Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46
Filtrar
1.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 198, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cement mantle penetration and the cement-bone interface strength were critical to a successful primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It remained unclear whether decreased blood and fat in the cancellous bone achieved with the use of a tourniquet increases tibial cement mantle penetration in different zones on AP and lateral view in TKA according to criteria defined by the Knee Society Scoring System (KSS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether tourniquet use influences tibial cement mantle penetration in different zones on AP and lateral view in TKA according to KSS. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to identify studies involving the impact of tourniquet use and no tourniquet use on tibial bone cement penetration in primary TKA in electronic databases, including Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Highwire, CBM, VIP, Wanfang database, up to January 2021. Finally, we identified 1231 patients (1231 knees) assessed in twelve studies. RESULTS: Tourniquet use increases the cumulative cement mantle penetration (P < 0.00001), mean cement mantle penetration (P = 0.004), and cement mantle in zone 3(P < 0.0001) on AP view. However, there were no significant differences in cement mantle in zone 1(P = 0.5), zone 2(P =0 .54), zone 4(P = 0.07) on AP view, and zone 1(P = 0.32), zone 2(P = 0.38) on lateral view between two groups. There were also no significant differences in length of surgery(P = 0.7), change in hemoglobin(P = 0.4), transfusion rates(P = 0.47), and complications such as muscular calf vein thrombosis(P = 0.21), superficial infection (P = 0.72), and deep vein thrombosis (P = 0.66) between two groups. CONCLUSION: The application of a tourniquet increases the thickness of the tibial bone cement penetration-the increase in the thickness of bone cement penetration mainly located in zone 3 on the anteroposterior (AP) view.

2.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the blood loss after procedures of primary unilateral or one-stage bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) caused by open-box prosthesis and closed-box prosthesis. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Patients undergoing procedures of primary TKA between January 2017 and July 2020 in our institution were assessed for eligibility for this study. Those who were diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis and underwent primary unilateral or one-stage bilateral TKA by using PFC Sigma PS150 (closed-box prosthesis) or Vanguard (open-box prosthesis) knee systems and had complete data of laboratory indexes on postoperative day (POD) 1, POD 3, and POD 5 were the interested population. At last 243 patients were enrolled, among which 88 patients were classified into the unilateral closed-box group, 66 patients into the unilateral open-box group, 47 patients into the one-stage bilateral closed-box group, and 42 patients into the one-stage bilateral open-box group. The perioperative management and operative techniques were almost the same for each patient, except the selection of prosthesis, which was decided according to surgeon's preference. The baseline information, postoperative laboratory indexes tested on POD 1, POD 3, and POD 5 including hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and international normalized ratio (INR), the primary outcome measurements including the maximum decreased value of hemoglobin and the volume of total blood loss, and the secondary outcome measurements including the transfusion rate and the average transfused red blood cell (RBC) units were well compared between the open-box group and the closed-box group. RESULTS: The baseline was comparable between groups, except higher preoperative levels of hemoglobin (134.43 g/L vs 126.51 g/L, P = 0.003) and hematocrit (39.92% vs 37.37%, P = 0.000) observed in the one-stage bilateral open-box group. The differences of postoperative coagulation function monitored by TT, PT, APTT, and INR were clinically irrelevant between groups. For patients receiving unilateral TKA, significantly higher value of decreased hemoglobin (26.06 g/L vs 21.05 g/L, P = 0.025) and significantly larger amount of total blood loss (920.34 mL vs 723.19 mL, P = 0.013) were observed in the open-box group. For patients receiving one-stage bilateral TKA, the open-box prosthesis was observed to cause more hemoglobin drop (37.81 g/L vs 32.02 g/L, P = 0.071) and total blood loss (1327.26 mL vs 1177.42 mL, P = 0.247) compared to the closed-box prosthesis, though the differences were not significant. The transfusion rate and the average transfused RBC units were not significantly different between the open-box group and the closed-box group no matte whether the patients were from the unilateral TKA group or from one-stage bilateral TKA group. CONCLUSION: The use of open-box prosthesis caused more hemoglobin drop and total blood loss than closed-box prosthesis after primary unilateral or one-stage bilateral TKA, resulting in comparable transfusion rate and average transfused RBC units between groups.

