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2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28022, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case reports have portrayed spinal cord atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (spATRT) as an aggressive form of ATRT. We conducted a retrospective European survey to collect data on clinical characteristics, molecular biology, treatment, and outcome of children with intramedullary spATRT. METHODS: Scrutinizing a French national series and the European Rhabdoid Registry database, we identified 13 patients (median age 32 months; metastatic disease at diagnosis, n = 6). Systemic postoperative chemotherapy was administered to all patients; three received intrathecal therapy and six were irradiated (craniospinal, n = 3; local, n = 3). RESULTS: Median observation time was 8 (range, 1-93) months. Progression-free and overall survival rates at 1 and (2 years) were 35.2% ± 13.9% (26.4% ± 12.9%) and 38.5% ± 13.5% (23.1% ± 11.7%). Four patients (ATRT-SHH, n = 2; ATRT-MYC, n = 1; DNA methylation subgroup not available, n = 1) achieved complete remission (CR); two of them are alive in CR 69 and 72 months from diagnosis. One patient relapsed after CR and is alive with progressive disease (PD) and one died of the disease. Three patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 1) died after 7 to 22 months due to PD after having achieved a partial remission (n = 1) or stabilization (n = 2). Five patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 3) developed early PD and died. One patient (ATRT-MYC) died of intracerebral hemorrhage prior to response evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is achievable in selected patients with spATRT using aggressive multimodality treatment. Larger case series and detailed molecular analyses are needed to understand differences between spATRT and their inracranial counterparts and the group of extradural malignant rhabdoid tumors.

3.
Nature ; 576(7786): 274-280, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802000

RESUMO

Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) are aggressive paediatric embryonal brain tumours with a universally poor prognosis1. Here we collected 193 primary ETMRs and 23 matched relapse samples to investigate the genomic landscape of this distinct tumour type. We found that patients with tumours in which the proposed driver C19MC2-4 was not amplified frequently had germline mutations in DICER1 or other microRNA-related aberrations such as somatic amplification of miR-17-92 (also known as MIR17HG). Whole-genome sequencing revealed that tumours had an overall low recurrence of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), but showed prevalent genomic instability caused by widespread occurrence of R-loop structures. We show that R-loop-associated chromosomal instability can be induced by the loss of DICER1 function. Comparison of primary tumours and matched relapse samples showed a strong conservation of structural variants, but low conservation of SNVs. Moreover, many newly acquired SNVs are associated with a mutational signature related to cisplatin treatment. Finally, we show that targeting R-loops with topoisomerase and PARP inhibitors might be an effective treatment strategy for this deadly disease.

4.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to what may be defined as standard of care (including markers for stratification) for patients with Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors (ATRT). The European Rhabdoid Registry, EU-RHAB, recruits uniformly treated patients and offers standardized genetic and DNA methylation analyses. METHODS: Clinical, genetic and treatment data of 143 patients from 13 European countries were analyzed (2009 - 2017). Therapy consisted of surgery, anthracycline-based induction and either radiotherapy or high dose chemotherapy following a consensus among European experts. FISH, MLPA and sequencing were employed for assessment of somatic and germline mutations in SMARCB1. Molecular subgroups (ATRT-SHH, -TYR and -MYC) were determined using DNA-methylation arrays resulting in profiles of 84 tumors. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis of 67 girls and 76 boys was 29.5 months. 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 34.7±4.5% and 30.5±4.2%. Tumors displayed allelic partial/whole gene deletions (66%; 122/186 alleles) or single nucleotide variants (34%; 64/186 alleles) of SMARCB1. Germline mutations were detected in 26% of ATRT (30/117). The patient cohort consisted of 47% ATRT-SHH (39/84), 33% ATRT-TYR (28/84), and 20% ATRT-MYC 17/84). Age <1 year, non-TYR signature (ATRT-SHH or -MYC), metastatic or synchronous tumors, germline mutation, incomplete remission and omission of radiotherapy were negative prognostic factors in univariate analyses (p<0.05). An adjusted multivariate model identified age <1 year and a non-TYR signature as independent negative predictors of OS: high risk (<1 year + non-TYR; 5-year OS = 0%), intermediate risk (<1 year + ATRT-TYR or ≥1 year + non-TYR; 5-year OS = 32.5±8.7%) and standard risk (≥1 year + ATRT-TYR, 5-year OS = 71.5±12.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Age and molecular subgroup status are independent risk factors for survival in children with ATRT. Our model warrants validation within future clinical trials.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4343, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554817

