionados. Os tecidos branquiais mostraram uma anormalidade na forma de elevação do epitélio primário, fusão, vacuolação, hipertrofia e necrose. Observou-se que os tecidos hepáticos estão sujeitos a degeneração de hepatócitos, necrose, hepatócitos mitocondriais granulares e dilatação de sinusoides. Os tecidos renais indicaram aumento do espaço dos arqueiros, glomérulos contraídos e néfrons degenerados. Edema, necrose e atrofia foram observados nos tecidos musculares de peixes de áreas poluídas. Peixes da área a montante apresentaram lamelas branquiais fundidas, infiltração de células inflamatórias, hipertrofia e vacuolização em hepatócitos. Os tecidos renais indicaram a presença de células tubulares nucleares, túbulos renais destrutivos, hemorragia e necrose no epitélio tubular. Os espaços intramiofibrilas também foram observados nos músculos. Amostras de peixes controle não indicaram variação em brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos. O presente estudo revelou uma forte correlação entre o grau de dano tecidual e a contaminação ambiental. As descobertas atuais também constituem avisos globais para proteger nossos corpos d'água e peixes para resguardar a população humana.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431912

RESUMO

Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Caramujos , Animais
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431913

RESUMO

Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Filogenia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(2): 368-375, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830116

RESUMO

The central sulcus (CS) is a prominent landmark of the brain, separating the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex. Variations in the morphology of the central sulcus are seen with respect to the length and depth of the central sulcus. This study was done to establish a normal standard of length and depth of central sulcus in different age and sex groups of Bangladeshi people. Interhemispheric age and gender differences of the central sulcus were done by cross sectional descriptive study which was performed into four categories- Group A (20 to 29 years), Group B (30 to 39 years), Group C (40 to 49 years) and Group D (50 years & above). The specimens were collected from morgue in the department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh by purposive sampling technique. The length of central sulcus was measured by using thread and the depth was measured by using wooden stick at middle of the upper, middle and lower third of the central sulcus in superolateral surface. The mean length of central sulcus was 10.51±0.529cm to 9.78±0.996cm in male and 10.27±0.786cm to 8.83±0.379cm in female. Depth of the central sulcus was 1.333±0.100cm to 1.029±0.125cm in male and 1.173±0.144cm to 1.01±0.200cm in female. The difference in mean length & depth of the central sulcus for both left and right hemisphere between male and female was statistically non significant in all age groups. In present study the length and depth of the central sulcus showed gradual decreasing values with advancing age. Knowledge of morphometry of central sulcus is not only important during neurosurgery of brain but also holds tremendous significance in diagnosis and management of diseases of the cerebral cortex. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the length and depth of the central sulcus of Bangladeshi people which will minimize the dependency on foreign standards.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Autopsia , Bangladesh , Cadáver , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(9): 1558-1571, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754881

RESUMO

Colon cancer is a life-threatening disease all over the world and is linked to constant oxidative stress and inflammation. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is a naturally occurring flavone possessing health benefiting pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. Our study investigates the role of EGCG on N,N'-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), a toxic environmental pollutant, induced colon toxicity. To investigate the effect of EGCG, Wistar rats were given EGCG for 7 days at the two doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight and DMH was injected on the seventh day in all the group rats except the control. Our results indicate that DMH administration increased the oxidative stress (MDA) and depleted the glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GR, GST and GPx) which was significantly ameliorated by EGCG treatment. Additionally DMH treatment upregulated inflammatory markers expression (NF-κB, COX-2 and IL-6) and enhanced mucosal damage in the colon. EGCG treatment significantly reduced inflammation and restored the normal histoarchitecture of the colon. We can conclude from the present study findings that EGCG protects the colon from DMH toxicity through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential.

9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 154-158, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397867

