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1.
Food Chem ; 339: 128057, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947106

RESUMO

The effect of light exposure on sensory quality, health-promoting phytochemical contents, and antioxidant capacity in the lateral buds of baby mustard plants was investigated at ambient storage temperature (20 °C). The results showed that light exposure (36 µmol m-2 s-1) during post-harvest storage significantly prolonged shelf life (more than 1.75-fold), delayed the weight loss and the decrease of firmness. Light treatments also enhanced chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, and retarded declines in contents of soluble sugars, ascorbic acid, flavonoids and glucosinolates, as well as antioxidant capacity. The quality of baby mustard plants receiving 24 h daily light treatment was superior to those in plants receiving 12 h treatment and constant darkness at 20 °C. These findings indicate that light exposure, especially 24 h treatment, is an effective method of prolonging shelf life and maintaining sensory and nutritional qualities in baby mustard plants stored at ambient temperature.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123380, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763684

RESUMO

Bisulfite-activated permanganate (PM/BS) process has proven to be a promising method for trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) abatement. However, to our knowledge, most previous studies on PM/BS process were limited in synthetic water at lab-scale. Hence, the performance of TrOCs abatement by PM/BS process was investigated in real waters in this study, and for the first time, its feasibility as a pretreatment process was evaluated at pilot-scale. The lab-scale results indicated that almost all tested TrOCs could be completely removed from pure water, while their removal efficiencies varied widely from ∼20 % to ∼90 % in real waters. Correlation analysis suggested that TrOCs abatement decreased linearly with increasing concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halide ions in real waters. The TrOCs with electron-donating groups were more likely to be decomposed in PM/BS process. The PM/BS pretreatment produced MnO2 and decreased the aromatic signal of the DOM, which enhanced the removal of DOM during subsequent coagulation-sedimentation processes. Comparing with ozonation, chlorination, and permanganate processes, PM/BS process showed some advantages in terms of TrOCs abatement and operating costs. Furthermore, the pilot-scale experiment confirmed that PM/BS process combined with traditional water treatment processes could achieve excellent TrOCs abatement (greater than 84%).

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152096

RESUMO

Researching the structure and function of sediment microbiome contribute to understanding the response of microbiome to external disturbances. However, seasonal changes in sediment microbiome with different terrestrial pollutants input have not yet been clearly understood. Metagenomic sequencing was used to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations and different land use types on sediment microbiome. Results showed that the differences in structure and functions of sediment microbiome among different land use types were obviously greater than different seasons. This indicated that the terrestrial pollutants weakened the effects of seasonal variations on shaping the sediment microbiome. The significant differences in sediment properties under the input of different terrestrial pollutants was observed, but no obvious differences between seasons, which may be the reason why terrestrial pollutants override the effects of seasonal variation on the sediment microbiome. Overall, the results extended our understanding of the impacts of seasonal variation and terrestrial pollutants on river sediment microbiome.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129904

RESUMO

Glycosylated secondary metabolites constitute a large proportion of nutrients or ingredients in consumed plants and related products. The glycosyl decoration largely depends on the activity of plant UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Mechanisms underlying the substrate selectivity and specificity of these reactions remain elusive. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of a UGT, UGT78H2 in blackberry fruits. In vitro enzyme substrate specificity analysis and enzymatic kinetics evidenced that UGT78H2 glycosylate exclusively quercetin using uridine-5' diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDP-glucuronic acid) and uridine-5' diphosphate galactose (UDP-galactose). Site-directed mutagenesis was introduced into two residuals (N340P, K360N) previously unexplored. The mutation enhanced the protein catalyzing efficiency, especially toward UDP-galactose (23% higher), and expanded the sugar donor selectivity, which can use UDP-glucose as well. Molecular modeling and biochemical analysis results enable identification of the 23rd residue (360th in UGT78H2) of the PSPG (plant secondary product glycosyltransferase) motif as a key residue in defining this sugar selecting spectrum. Additionally, promoter of UGT78H2 was obtained. Transgenic analysis using the UGT78H2pro::GUS reporter system demonstrated that transcripts controlled by the promoter predominantly expressed in younger tissues. Subcellular localization study revealed that UGT78H2 was a soluble protein in the nucleus and cytoplasm. These results clarified the bio-function of UGT78H2 and provided a valid approach for substrate selectivity modification in horticultural plants, particularly for sugar donor selectivity.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18957, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144604