RESUMO

Infant gliomas have paradoxical clinical behavior compared to those in children and adults: low-grade tumors have a higher mortality rate, while high-grade tumors have a better outcome. However, we have little understanding of their biology and therefore cannot explain this behavior nor what constitutes optimal clinical management. Here we report a comprehensive genetic analysis of an international cohort of clinically annotated infant gliomas, revealing 3 clinical subgroups. Group 1 tumors arise in the cerebral hemispheres and harbor alterations in the receptor tyrosine kinases ALK, ROS1, NTRK and MET. These are typically single-events and confer an intermediate outcome. Groups 2 and 3 gliomas harbor RAS/MAPK pathway mutations and arise in the hemispheres and midline, respectively. Group 2 tumors have excellent long-term survival, while group 3 tumors progress rapidly and do not respond well to chemoradiation. We conclude that infant gliomas comprise 3 subgroups, justifying the need for specialized therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Feminino , Glioma/classificação , Glioma/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor trkA/genética , Receptor trkA/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
6.
J Neurooncol ; 145(1): 177-184, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare clinically, neuro-radiologically, and molecularly defined malignancy of the brainstem with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months. Our aim is to evaluate the current tendency for its treatment in Europe in order to develop (inter)national consensus guidelines. METHODS: Healthcare professionals specialized in DIPG were asked to fill in an online survey with questions regarding usual treatment strategies at diagnosis and at disease progression in their countries and/or their centers, respectively. RESULTS: Seventy-four healthcare professionals responded to the survey, of which 87.8% were pediatric oncologists. Only 13.5% of the respondents biopsy all of their patients, 41.9% biopsy their patients infrequently. More than half of the respondents (54.1%) treated their patients with radiotherapy only at diagnosis, whereas 44.6% preferred radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. When the disease progresses, treatment strategies became even more diverse, and the tendency for no treatment increased from 1.4% at diagnosis to 77.0% after second progression. 36.5% of the healthcare professionals treat children younger than 3 years differently than older children at diagnosis. This percentage decreased, when the disease progresses. Most of the participants (51.4%) included less than 25% of their patients in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This survey demonstrates a large heterogeneity of treatment regimens, especially at disease progression. We emphasize the need for international consensus guidelines for the treatment of DIPG, possible by more collaborative clinical trials.

7.
Brain Dev ; 41(8): 678-690, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and clinical importance of brain gliomas - optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) and especially gliomas outside the optic pathway (GOOP) for children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), additionally, to assess the causes of obstructive hydrocephalus in NF1 children with an emphasis on cases caused by idiopathic aqueduct stenosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analysed data from 285 NF1 children followed up on our department from 1990 to 2010 by the same examination battery. RESULTS: We have found OPGs in 77/285 (27%) children and GOOPs in 29/285 (10,2%) of NF1 children, of who 19 had OPG and GOOP together, so the total number of brain glioma was 87/285 (30,5%). GOOPs were significantly more often treated than OPGs (p > 0.01). OPGs contain clinically important subgroup of 14/285 (4.9%) spreading to hypothalamus. Spontaneous regression was documented in 4/285 (1.4%) gliomas and the same number of NF1 children died due to gliomas. Obstructive hydrocephalus was found in 22/285 (7.7%) patients and 14/22 cases were due to glioma. Idiopathic aqueduct stenosis caused hydrocephalus in 6/22 cases and was found in 2.1% of NF1 children. Two had other cause. CONCLUSIONS: The total brain glioma number (OPGs and only GOOPs together) better reflected the overall brain tumour risk for NF1 children. However, GOOPs occur less frequently than OPGs, they are more clinically relevant. The obstructive hydrocephalus was severe and featuring frequent complication, especially those with GOOP. Idiopathic aqueduct stenosis shows an unpredictable cause of hydrocephalus in comparison with glioma and is another reason for careful neurologic follow up.