RESUMO

Calcarine sulcus, one of the major sulcus of occipital lobe of cerebral hemisphere which is intimately related with visual function. The detailed anatomy of this lobe is essential for the surgeons and radiologists for clinical investigation & surgery. The aim of the present study was to identify the variation of this sulcus of the occipital lobe. This study was done to establish a normal standard in length of calcarine sulcus in different age & sex groups of Bangladeshi people. Inter-hemispheric age and gender differences of this sulcus was done by cross sectional descriptive study which was performed into four categories: Group A (20 to 29 years), Group B (30 to 39 years), Group C (40 to 49 years) and Group D (50 years & above). The specimens were collected from morgue in the department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh by purposive sampling technique. The length of calcarine sulcus was measured by using thread. The mean length of calcarine sulcus was lowest to highest values 7.07±0.616cm to 7.86±0.792cm in male and 6.53±0.808cm to 7.62±0.806cm in female. The mean difference of the length of right calcarine sulcus between group A & D was statistically significant at p<0.05, but not significant in any other age & sex groups for both left and right hemisphere. In present study, the length of the calcarine sulcus showed gradual decreasing values with advancing age. For proper planning of neurosurgical procedures and radiological representation of visual functional areas, detailed knowledge on the variation of this sulcus is essential. Proper knowledge of calcarine sulcus can permit safer access to deep structures and reduce operative complications. The present study will also help to increase the information pool on the length of the calcarine sulcus of Bangladeshi people which will minimize the dependency on foreign standards.


Assuntos
Lobo Occipital , Autopsia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cadáver , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Braz J Biol ; 81(3): 814-821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965341

RESUMO

Untreated sewage and industrial wastes from Faisalabad city are disposed to River Chenab through Chakbandi Main Drain (CMD). The present project is planned to investigate the effects of this freshwater pollution on the body of fish Ictalurus punctatus. The specimens of this fish species were collected upstream and downstream of the entrance of CMD into River Chenab. Fish gills, liver, kidney and muscles from dorsolateral regions of fish were subjected to histopathology. Farmed fish and fish from upstream areas were used as control. Fish collected from polluted experimental sites showed significant damage in selected organs. Gill tissues showed an abnormality in the form of an uplifting of the primary epithelium, fusion, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and necrosis. While liver tissues subjected to hepatocytes degeneration, necrosis, mitochondrial granular hepatocyte, and sinusoids dilation. Kidney tissues indicated increased bowmen space and constricted glomerulus and degenerated nephrons. Edema, necrosis, and atrophy were observed in muscle tissues of fish from polluted areas. Fish from the upstream area showed fused gill lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, hypertrophy and vacuolation in hepatocytes. Kidney tissues indicated the presence of nuclear tubular cells, destructive renal tubules, hemorrhage, and necrosis at tubular epithelium. Intra myofibril spaces were also observed in muscles. Specimens of control fish indicated no variation in gills, liver, kidney, and muscles. The present study revealed a strong correlation between the degree of tissue damage and environmental contamination. Present findings also compel global warnings to protect our water bodies and fish to rescue the human population.


Assuntos
Ictaluridae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brânquias , Humanos , Rim , Fígado , Músculos
11.
Environ Res ; 193: 110398, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127396

RESUMO

This study focused on producing high quality and yield of biodiesel from novel non-edible seed oil of abundantly available wild Raphnus raphanistrum L. using an efficient, recyclable and eco-friendly copper modified montmorillonite (MMT) clay catalyst. The maximum biodiesel yield of 83% was obtained by base catalyzed transesterification process under optimum operating conditions of methanol to oil ratio of 15:1, reaction temperature of 150 °C, reaction time of 5 h and catalyst loading of 3.5%. The synthesized catalyst and biodiesel were characterized for their structural features and chemical compositions using various state-of-the-art techniques, including x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were estimated including kinematic viscosity (4.36 cSt), density (0.8312 kg/L), flash point (72 °C), acid value (0.172 mgKOH/g) and sulphur content (0.0002 wt.%). These properties were compared and found in good agreement with the International Biodiesel Standards of American (ASTM-951, 6751), European Committee (EN-14214) and China GB/T 20828 (2007). The catalyst was re-used in five consecutive transesterification reactions without losing much catalytic efficiency. Overall, non-edible Raphnus raphanistrum L.. seed oil and Cu doped MMT clay catalyst appeared to be highly active, stable, and cheap contenders for future biofuel industry. However, detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of Raphnus raphanistrum L. seed oil biodiesel are highly recommended to assess the technical, ecological, social and economic challenges.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Biocombustíveis , Biocombustíveis/análise , Catálise , China , Argila , Cobre , Óleos Vegetais
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 144-151, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nipah virus (NiV) infection, often fatal in humans, is primarily transmitted in Bangladesh through the consumption of date palm sap contaminated by Pteropus bats. Person-to-person transmission is also common and increases the concern of large outbreaks. This study aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology, phylogenetic relationship, and the evolution of the nucleocapsid gene (N gene) of NiV. METHODS: We conducted molecular detection, genetic characterization, and Bayesian time-scale evolution analyses of NiV using pooled Pteropid bat roost urine samples from an outbreak area in 2012 and archived RNA samples from NiV case patients identified during 2012-2018 in Bangladesh. RESULTS: NiV-RNA was detected in 19% (38/456) of bat roost urine samples and among them; nine N gene sequences were recovered. We also retrieved sequences from 53% (21 out of 39) of archived RNA samples from patients. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Bangladeshi strains belonged to NiV-BD genotype and had an evolutionary rate of 4.64 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year. The analyses suggested that the strains of NiV-BD genotype diverged during 1995 and formed two sublineages. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides further evidence that the NiV strains of the Malaysian and Bangladesh genotypes diverged recently and continue to evolve. More extensive surveillance of NiV in bats and human will be helpful to explore strain diversity and virulence potential to infect humans through direct or person-to-person virus transmission.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Vírus Nipah/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 823-828, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142532