RESUMO

The melanocortin peptides have an important role in regulating body weight and appetite. Mice that lack the desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH peptides (Pomctm1/tm1) develop obesity. This effect is exacerbated by a high fat diet (HFD). However, development of obesity in female Pomctm1/tm1 mice during chronic HFD conditions is not fully accounted for by the increased energy intake. We hypothesized that the protection against chronic HFD-induced obesity imparted by MSH peptides in females is mediated by sex-specific alterations in the gut structure and gut microbiota. We determined that female WT mice had reduced jejunum villus length and increased crypt depth in response to chronic HFD. WT males and Pomctm1/tm1 mice lacked this adaptation to a chronic HFD. Both Pomctm1/tm1 genotype and chronic HFD were significantly associated with gut microbiota composition. Sex-specific associations between Pomctm1/tm1 genotype and gut microbiota were observed in the presence of a chronic HFD. Pomctm1/tm1 females had significantly reduced fecal acetate and propionate concentrations when compared to WT females. We conclude that MSH peptides influence jejunum villus length, crypt depth and the structure of the gut microbiota. These effects favor reduced nutrient absorption and occur in addition to the recognized roles of desacetyl-α-MSH and α-MSH peptides in appetite control.

6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 536100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224104

RESUMO

Background: When ovarian response to FSH stimulation for IVF/ICSI is unsatisfactory, the FSH dose is often adjusted in the treatment cycles, thereby assuming that hormone status and follicular development were insufficient for optimal stimulation. Objectives: To evaluate whether serum delta FSH levels between D6 of gonadotrophin use and basal serum FSH or between D6 of gonadotrophin use and D1 of gonadotrophin use predict ovarian response in IVF/ICSI cycles. Method: The participants of this retrospective study were chosen from the Reproductive Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between August 2015 and December 2017 (n = 3,109), and during the COS, each participant was given a fixed dose of rFSH in the first 6 days. Delta FSH1: The difference of serum FSH between D6 of gonadotrophin use and basal serum FSH. Delta FSH2: The difference of serum FSH between D6 of gonadotrophin use and D1 of gonadotrophin use. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between delta FSH1 level and delta FSH2 level and ovarian response. Besides, we also use the tertile statistics to divide the groups. Results: Part I: Delta FSH1 levels (mean: 1.41 ± 3.46) in normal responders were higher than delta FSH1 levels (mean: 1.07 ± 23.89) in hyper responders (P = 0.0248). The tertile of delta FSH1 is dif ≤ 0, 0 < dif ≤ 2.25 and dif > 2.25. Compared with the hyper responder, the delta FSH1 (0 < dif ≤ 2.25 and dif > 2.25) in the normal responder has a higher ratio and is statistically significant. Part II: Delta FSH2 levels (mean: 4.90 ± 2.84) in normal responders were similar with delta FSH2 levels (mean: 4.74 ± 2.09) in hyper responders (P = 0.103). The tertile of delta FSH1 is dif ≤ 3.91, 3.91 < dif ≤ 5.69 and dif > 5.69. Compared with the hyper responders, the delta FSH2 (3.91 < dif ≤ 5.69 and dif > 5.69) in the normal responders has a higher ratio and is statistically significant. Conclusions: There is a weak relationship between ovarian response and serum delta FSH levels.