Assuntos
Glioma/epidemiologia , Hidrocefalia/epidemiologia , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Adolescente , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Tcheca , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Glioma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neurofibromatose 1/metabolismo , Neurofibromatose 1/fisiopatologia , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(6): 461-470, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. As several cancer syndromes are clinically similar, accurate diagnosis is critical to cancer screening and treatment. As genetic diagnosis is confounded by 15 or more pseudogenes and variants of uncertain significance, a robust diagnostic assay is urgently needed. We sought to determine whether an assay that directly measures MMR activity could accurately diagnose CMMRD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In vitro MMR activity was quantified using a 3'-nicked G-T mismatched DNA substrate, which requires MSH2-MSH6 and MLH1-PMS2 for repair. We quantified MMR activity from 20 Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with confirmed CMMRD. We also tested 20 lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients who were suspected for CMMRD. We also characterized MMR activity from patients with neurofibromatosis type 1, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, polymerase proofreading-associated cancer syndrome, and Lynch syndrome. RESULTS: All CMMRD cell lines had low MMR activity (n = 20; mean, 4.14 ± 1.56%) relative to controls (n = 6; mean, 44.00 ± 8.65%; P < .001). Repair was restored by complementation with the missing protein, which confirmed MMR deficiency. All cases of patients with suspected CMMRD were accurately diagnosed. Individuals with Lynch syndrome (n = 28), neurofibromatosis type 1 (n = 5), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (n = 5), and polymerase proofreading-associated cancer syndrome (n = 3) had MMR activity that was comparable to controls. To accelerate testing, we measured MMR activity directly from fresh lymphocytes, which yielded results in 8 days. CONCLUSION: On the basis of the current data set, the in vitro G-T repair assay was able to diagnose CMMRD with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Rapid diagnosis before surgery in non-neoplastic tissues could speed proper therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Testes Genéticos , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
10.
Cell ; 172(5): 1050-1062.e14, 2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474906

RESUMO

While the preponderance of morbidity and mortality in medulloblastoma patients are due to metastatic disease, most research focuses on the primary tumor due to a dearth of metastatic tissue samples and model systems. Medulloblastoma metastases are found almost exclusively on the leptomeningeal surface of the brain and spinal cord; dissemination is therefore thought to occur through shedding of primary tumor cells into the cerebrospinal fluid followed by distal re-implantation on the leptomeninges. We present evidence for medulloblastoma circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in therapy-naive patients and demonstrate in vivo, through flank xenografting and parabiosis, that medulloblastoma CTCs can spread through the blood to the leptomeningeal space to form leptomeningeal metastases. Medulloblastoma leptomeningeal metastases express high levels of the chemokine CCL2, and expression of CCL2 in medulloblastoma in vivo is sufficient to drive leptomeningeal dissemination. Hematogenous dissemination of medulloblastoma offers a new opportunity to diagnose and treat lethal disseminated medulloblastoma.


Assuntos
Meduloblastoma/irrigação sanguínea , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Meníngeas/secundário , Aloenxertos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/genética , Camundongos SCID , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Parabiose
11.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 21(2): 145-152, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Metastatic dissemination is a major treatment challenge and cause of death in patients with medulloblastoma. However, the influence of molecular biology on the pattern of metastatic dissemination at diagnosis is not known. In this study, the authors sought to define the location, pattern, and imaging characteristics of medulloblastoma metastases across subgroups at diagnosis. METHODS A consecutive cohort of patients with metastatic medulloblastoma at The Hospital for Sick Children and the University Hospital Motol, who underwent up-front MRI of the craniospinal axis, was assembled and allocated to subgroups using NanoString limited gene-expression profiling. Radiological characteristics (including location, morphology, size, diffusion restriction, and contrast enhancement) were discerned through a retrospective review. RESULTS Forty metastatic medulloblastomas were identified with up-front neuroimaging of the craniospinal axis: 5 sonic hedgehog (SHH), 16 Group 3, and 19 Group 4 metastases. Significant subgroup-specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to tumor location, size, and morphology. Group 3 metastases were most frequently laminar compared with a more nodular pattern in Group 4 (14 of 16 in Group 3 vs 8 of 19 in Group 4; p = 0.0004). Laminar metastases were not observed in patients with SHH medulloblastoma. Suprasellar metastases are highly specific to Group 4 (p = 0.016). Two of the 5 SHH cases had multifocal lesions in the cerebellum, raising the possibility that these were in fact synchronous primary tumors and not true metastases. A minority of patients with Group 4 metastases harbored metastatic deposits that did not enhance on MRI after contrast administration, often in patients whose primary tumor did not enhance. CONCLUSIONS The location, morphology, and imaging characteristics of metastatic medulloblastoma differ across molecular subgroups, with implications for diagnosis and management. This suggests that the biology of leptomeningeal dissemination differs among medulloblastoma subgroups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Neurooncol ; 132(2): 255-266, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110411