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a poluição da água examinando a fragmentação do DNA em órgãos de peixes selecionados (rim, fígado, brânquias e tecido muscular) de Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris e Labeo rohita coletados de uma conhecida área poluída do rio Chenab, Paquistão e de um local de controle. Os peixes foram capturados usando uma rede branquial e foram divididos em três grupos de pesos diferentes (W1, W2 e W3) para estudar o grau de variação na fragmentação do DNA em relação ao peso corporal. Nos peixes do local poluído, a fragmentação do DNA foi maior nos rins, fígado, brânquias e músculos, em comparação ao controle. Não foi observada fragmentação significativa do DNA em peixes coletados no local de controle. Relação altamente significativa (P <0,01) entre o peso corporal e a fragmentação do DNA foi encontrada nos órgãos dos peixes adquiridos no local contaminado. Verificou-se que a fragmentação do DNA nos órgãos do corpo é afetada pelas concentrações de chumbo, cobre, níquel e cádmio em W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita e V. vulgarus colhidos no rio Chenab. A fragmentação do DNA em diferentes espécies de peixes de água doce é, portanto, um biomarcador confiável da poluição da água.

14.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(7): 3600-3606, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102336

RESUMO

Introduction: In a country where 30,570 dentists graduate per year, it is staggering to acknowledge that only 10% of dentists serve the rural people, who constitute around 68.8% of the country's population. Aim: To find out the oral healthcare-seeking behavior, profile, and pattern in Tenali Mandal among WHO recommended index age groups. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multilocality, single-visit study was done to acknowledge the oral healthcare-seeking behavior, profile, and pattern in Tenali Mandal, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. There are 9 villages, 2 peri-urban, and 1 town present in the Tenali Mandal and the study was conducted following the National Pathfinder Survey. Results: Around 35.4% of the study participants utilized dental services while most of them sought care in the last 1-6 months (23.4%) and the main reason for the last dental visit was tooth pain (13.1%), followed by decayed tooth without pain (6.9%). Dental care-seeking behavior among the age group of 12 years was 1.611 times more when compared to 65-74 years age group which was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.010). For dental care-seeking behavior among gender, the males utilized 0.982 times less when compared to females which was not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.881), while for the place of residence, urban place was 2.707 times more utilizing the services when compared to rural place which was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the study indicates that the barriers of oral healthcare-seeking behavior among dental health conditions poses public health problems in the study area, as well as it is an important baseline indicator against which target for oral health improvement can be set and monitored.

15.
Anal Methods ; 12(20): 2590-2598, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930285

RESUMO

In the current study, we applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the elemental distribution of nutritional and trace heavy metals in pepper powders available in Pakistan using the standard calibration curve of laser induced breakdown spectroscopic (CC-LIBS) technique. The samples were found to contain elements such as K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn, Al, Pb, Cu, and Cr. In addition, we also identified the atmospheric H-alpha line of hydrogen in the spectra, which was used to estimate the electron number density. To achieve a highly sensitive LIBS system to determine the trace amounts of nutritional and toxic metals in the pepper powders and to achieve the best limit of detection, the LIBS system was optimized by studying the dependency of the LIBS signal intensity on laser irradiance, variation in spacing between the focusing lens and target, as well as on the gate width. To justify the results of the LIBS study, we also determined the concentration of similar (duplicate) peppers by digesting the samples in appropriate solvents using a standard method such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The minimum detection limit was obtained for trace heavy metals from the calibration curves. The results of LIBS displayed noteworthy conformity with those acquired from the ICP-OES analysis. The results of both the techniques clearly revealed that K was the most abundant element in all the peppers, followed by Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr. The relative accuracy of our LIBS system for different species as compared with the ICP technique was in the range of 0.08-0.3 at 2.5% error confidence. Conclusively, the present work demonstrated the suitability of the LIBS technique due to its rapid, non-destructive, and eco-friendly approach for food security.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Lasers , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Pós , Análise Espectral
16.
Talanta ; 217: 121007, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498889