7.
Food Chem ; : 128498, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229156

RESUMO

The acquisition of resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum is complicated and costs organic solvents due to extraction and hydrolysis of its corresponding glycoside (polydatin). In this work, a novel one-pot method based on deep eutectic solvent (DES) was developed for simultaneous extraction and conversion of polydatin to resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum for the first time. The extraction yield of resveratrol by DES-based one-pot method were significantly higher than that of water, methanol and ethanol. After optimization by One-Variable-at-a-Time and response surface methodology, the extraction yield of resveratrol reached 12.26 ± 0.14 mg/g within 80 min. The conversation efficiency of polydatin to resveratrol in Polygonum cuspidatum from five different origins was more than 96.3%. Scanning electron microscope results indicated the selected DES disrupted plant cell walls to enhance the yield of resveratrol. The results indicated that one green method was successfully established for efficient extraction and conversion of polydatin to resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum.

8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 478, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of diabetic retinopathy (DR) for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remained unclear. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to assess whether DR predicted CVD mortality in diabetic patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for cohort studies reporting the association of DR and CVD mortality. Then we pooled the data for analysis. RESULTS: After screening the literature, 10 eligible studies with 11,239 diabetic subjects were finally included in quantitative synthesis. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of DR, mild DR, and severe DR for CVD mortality was 1.83 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42, 2.36; p < 0.001), 1.13 (95% CI 0.81, 1.59; p = 0.46), and 2.26 (1.31, 3.91; p = 0.003), respectively, compared to those without DR. In type 2 DM, the patients with DR had a significantly higher CVD mortality (RR: 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.24; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis also showed a significantly higher CVD mortality in DR according to various regions, study design, data source, and follow-up period (all RR > 1; all P values < 0.05). Data from 2 studies showed no significant correlation of DR and CVD mortality in diabetic patients receiving cardiovascular surgery (RR: 2.40; 95% CI 0.63, 9.18; P = 0.200). CONCLUSIONS: DR is a risk marker of cardiovascular death, and severe DR predicts a doubled mortality of CVD in diabetes. These findings indicate the importance of early identification and management of diabetic patients with DR to reduce the risk of death.

9.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(5): 5545-5560, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120565

RESUMO

This study proposes a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMILP) model for assigning a set of flights to different runways and determining their actual arrival and departure times. The proposed model envisages unique operation model of each runway (i.e., takeoff, landing, or mixed takeoff and landing). Further, interference in two flights between adjacent runways are also fully considered in this model. The work aims at reveal the optimal relationship between traffic stream characteristics, operation mode of each runway and flight scheduling to simultaneously minimizing flight delays and maximizing runway utilization. Since the problem of interest has a non-deterministic polynomial (NP-hard) complexity, a heuristic-based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is also presented to find Pareto-optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time, where coding structure and heuristic algorithm for producing initial population are defined. Finally, a real-world example is provided to compare the difference in quality between the proposed and traditional models, and reveal changes in trends between delay time of flights and idle time of the runways, which can verify the correctness of the model.

10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4305-4313, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124312

RESUMO

Fungi play an important role in the accumulation and transformation of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient cycling. To investigate the relationship between the fungal community and soil organic carbon functional groups under gradient SOM contents in arable mollisols, arable mollisols with 2%-9% SOM content were collected in Northeast China. Solid-state 13C-NMR technology was used to explore the differences in the functional group structure of SOM, and ITS high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the fungal community structure. The potential interactions between different taxonomic groups of soil fungal community and their associations with organic carbon molecular structures were compared by constructing molecular ecological networks under low SOM (2%-5%) and high SOM (7%-9%) conditions. The 13C-NMR results indicated an increase in the relative abundance of Alkyl C (25.8% to 35.9%). The decrease in Alkyl C/O-Alkyl C indicated a smaller degree of decomposition in high SOM soils. Sordariomycetes and Mortierellomycotina dominated the fungal community and their relative abundance increased with the SOM gradient (P<0.05) from 14.33% to 28.17% and from 7.32% to 23.14%, respectively. The network analysis showed simpler ecological topological properties of the fungal community in low SOM soils, with lower numbers of nodes, edges, and average clustering coefficients than those in high SOM soils. A closer relationship between fungi and organic carbon functional groups, especially LOC, was observed in low SOM soils. The random forest model showed that LOC had the largest amount for fungal interactions in low SOM soils (10%), followed by recalcitrant organic carbon (ROC). In comparison, LOC contributed less to the variations in fungal interactions in high SOM soils (7.4%). With globally increasing soil carbon loss, the limition of the carbon resources, especially the reduction of LOC, may reduce the stability and ecological functions of soil fungal communities.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Carbono , China , Fungos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(10): 4711-4718, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124404

