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1.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(2): 1200-1214, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899635

RESUMO

Optical electronic absorption spectroscopy and corresponding selection rules have played a prominent role in the development of the theory of electronic structure of materials. In this work, we expand the modern toolbox of chemistry and materials science to include electron and ion microscopies and spectroscopies, allowing spatially resolved interrogation of materials' atomic and electronic structures by beams of charged particles. Specifically, we formulate and discuss the selection rules for electronic excitation due to the interaction between materials and beams of charged particles. We show that transition probabilities for point charge-induced electronic excitations depend strongly on the position of the externally charged particles and can significantly deviate from those derived from the electric dipole (long-wavelength) approximation. We present and implement expressions within the linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) framework for rates of transition between the ground and excited states induced by an external point charge. The point charge-induced transition rates for particular electronic excitations from linear response TD-DFT were validated through comparison to excited state populations from real time TD-DFT simulations following an impulsive point charge perturbation, then evaluated on a three-dimensional grid to map their spatial dependence for a small polybenzoid. This method, when combined with information about excited state energy gradients, represents a first step toward an ab initio framework for probing the structural response of materials under irradiation by charged particles resulting from inelastic scattering. Engineering electron beam interaction with matter to manipulate single atoms and localized electronic states offers a revolutionary new regime beyond laser excitation.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(51): 48466-48475, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763808

RESUMO

We investigate the effect of high-surface-area self-assembled TiO2:Cu2O nanostructures for CO2 and relative humidity gravimetric detection using polyethylenimine (PEI), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM), and polyacrylamide (PAAm). Introduction of hierarchical TiO2:Cu2O nanostructures on the surface of quartz crystal microbalance sensors is found to significantly improve sensitivity to CO2 and to H2O vapor. The response of EMIM to CO2 increases fivefold for 100 nm-thick TiO2:Cu2O as compared to gold. At ambient CO2 concentrations, the hierarchical assembly operates as a sensor with excellent reversibility, while at higher pressures, the CO2 desorption rate decreases, suggesting possible application for CO2 sequestration under these conditions. The gravimetric response of PEI to CO2 increases by a factor of 3 upon introduction of a 50 nm TiO2:Cu2O layer. The PAAm gravimetric response to water vapor also increases by a factor of 3 and displays improved reversibility with the addition of 50 nm TiO2:Cu2O structures. We found that TiO2:Cu2O can be used to lower the detection limits for CO2 sensing with EMIM and PEI and lower the detection limits for H2O sensing with PAAm by over a factor of 2. Coarse-grained and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations indicate the dissociative character of ionic liquid assembly on TiO2:Cu2O interfaces and different distributions of CO2 and H2O molecules on bare and ionic liquid-coated surfaces, confirming experimental observations. Overall, our results show high potential of hierarchical assemblies of TiO2:Cu2O/room temperature ionic liquid and polymer films for sensors and CO2 sequestration.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(48): 18994-19001, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689101

RESUMO

Electron-phonon coupling in two-dimensional nanomaterials plays a fundamental role in determining their physical properties. Such interplay is particularly intriguing in semiconducting black phosphorus (BP) due to the highly anisotropic nature of its electronic structure and phonon dispersions. Here we report the direct observation of symmetry-dependent electron-phonon coupling in BP by performing the polarization-selective resonance Raman measurement in the visible and ultraviolet regimes, focusing on the out-of-plane Ag1 and in-plane Ag2 phonon modes. Their intrinsic resonance Raman excitation profiles (REPs) were extracted and quantitatively compared. The in-plane Ag2 mode exhibits remarkably strong resonance enhancement across the excitation wavelengths when the excitation polarization is parallel to the armchair (Ag2//AC) direction. In contrast, a dramatically weak resonance effect was observed for the same mode with the polarization parallel to zigzag (Ag2//ZZ) direction and for the out-of-plane Ag1 mode (Ag1//AC and Ag1//ZZ). Analysis on quantum perturbation theory and first-principles calculations on the anisotropic electron distributions in BP demonstrated that electron-phonon coupling considering the symmetry of the involved excited states and phonon vibration patterns is responsible for this phenomenon. Further analysis of the polarization-dependent REPs for Ag phonons allows us to resolve the existing controversies on the physical origin of Raman anomaly in BP and its dependence on excitation energy, sample thickness, phonon modes, and crystalline orientation. Our study gives deep insights into the underlying interplay between electrons and phonons in BP and paves the way for manipulating the electron-phonon coupling in anisotropic nanomaterials for future device applications.