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare and deadly childhood malignancy. After 40 years of mostly single-center, often non-randomized trials with variable patient inclusions, there has been no improvement in survival. It is therefore time for international collaboration in DIPG research, to provide new hope for children, parents and medical professionals fighting DIPG. In a first step towards collaboration, in 2011, a network of biologists and clinicians working in the field of DIPG was established within the European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) Brain Tumour Group: the SIOPE DIPG Network. By bringing together biomedical professionals and parents as patient representatives, several collaborative DIPG-related projects have been realized. With help from experts in the fields of information technology, and legal advisors, an international, web-based comprehensive database was developed, The SIOPE DIPG Registry and Imaging Repository, to centrally collect data of DIPG patients. As for April 2016, clinical data as well as MR-scans of 694 patients have been entered into the SIOPE DIPG Registry/Imaging Repository. The median progression free survival is 6.0 months (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5.6-6.4 months) and the median overall survival is 11.0 months (95% CI 10.5-11.5 months). At two and five years post-diagnosis, 10 and 2% of patients are alive, respectively. The establishment of the SIOPE DIPG Network and SIOPE DIPG Registry means a paradigm shift towards collaborative research into DIPG. This is seen as an essential first step towards understanding the disease, improving care and (ultimately) cure for children with DIPG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviços de Informação , Cooperação Internacional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Sistema de Registros , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Ponte/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Brain Pathol ; 27(4): 411-418, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380723

RESUMO

Rhabdoid phenotype and loss of SMARCB1 expression in a brain tumor are characteristic features of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Rare non-rhabdoid brain tumors showing cribriform growth pattern and SMARCB1 loss have been designated cribriform neuroepithelial tumor (CRINET). Small case series suggest that CRINETs may have a relatively favorable prognosis. However, the long-term outcome is unclear and it remains uncertain whether CRINET represents a distinct entity or a variant of ATRT. Therefore, 10 CRINETs were clinically and molecularly characterized and compared with 10 ATRTs of each of three recently described molecular subgroups (i.e. ATRT-TYR, ATRT-SHH and ATRT-MYC) using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 arrays, FISH, MLPA, and sequencing. Furthermore, outcome was compared to a larger cohort of 27 children with ATRT-TYR. Median age of the 6 boys and 4 girls harboring a CRINET was 20 months. On histopathological examination, all CRINETs demonstrated a cribriform growth pattern and distinct tyrosinase staining. On unsupervised cluster analysis of methylation data, all CRINETs examined exclusively clustered within the ATRT-TYR molecular subgroup. As ATRT-TYR, CRINETs mainly showed large heterozygous 22q deletions (9/10) and SMARCB1 mutations of the other allele. In two patients, SMARCB1 mutations were also present in the germline. Estimated mean overall survival in patients with CRINETs was 125 months (95% confidence interval 100-151 months) as compared to only 53 (33-74) months in patients with ATRTs of the ATRT-TYR subgroup (Log-Rank P < 0.05). In conclusion, CRINET represents a SMARCB1-deficient non-rhabdoid tumor, which shares molecular similarities with the ATRT-TYR subgroup but has distinct histopathological features and favorable long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Proteína SMARCB1/deficiência , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/patologia , Tumor Rabdoide/patologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
14.
Acta Neuropathol ; 132(1): 149-51, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27067307
15.
Cancer Cell ; 29(3): 379-393, 2016 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26923874