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and microbial mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biofertilizer on reducing ammonia volatilization in farmland soil. Pot experiments were carried out to explore the effects of B. amyloliquefaciens biofertilizer (BB) and chemical fertilizer on soil ammonia volatilization, crop yield and quality, and soil microbial community. Four fertilization strategies were tested, namely no fertilizer (CK), 100% chemical fertilizer (C), 50% BB and 50% chemical fertilizer (B1), and 100% BB (B2). The dynamic flow-through chamber method was used to determine the soil ammonia volatilization flux after fertilization. The soil bacterial community during the peak period of ammonia volatilization was analyzed using 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the amount of ammonia volatilization in B1 and B2 decreased by 79.5% and 84.8%, respectively, as compared with treatment C. B2 had the lowest nitrate content and the highest yield; the yield of B2 increased by 50.5% and 12.3% as compared to that of CK and C, respectively. B1 had the highest content of vitamin C, which was 67.6 mg ·kg-1. The application of BB improved the diversity and richness of soil bacterial community, especially the relative abundance of Bacillus and Nitrospira. This shows that BB plays an important role in preventing air pollution and improving nitrogen utilization.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Solo , Amônia/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Volatilização
12.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 142, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The soil mycobiome is composed of a complex and diverse fungal community, which includes functionally diverse species ranging from plant pathogens to mutualists. Among the latter are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that provide phosphorous (P) to plants. While plant hosts and abiotic parameters are known to structure AMF communities, it remains largely unknown how higher trophic level organisms, including protists and nematodes, affect AMF abundance and community composition. RESULTS: Here, we explored the connections between AMF, fungivorous protists and nematodes that could partly reflect trophic interactions, and linked those to rhizosphere P dynamics and plant performance in a long-term manure application setting. Our results revealed that manure addition increased AMF biomass and the density of fungivorous nematodes, and tailored the community structures of AMF, fungivorous protists, and nematodes. We detected a higher abundance of AMF digested by the dominant fungivorous nematodes Aphelenchoides and Aphelenchus in high manure treatments compared to no manure and low manure treatments. Structural equation modeling combined with network analysis suggested that predation by fungivorous protists and nematodes stimulated AMF biomass and modified the AMF community composition. The mycorrhizal-fungivore interactions catalyzed AMF colonization and expression levels of the P transporter gene ZMPht1;6 in maize roots, which resulted in enhanced plant productivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of predation as a key element in shaping the composition and enhancing the biomass of AMF, leading to increased plant performance. As such, we clarify novel biological mechanism of the complex interactions between AMF, fungivorous protists, and nematodes in driving P absorption and plant performance. Video Abstract.

13.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037615

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin member 8 (TRPM8), a Ca2+ -permeable nonselective cation channel activated by cold and cooling agents, mediates allodynia. Dysfunction or abnormal expression of TRPM8 has been found in several human cancers. The role of ubiquitination in the regulation of TRPM8 function remains poorly understood. Here, we identified the ubiquitin (Ub)-ligase E3, tripartite motif-containing 4 (TRIM4), as a novel interaction partner of TRPM8 and confirmed that the TRIM4-TRPM8 interaction was mediated through the SPRY domain of TRIM4. Patch-clamp assays showed that TRIM4 negatively regulates TRPM8-mediated currents in HEK293 cells. Moreover, TRIM4 reduced the expression of TRPM8 on the cell surface by promoting the K63-linked ubiquitination of TRPM8. Further analyses revealed that the TRPM8 N-terminal lysine residue at 423 was the major ubiquitination site that mediates its functional regulation by TRIM4. A Ub-activating enzyme E1, Ub-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 (UBA1), was also found to interact with TRPM8, thereby regulating its channel function and ubiquitination. In addition, knockdown of UBA1 impaired the regulation of TRPM8 ubiquitination and function by TRIM4. Thus, this study demonstrates that TRIM4 downregulates TRPM8 via K423-mediated TRPM8 ubiquitination and requires UBA1 to regulate TRPM8.