4.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaaw8989, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598551

RESUMO

The presence and configurations of defects are primary components determining materials functionality. Their population and distribution are often nonergodic and dependent on synthesis history, and therefore rarely amenable to direct theoretical prediction. Here, dynamic electron beam-induced transformations in Si deposited on a graphene monolayer are used to create libraries of possible Si and carbon vacancy defects. Deep learning networks are developed for automated image analysis and recognition of the defects, creating a library of (meta) stable defect configurations. Density functional theory is used to estimate atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) signatures of the classified defects from the created library, allowing identification of several defect types across imaging platforms. This approach allows automatic creation of defect libraries in solids, exploring the metastable configurations always present in real materials, and correlative studies with other atomically resolved techniques, providing comprehensive insight into defect functionalities.

6.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(2): 025306, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581144

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive theoretical study on thermal transport in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M: Mo, W; X: S, Se) with various sample sizes. An unusually high anharmonic scattering strength is found in MoSe2 compared to the other three family members, which arises from its unique phonon band dispersion, specifically the mid-frequency phonon branches associated with the vibrations of Se atoms of MoSe2. The mid-frequency modes almost completely span the gap that exists between the high-frequency phonon branches and the acoustic ones, allowing the former to readily decay into the latter. The resultant high anharmonic scattering gives rise to a short mean free path which makes the room temperature in-plane thermal conductivity in MoSe2 even lower than WSe2 when the sample length is larger than 51.5 nm. With varying sample sizes, the ordering of thermal conductivity among the four materials changes as phonon transport transits from the ballistic to diffusive regime, driven by the competition between the phonon frequency spectrum range and the scattering strength. Our work provides a microscopic picture of phonon transport in TMDs and guidance to tailor their thermal conductivities for electronic and thermoelectric applications.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(22): 6764-6780, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Androgen receptor (AR)-targeting prostate cancer drugs, which are predominantly competitive ligand-binding domain (LBD)-binding antagonists, are inactivated by common resistance mechanisms. It is important to develop next-generation mechanistically distinct drugs to treat castration- and drug-resistant prostate cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Second-generation AR pan antagonist UT-34 was selected from a library of compounds and tested in competitive AR binding and transactivation assays. UT-34 was tested using biophysical methods for binding to the AR activation function-1 (AF-1) domain. Western blot, gene expression, and proliferation assays were performed in various AR-positive enzalutamide-sensitive and -resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Pharmacokinetic and xenograft studies were performed in immunocompromised rats and mice. RESULTS: UT-34 inhibits the wild-type and LBD-mutant ARs comparably and inhibits the in vitro proliferation and in vivo growth of enzalutamide-sensitive and -resistant prostate cancer xenografts. In preclinical models, UT-34 induced the regression of enzalutamide-resistant tumors at doses when the AR is degraded; but, at lower doses, when the AR is just antagonized, it inhibits, without shrinking, the tumors. This indicates that degradation might be a prerequisite for tumor regression. Mechanistically, UT-34 promotes a conformation that is distinct from the LBD-binding competitive antagonist enzalutamide and degrades the AR through the ubiquitin proteasome mechanism. UT-34 has a broad safety margin and exhibits no cross-reactivity with G-protein-coupled receptor kinase and nuclear receptor family members. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, UT-34 exhibits the properties necessary for a next-generation prostate cancer drug.

9.
Soft Matter ; 15(33): 6642-6649, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328764

RESUMO

Curvature-induced domain sorting, a strategy exploited by cells to organize membrane components, is a promising mechanism to control self-assembly of materials. To understand this phenomenon, this work explores the effects of curvature on component rearrangement in thin polymer films and lipid bilayers supported on sinusoidal substrates. Specifically, self-consistent field theory (SCFT) was used to study the spatial distribution of polymers in blends containing conformationally asymmetric chains. In addition, coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to probe the arrangement of rigid lipid domains in a relatively soft lipid matrix. Besides the expected preference of rigid species localizing in regions with low mean curvature, both systems exhibit unexpected localization of rigid components in comparatively high curvature regions. The origins of this unexpected sorting are discussed in terms of entropic and enthalpic contributions. In summary, this study demonstrates that domain distribution strongly depends on local topography and further highlights the collective effects that thermodynamic forces have on the morphological behavior of membranes.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(27): 14775-14785, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225557

RESUMO

Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for applications in electrochemical devices spanning from fuel cells to capacitors and batteries. In principle, PolyILs have a competitive advantage over traditional electrolytes in being single ion conductors and thus enabling a transference number close to unity. Despite this perceived advantage, surprisingly low room temperature ionic conductivities measured in the lab raise an important fundamental question: how does the molecular structure mediate conductivity? In this work, wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), vibrational sum frequency generation (vSFG), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study the bulk and interfacial structure of PolyILs, while broad band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) was used to probe corresponding dynamics and conductive properties for a series of the PolyIL samples with tunable chemistries and structures. Our results reveal that the size of the mobile anions has a tremendous impact on chain packing in PolyILs that wasn't addressed previously. Larger mobile ions tend to create a well-packed structure, while smaller ions frustrate chain packing. The magnitude of these changes and level of structural heterogeneity are shown to depend on the chemical functionality and flexibility of studied PolyILs. Furthermore, these experimental and computational results provide new insight into the correlation between conductivity and structure in PolyILs, suggesting that structural heterogeneity helps to reduce the activation energy for ionic conductivity in the glassy state.