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is one of the most common brain tumors in infants. Although the prognosis of ATRT patients is poor, some patients respond favorably to current treatments, suggesting molecular inter-tumor heterogeneity. To investigate this further, we genetically and epigenetically analyzed 192 ATRTs. Three distinct molecular subgroups of ATRTs, associated with differences in demographics, tumor location, and type of SMARCB1 alterations, were identified. Whole-genome DNA and RNA sequencing found no recurrent mutations in addition to SMARCB1 that would explain the differences between subgroups. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and H3K27Ac chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing of primary tumors, however, revealed clear differences, leading to the identification of subgroup-specific regulatory networks and potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Teratoma/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Proteína SMARCB1 , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Eur J Med Genet ; 59(3): 152-7, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657402

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia, complementation group D1 with bi-allelic FANCD1 (BRCA2) mutations, is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by early onset of childhood malignancies, including acute leukemia, brain cancer and nephroblastoma. Here, we present a case report of a family with 3 affected children in terms of treatment outcome, toxicity and characterization of the malignancies using comprehensive cytogenetic analysis. The first child was diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia when he was 11 months old. During chemotherapy, he suffered from repeated pancytopenia, sepsis and severe vincristine polyneuropathy, and 18 months after primary diagnosis, he succumbed to secondary acute monocytic leukemia. The second child was diagnosed with stage 2 triphasic nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor), when he was 3 years and 11 months old. During chemotherapy, he suffered from vincristine polyneuropathy. Currently, he is in complete remission, 29 months following the initial diagnosis. The third child was diagnosed with medulloblastoma with classical histology, when she was 4 years and 5 months old. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, she suffered from prolonged pancytopenia, sepsis and severe skin and mucosal toxicity. Six weeks after primary diagnosis, a first relapse in the posterior fossa was diagnosed, and at 7 and half months after primary diagnosis, a second relapse was diagnosed that led to the patient's death. Our case report underscores tumor heterogeneity, treatment toxicity and poor outcome in Fanconi anemia patients of complementation group D1.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Anemia de Fanconi/diagnóstico , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Família , Anemia de Fanconi/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Cancer Genet ; 207(9): 379-83, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24972932

RESUMO

Rhabdoid tumors are rare but highly aggressive malignancies of infancy and early childhood with a generally unfavorable prognosis. Despite a wide variety of anatomic locations rhabdoid tumors share mutational inactivation of the SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable) core component gene SMARCB1 (also known as INI1, hSNF5 or BAF47) in chromosome 22. As this inactivation usually results in loss of SMARCB1 expression, detectable by an antibody against the SMARCB1 protein, the accurate diagnosis of a rhabdoid tumor may be more distinctly and frequently made. Several reports on rhabdoid tumors presenting in various anatomic sites outside the kidneys and CNS are on record. We report two cases of rhabdoid tumors originating in the heart (cardiac tissue), which were entered into the European Rhabdoid Registry (EU-RHAB). The first case presented with intracardial and -cranial lesions as well as malignant ascites, while the second patient demonstrated an isolated cardiac tumor. This induced a different therapeutic approach and subsequently different clinical course (death 7 weeks after diagnosis in patient 1). Patient 2 presented with a bifocal intracardial tumor without metastases and remains in complete remission for 46 months since diagnosis following multimodal therapy. The second case demonstrates that even in a potentially futile clinical situation early and accurate diagnosis followed by prompt and intensive multimodal therapy may offer prolonged survival, potential cure and improved quality of life.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cardíacas/genética , Neoplasias Cardíacas/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/patologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/biossíntese , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Terapia Combinada , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Cardíacas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Sistema de Registros , Tumor Rabdoide/terapia , Proteína SMARCB1 , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
18.
Pediatrics ; 129(2): e523-8, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22271700