RESUMO

In this work, we applied laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate the amount of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni) in five different brands of face foundation powders available in the local market using standard calibration curve (CC)-LIBS approach. These samples contain toxic elements like lead, chromium, nickel which are highly carcinogens to cause eczematous and atopic dermatitis. The strongest atomic transition lines of lead (405.7 line), chromium (425.4 nm line), and nickel (336.9 nm line) were used as spectral markers to simultaneously detect these three heavy metals in face powder samples. The LIBS experimental parameters (delay time, laser energy, and focusing lens to target spacing) were optimized to enhance the signal to noise ratio in the resulting LIBS spectra. The consequence of self-absorption on the marker peaks used in the LIBS analysis was investigated and found to be insignificant. We calibrated our LIBS system for these three heavy metals, whose levels were found above the permissible limits. The face foundation powder used every day augments up to considerable exposure of heavy metals in the human body which could cause many skin disorders. Our LIBS quantitative results were also cross-validated by analysis using a standard analytical technique known as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). This study is highly significant due to the excessive use of cosmetic products especially face powder that could affect the health of millions of people around the globe.


Assuntos
Lasers , Metais Pesados/análise , Humanos , Pós , Análise Espectral
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(2): 248-253, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506074

RESUMO

Cinnamomum zeylanicum as medicinal plants are measured as new resources for preparing elements in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant microbes as alternatives to antibiotics. This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against a Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics and department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2017 to July 2018. Evaluation of the in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed by disc diffusion method. And also in this study we used broth dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Ethanol cinnamon extract (ECE) was found active against P. aeruginosa. Zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranged between 6-25mm at different concentration of extracts. The MIC was 0.3g/ml. Cinnamomum zeylanicum showed strong antibacterial activity against a Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in antipseudomonal regimens.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Antibacterianos , Bangladesh , Etanol , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(2): 263-268, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506076

RESUMO

This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 80 human placenta and umbilical cord to find out the variation in length of umbilical cord of healthy Bangladeshi mother in relation to different gestational age. This study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, from January to December 2018. The specimens were collected from the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh by purposive sampling technique. According to gestational age the collected samples were divided into three groups. They were Group A (28 to 36 weeks), Group B (37 to 40 weeks) and Group C (above 40 weeks) and examined morphologically by fine dissection method. The length of umbilical cord was measured with the help of flexible tape in cm. For statistical analysis, differences of length between age groups were analyzed by using unpaired student 't' test. The mean±SD length of umbilical cord was 56.15±7.61cm in Group A, 62.54±8.78cm in Group B and 68.54±10.53cm in Group C. It was also observed that the mean length of the umbilical cord was increased with increase of gestational age. The mean difference of length of umbilical cord between Groups A and C was statistically highly significant (p<0.001), difference between Groups A and B was statistically moderately significant (p<0.01) but the difference between Groups B and C was statistically significant (p<0.05). This study was done to provide information about the length of umbilical cord in different gestational ages of healthy pregnancies.


Assuntos
Mães , Cordão Umbilical , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez
19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 162-168, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915353

RESUMO

Hypertension and diabetes co-exist frequently. Therefore, salt intake behavior, a risk factor of hypertension, in diabetic patients plays an important role in determining their cardiovascular outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and behaviors of health risks associated with a salt intake in adults with type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the type 2 diabetic in-patients of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October to December 2016. Data were collected from 131 respondents through interview using WHO STEPS module of salt with adaptation to local context like on amount of added salt while taking meal. Information on blood pressure, body mass index and relevant co-morbidities were also collected. About half of the respondents were women (56.5%). Mean age of the respondents was 54.3±14.4 years. More than six in 10 of them (62.6%) took added salt while taking meal; and 40.5% took processed foods with high salt. The mean amount of added salt intake among the users was 4.4±1.6gm per day having no significant difference between men and women. Though 47.3% of the respondents believed that lowering salt in meal is very important and 77.9% of them believed that excess salt or salty sauce can cause health problems. Salt intake behavior is poor in patients with type 2 diabetes even having regular contacts with doctors and other health professionals. Appropriate measures can be taken to increase awareness, change their attitude and behavior regarding salt consumption.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
20.
Braz J Biol ; 80(4): 823-828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778486

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Fragmentação do DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Brânquias , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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