11.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(5): 3008-3020, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998360

RESUMO

The presently available linear scaling approaches to density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) based on the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method are severely impacted by the problem of artificial charge transfer due to the self-interaction error (SIE), which hampers the simulation of zwitterionic systems such as biopolymers or ionic liquids. Here we report an extension of FMO-DFTB where we included a long-range corrected (LC) functional designed to mitigate the DFTB SIE, called the FMO-LC-DFTB method, resulting in a robust method which succeeds in simulating zwitterionic systems. Both energy and analytic gradient are developed for the gas phase and the polarizable continuum model of solvation. The scaling of FMO-LC-DFTB with system size N is shown to be almost linear, O( N1.13-1.28), and its numerical accuracy is established for a variety of representative systems including neutral and charged polypeptides. It is shown that pair interaction energies between fragments for two mini-proteins are in excellent agreement with results from long-range corrected density functional theory. The new method was employed in long time scale (1 ns) molecular dynamics simulations of the tryptophan cage protein (PDB: 1L2Y ) in the gas phase for four different protonation states and in stochastic global minimum structure searches for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ionic liquid clusters containing up to 2300 atoms.

13.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 2481-2489, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673215

RESUMO

Isotopes represent a degree of freedom that might be exploited to tune the physical properties of materials while preserving their chemical behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides can be tailored through isotope engineering. Monolayer crystals of MoS2 were synthesized with isotopically pure 100Mo and 92Mo by chemical vapor deposition employing isotopically enriched molybdenum oxide precursors. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the 100MoS2 monolayers, measured using a non-destructive, optothermal Raman technique, is found to be enhanced by ∼50% compared with the MoS2 synthesized using mixed Mo isotopes from naturally occurring molybdenum oxide. The boost of thermal conductivity in isotopically pure MoS2 monolayers is attributed to the combined effects of reduced isotopic disorder and a reduction in defect-related scattering, consistent with observed stronger photoluminescence and longer exciton lifetime. These results shed light on the fundamentals of 2D nanoscale thermal transport important for the optimization of 2D electronic devices.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(1): 259-263, 2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511416

RESUMO

Porous carbons with different textural properties exhibit great differences in CO2 adsorption capacity. It is generally known that narrow micropores contribute to higher CO2 adsorption capacity. However, it is still unclear what role each variable in the textural properties plays in CO2 adsorption. Herein, a deep neural network is trained as a generative model to direct the relationship between CO2 adsorption of porous carbons and corresponding textural properties. The trained neural network is further employed as an implicit model to estimate its ability to predict the CO2 adsorption capacity of unknown porous carbons. Interestingly, the practical CO2 adsorption amounts are in good agreement with predicted values using surface area, micropore and mesopore volumes as the input values simultaneously. This unprecedented deep learning neural network (DNN) approach, a type of machine learning algorithm, exhibits great potential to predict gas adsorption and guide the development of next-generation carbons.

15.
J Comput Chem ; 40(2): 532-542, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548654

RESUMO

We propose a fast and accurate calculation method to compute the electronic couplings between molecular units in a thiophene-ring-based polymer chain mimicking a real organic semiconducting polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene). Through a unit block diabatization scheme, the method employed minimal number of diabatic orbitals to compute the site energies and electronic couplings, which were validated by comparing with benchmark density functional theory calculations. In addition, by using the obtained electronic couplings, a quantum dynamics simulation was carried out to propagate a hole initially localized in a thiophene-ring unit of the polymer chain. This work establishes a simple, efficient, and robust means for the simulation of electron or hole transfer processes in organic semiconducting materials, an important capability for study and understanding of the class of organic optoelectronic and photovoltaic materials. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524042

RESUMO

Triboelectric charging strongly affects the operation cycle and handling of materials and can be used to harvest mechanical energy through triboelectric nanogenerator set-up. Despite ubiquity of triboelectric effects, a lot of mechanisms surrounding the relevant phenomena remain to be understood. Continued progress will rely on the development of rapid and reliable methods to probe accumulation and dynamics of static charges. Here, we demonstrate in-situ quantification of tribological charging with nanoscale resolution, that is applicable to a wide range of dielectric systems. We apply this method to differentiate between strongly and weakly charging compositions of industrial grade polymers. The method highlights the complex phenomena of electrostatic discharge upon contact formation to pre-charged surfaces, and directly reveals the mobility of surface charges. Systematic characterization of commercial polyethylene terephthalate samples revealed the compositions with the best antistatic properties and provided an estimate of characteristic charge density up to 5×10<sup>-5</sup> C/m<sup>2</sup>. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were used to resolve atomistic level structural and dynamical details revealing enrichment of oxygen containing groups near the air-interface where electrostatic charges are likely to accumulate.