14.
Hepatol Int ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its complications has become an expanding health problem worldwide with limited therapeutic approaches. The current study was aiming to identify novel microRNA in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism in NAFLD. APPROCHES AND RESULTS: Systematic screening of microRNA expression by high-throughput small RNA sequencing demonstrated that microRNA 199a-5p (miR-199a-5p) was significantly upregulated in high fat diet-induced steatosis mouse model, with the most abundant expression in adipose tissue. MST1 was further identified as the target gene for miR-199a with specific recognition at the 3' untranslated region with dural luciferase reporter assay. Delivery of miR-199a-5p with exosomes into mice aggravated liver lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of hepatic MST1 expression and modulation of hepatic lipogenesis and lipolysis, including SREBP-1c, AMPK signaling cascades and the down-stream CPT1α and FASN. Conversely, administration of exosome containing anti-miR-199a-5p resulted in attenuated steotosis in mice fed on high fat diet. Importanly, miR-199a-5p-induced abnormal cellular lipid accumulation could be markedly reversed by overexpression of MST1. CONCLUSION: miR-199a-5p might be an essentail regulator for hepatic lipid metabolism, possibly through its interction with MST1 and the subsequent signaling cascade. Thus, miR-199a-5p may serve as an important therapeutic target in the treatment of NAFLD.

15.
Br J Psychol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010036

RESUMO

The gaze-cueing effect is a robust phenomenon which illustrates how attention can be shaped by social factors. In four experiments, the present study explored the interaction between the ethnic membership of the participant and that of the face providing the gaze cue. Firstly, we aimed to further investigate the differential impact of White, Black, and Asian faces on the gaze-cueing effect in White individuals. Secondly, we aimed to explore, for the first time, the impact of faces belonging to different ethnicities on gaze cueing in Chinese participants. The results allowed to rule out alternative accounts and showed that White participants exhibit a gaze-cueing effect for White and Asian faces, but not for Black faces, consistent with previous studies. As regards Chinese participants, the overall findings suggested a stronger gaze-cueing effect for White faces than for Asian faces. The results are discussed with reference to differences in the perceived social status of the various groups, pointing to the need of taking into account different cultural contexts.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023038

RESUMO

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) plays an important role in plant stress responses. Here, five FaG6PDH sequences were obtained in strawberry, designated as FaG6PDH-CY, FaG6PDH-P1, FaG6PDH-P1.1, FaG6PDH-P2 and FaG6PDH-P0, which were divided into cytosolic (CY) and plastidic (P) isoforms based on the bioinformatic analysis. The respective FaG6PDH genes had distinct expression patterns in all tissues and at different stages of fruit development. Notably, FaG6PDH-CY was the most highly expressed gene among five FaG6PDH members, indicating it encoded the major G6PDH isoform throughout the plant. FaG6PDH positively regulated cold tolerance in strawberry. Inhibition of its activity gave rise to greater cold-induced injury in plant. The FaG6PDH-CY transcript had a significant increase under cold stress, similar to the G6PDH enzyme activity, suggesting a principal participant in response to cold stress. Further study showed that the low-temperature responsiveness (LTR) element in FaG6PDH-CY promoter can promote the gene expression when plant encountered cold stimuli. Besides, FaG6PDH-CY was involved in regulating cold-induced activation of antioxidant enzyme genes (FaSOD, FaCAT, FaAPX and FaGR) and RBOH-dependent ROS generation. The elevated FaG6PDH-CY enhanced ROS-scavenging capability of antioxidant enzymes to suppress ROS excessive accumulation and relieved the oxidative damage, eventually improving the strawberry resistance to cold stress.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055235