RESUMO

SH2D1A gene defects are the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder (XLP-1), a rare condition characterized by severe immune dysregulation. We present a patient lacking the typical symptoms of XLP-1, but experiencing a severe unusual skin condition encompassing features of dermatosclerosis and vesiculobullous skin disease. A maternal cousin of the patient was diagnosed with XLP-1 and found to carry a deletion of the SH2D1A gene. SH2D1A deletion was also identified in our patient, which offered a possible explanation for his skin symptoms. Subsequent analysis showed that the deletion in both cousins was identical and involved the whole SH2D1A gene and a part of the adjacent ODZ1 gene. High phenotypic variability of XLP-1 observed in this family prompted us to analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation of 2 different-sized deletions involving SH2D1A and ODZ1 in 5 patients from 2 families, and we report the clinical and laboratory data on these individuals. Our findings illustrate the wide clinical variability of XLP-1, both inter- and intrafamilial, which may complicate the diagnosis of this condition. The comparison of phenotypes of our patients argues against a strong involvement of the ODZ1 gene in the skin disorder and other symptoms observed in our index patient. His hitherto not described severe skin condition extends the phenotypic range of XLP-1.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Esclerodermia Localizada/genética , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Aplástica/diagnóstico , Anemia Aplástica/genética , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Éxons/genética , Sarcoma Histiocítico/diagnóstico , Sarcoma Histiocítico/terapia , Humanos , Mononucleose Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Mononucleose Infecciosa/terapia , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/terapia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Fenótipo , Esclerodermia Localizada/diagnóstico , Proteína Associada à Molécula de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/terapia , Tenascina
19.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 17(4): 801-8, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21461997

RESUMO

Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare tumors among children and adolescents and therefore are not genetically well characterized. The most frequently observed chromosomal changes in PCC are losses of 1p, 3q and/or 3p, 6q, 17p, 11q, 22q, and gains of 9q and 17q. Aberrations involving chromosome 11 are more common in malignant tumors. Unfortunately information about gene aberrations in childhood PCC's is limited. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to screen for copy number changes in four children suffering from pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Patients were diagnosed at the age 13 or 14 years. Bilateral pheochromocytoma was associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). Multiple paraganglioma was associated with a germline mutation in SDHB. We found very good concordance between the results of CGH and aCGH techniques. Losses were observed more frequently than gains. All cases had a loss of chromosome 11 or 11p. Other aberrations were loss of chromosome 3 and 11 in sporadic pheochromocytoma, and loss of 3p and 11p in pheochromocytoma, which carried the VHL mutation. The deletion of chromosome 1p and other changes were observed in paragangliomas. We conclude that both array CGH and CGH analysis identified similar chromosomal regions involved in tumorigenesis of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas, but we found 3 discrepancies between the methods. We didn't find any, of the proposed, molecular markers of malignancy in our benign cases and therefore we speculate that molecular cytogenetic examination may be helpful in separating benign and malignant forms in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Adolescente , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Citogenética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de von Hippel-Lindau/genética
20.
Virchows Arch ; 456(5): 463-72, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20405298

RESUMO

Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has two major histological subtypes: alveolar (aRMS) and embryonal. The aim of the study was to monitor minimal disseminated disease (MDD) using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RQ-RT-PCR) of the PAX3-FKHR, PAX7-FKHR fusion genes and myoD1 gene. We prepared an assay using RQ-RT-PCR for a quantitative assessment of MDD in aRMS by using hydrolysis probe for quantification of PAX3-FKHR, PAX7-FKHR and myoD1 genes and beta-2-microglobulin housekeeping gene. Primary tumor samples (44), samples of local recurrences (26) from 48 patients with aRMS were examined by nested RT-PCR and RQ-RT-PCR techniques. Additionally, bone marrow samples (115), peripheral blood progenitor cell samples (27), and peripheral blood samples (25) from 33 aRMS patients were tested. PAX3/7-FKHR and myoD1 transcripts proved to be a sensitive tool for detection of MDD in RMS. We were able to identify 15/25 patients with bone marrow (BM) involvement at the time of presentation using RQ-RT-PCR. We analyzed PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR expression during the course of the disease. The RQ-RT-PCR results correlated well with nested RT-PCR results (p < 0.0001). The presence of metastases is the most adverse prognostic factor in RMS, and bone marrow is a frequent site of the tumor dissemination in RMS, especially in aRMS. Our results detecting the fusion transcripts or myoD1 transcript in the BM or peripheral blood suggest that patients with positive findings are at high risk of the tumor progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Medula Óssea/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/análise , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/patologia , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Adolescente , Medula Óssea/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O1 , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteína MyoD/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Fator de Transcrição PAX3 , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/análise , Prognóstico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Rabdomiossarcoma/química , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/mortalidade , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/química , Rabdomiossarcoma Alveolar/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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