17.
Langmuir ; 34(48): 14552-14561, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411900

RESUMO

The adsorption of gas molecules at electrode-electrolyte interfaces is an important step in electrochemical reactions. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the adsorption of dissolved N2 in the electrical double layers (EDLs) of an aqueous electrolyte near planar and 1 nm radius spherical carbon electrodes. The adsorption of N2 is found to be overall enriched near neutral electrodes regardless of their surface curvature, although it can be locally enriched or depleted depending on the distance from the electrode surface. In comparison, the adsorption of N2 in the EDL near negatively charged electrodes is found to increase under a moderate surface charge density, but decrease under a high surface charge density, especially near a planar electrode. By analyzing the potential of mean force for dissolved N2, the solvent-induced effects are found to play important roles in influencing the adsorption of N2 in the EDLs. The adsorption behavior of N2 molecules, especially their dependence on the surface charge and curvature of electrodes, is further rationalized by examining the structure of interfacial water molecules, their interference with the hydration shell of N2, and their modification by the electrification of electrodes.

18.
J Chem Phys ; 149(16): 163336, 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384727

RESUMO

We present a generalized theory for studying the static monomer density-density correlation function (structure factor) in concentrated solutions and melts of dipolar as well as ionic polymers. The theory captures effects of electrostatic fluctuations on the structure factor and provides insights into the origin of experimentally observed enhanced scattering at ultralow wavevectors in salt-free ionic polymers. It is shown that the enhanced scattering can originate from a coupling between the fluctuations of electric polarization and monomer density. Local and non-local effects of the polarization resulting from finite sized permanent dipoles and ion-pairs in dipolar and charge regulating ionic polymers, respectively, are considered. Theoretical calculations reveal that, similar to the salt-free ionic polymers, the structure factor for dipolar polymers can also exhibit a peak at a finite wavevector and enhanced scattering at ultralow wavevectors. Although consideration of dipolar interactions leads to attractive interactions between monomers, the enhanced scattering at ultralow wavevectors is predicted solely on the basis of the electrostatics of weakly inhomogeneous dipolar and ionic polymers without considering the effects of any aggregates or phase separation. Thus, we conclude that neither aggregation nor phase separation is necessary for observing the enhanced scattering at ultralow wavevectors in salt-free dipolar and ionic polymers. For charge regulating ionic polymers, it is shown that electrostatic interactions between charged monomers get screened with a screening length, which depends not only on the concentration of "free" counterions and coions, but also on the concentration of "adsorbed" ions on the polymer chains. Qualitative comparisons with the experimental scattering curves for ionic and dipolar polymer melts are presented using the theory developed in this work.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 149(16): 163334, 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384744

RESUMO

The effects of added salt on a planar dipolar polymer brush immersed in a polar solvent are studied using a field theoretic approach. The field theory developed in this work provides a unified framework for capturing effects of the inhomogeneous dielectric function, translational entropy of ions, crowding due to finite sized ions, ionic size asymmetry, and ion solvation. In this paper, we use the theory to study the effects of ion sizes, their concentration, and ion-solvation on the polymer segment density profiles of a dipolar brush immersed in a solution containing symmetric salt ions. The interplay of crowding effects, translational entropy, and ion solvation is shown to exhibit either an increase or decrease in the brush height. Translational entropy and crowding effects due to finite sizes of the ions tend to cause expansion of the brush as well as uniform distribution of the ions. By contrast, ion-solvation effects, which tend to be stronger for smaller ions, are shown to cause shrinkage of the brush and inhomogeneous distribution of the ions.

20.
Nanoscale ; 10(37): 18001-18009, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226257

RESUMO

Bottlebrush polymers are important for a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to electronics. The functional flexibility of the branched sidechains has unique assembly properties when compared to linear block polymer systems. However, reports of direct observation of molecular reorganization have been sparse. This information is necessary to enhance the understanding of the structure-property relationships in these systems and yield a rational design approach for novel polymeric materials. In this work, we report direct visualization of bottlebrush molecular organization and the formation of nematic-type ordering in an amorphous polymer bottlebrush system, captured with plasma etching and helium ion microscopy. By observing the unperturbed structure of this material at high resolution and quantifying image features, we were able to qualitatively link experimental results with structures predicted by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The direct visualization and computation workflow developed in this work can be applied to a broad variety of polymers with different architectures, linking imaging results with other, independent channels of information for better understanding and control of these classes of materials.

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