RESUMO

RecQ family helicases are highly conserved from bacteria to humans and have essential roles in maintaining genome stability. Mutations in three human RecQ helicases cause severe diseases with the main features of premature aging and cancer predisposition. Most RecQ helicases shared a conserved domain arrangement which comprises a helicase core, an RQC domain, and an auxiliary element HRDC domain, the functions of which are poorly understood. In this study, we systematically characterized the roles of the HRDC domain in E. coli RecQ in various DNA transactions by single-molecule FRET. We found that RecQ repetitively unwinds the 3'-partial duplex and fork DNA with a moderate processivity, and periodically patrols on the ssDNA in the 5'-partial duplex by translocation. The HRDC domain significantly suppresses RecQ activities in the above transactions. In sharp contrast, the HRDC domain is essential for the deep and long-time unfolding of the G4 DNA structure by RecQ. Based on the observations that the HRDC domain dynamically switches between RecA core- and ssDNA- binding modes after RecQ association with DNA, we proposed a model to explain the modulation mechanism of the HRDC domain. Our findings not only provide new insights into the activities of RecQ on different substrates but also highlight the novel functions of the HRDC domain in DNA metabolisms.

18.
Hortic Res ; 7: 161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082968

RESUMO

The carotenoid isomerase gene (BoaCRTISO) of Chinese kale was targeted and edited using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the present study. The results showed a high mutation rate (81.25%), and 13 crtiso mutants were obtained. Only two types of mutations, insertions and replacements, were found. Both the total and individual carotenoid and chlorophyll concentrations of the biallelic and homozygous mutants were reduced, and the total levels declined by 11.89-36.33%. The color of the biallelic and homozygous mutants changed from green to yellow, likely reflecting a reduction in the color-masking effect of chlorophyll on carotenoids. The expression levels of most carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis-related genes, including CRTISO, were notably lower in the mutants than in the WT plants. In addition, the functional differences between members of this gene family were discussed. In summary, these findings indicate that CRISPR/Cas9 is a promising technique for the quality improvement of Chinese kale and other Brassica vegetables.

19.
iScience ; 23(10): 101547, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083716

RESUMO

Circovirus, comprising one capsid protein, is the smallest nonenveloped virus and induces lymphopenia. Circovirus can be used to explore the cell adhesion mechanism of nonenveloped viruses. We developed a single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) assay to directly visualize the capsid's conformational feature. The capsid underwent reversible dynamic transformation between three conformations. The cell surface receptor heparan sulfate (HS) altered the dynamic equilibrium of the capsid to the high-FRET state, revealing the HS-binding region. Neutralizing antibodies restricted capsid transition to a low-FRET state, masking the HS-binding domain. The lack of positively charged amino acids in the HS-binding site reduced cell surface affinity and attenuated virus infectivity via conformational changes. These intrinsic characteristics of the capsid suggested that conformational dynamics is critical for the structural changes occurring upon cell surface receptor binding, supporting a dynamics-based mechanism of receptor binding.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019975

RESUMO

Macrophages contribute to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but the effect of macrophage on AAA formation is not totally understood. Recent research proved that macrophage pyroptosis plays an important role in many cardiovascular disease. However, whether macrophage pyroptosis is involved in AAA and its mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we found that the pyroptosis significantly increased in AAA tissues. ß5i inhibitor PR-957 treatment or ß5i deficiency markedly ameliorated AAA formation and decreased the pyroptosis. Pyroptosis were also significantly attenuated in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from ß5i-/- mice compared with the control group when they were subjected to OXLDL. Mechanistically, ß5i may promote activation of NFκB which augment NLRP3 expression. In conclusion, this study suggested macrophages pyroptosis are involved in AAA and inhibition or knockout of ß5i decreased macrophage pyroptosis via IκB/NFκB pathway.

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