3.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(3): 783-792, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333547

RESUMO

Pesticides play a very important role in pest control and plant protection. However, they can be limited by a tendency to cause ecological system damage due to significant losses into the environment. To increase pesticide utilization efficiency, we developed highly leaf-adhesive avermectin nanocapsules (Av-pH-cat@CS) with pH-responsive controlled release properties. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules displayed good thermal stability and photostability in response to UV light irradiation. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules could be disrupted at low pH and they exhibited excellent controlled release in response to pH, which improved the release of avermectins. In addition, the Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules were highly adhesive to crop leaves as a result of strong hydrogen bonding, which prolonged the retention time on crop leaves. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules with pH-responsive release and strong leaf adhesion improved the control efficacy and enhanced the utilization efficiency. Our findings offer a promising approach to prolonging pesticide duration on crop leaves and improving the utilization efficiency.


Assuntos
Adesivos/química , Antiprotozoários/química , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nanocápsulas/química , Praguicidas/química , Adesivos/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ivermectina/síntese química , Ivermectina/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Praguicidas/síntese química , Folhas de Planta/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Zea mays/química
4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(4): 2078-2086, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe and efficient nanopesticides for pest control have attracted attention because of their ability to enhance target efficiency and reduce undesirable side effects. Nanoformulations have a significant role in solving the problem of water solubility for insoluble drugs. However, there are few studies on the physicochemical properties and biological activities of pesticides of different particle sizes and remains unclear how these key physicochemical properties are affected by particle size. In this study, a series of glucose-loaded lambda-cyhalothrin nanoparticles (LCNs) with a tunable size were developed via shearing emulsification and carrier loading in order to evaluate insecticidal action. RESULTS: The mean particle sizes of the LCNs were 50.6, 115.2 and 221 nm. The wettability, dispersibility and stability of nanoparticles were particle size-dependent, and were mainly determined by particle size and the uniformity of distribution. Furthermore, the insecticidal activity of LCNs was inversely proportional to the particle size. CONCLUSION: This study not only provides a facile technology for the preparation of nanopesticides with a tunable particle size, but also clarifies the effect of particle size on the performance of pesticides. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Piretrinas , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula
5.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 547, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the posterior approach, it has been shown that a significant reduction in dislocation rate can be achieved with the repair of the posterior soft tissue. However, no consensus exists about the best way to perform this repair. This review aimed to compare the transosseous with transmuscular repair of the posterior soft tissue in total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to identify studies involving transosseous versus transmuscular repair of the posterior soft tissue in THA in electronic databases, including Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Highwire, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database, up to July 2020. Finally, we identified 1417 patients (1481 hips) assessed in seven studies. RESULTS: Compared with transmuscular repair, transosseous repair resulted in less incidence of dislocation (P = 0.003), less blood loss during operation (P < 0.00001) and lower VAS score within 3 months (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in terms of trochanteric fracture rate (P = 0.56), Harris hip score at 3 months (P = 0.35) and 6 months (P = 0.89), VAS score within 6 months (P = 0.53), and operation time (P = 0.70) between two groups. CONCLUSION: The lower dislocation rate, less blood loss, and lower VAS scores after operation supported transosseous repair's superiority to transmuscular repair. Besides, no additional medical cost and operating time were associated with transosseous repair compared with transmuscular repair. Hence, we recommend that transosseous repair be chosen first by orthopedists when performing reconstruction of the posterior soft tissue in THA via a posterolateral approach. Given the relevant possible biases in our meta-analysis, we required more adequately powered and better-designed RCT studies with long-term follow-up to reach a firmer conclusion.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22999, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of oral tranexamic acid (TXA) remain controversial because of the small number of clinical studies. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral TXA with intravenous TXA in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty in a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving oral and intravenous TXA in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty up to December 2019 by searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library China Biology Medicine, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database and Wanfang. The mean difference or standard mean difference was used to assess continuous outcomes such as hemoglobin (Hb) drop, total blood loss, drain blood loss, and length of hospital stay, with a 95% confidence interval. Relative risks with a 95% confidence interval were used to assess dichotomous outcomes such as transfusion rate and the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and calf muscular vein thrombosis. Review Manager was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Ten RCTs containing 1080 participants met the inclusion criteria. We found no significant differences in terms of the average Hb drop (P = .60), total blood loss (P = .60), transfusion rate (P = .99), drain blood loss (P = .91), length of hospital stay (P = .95), and the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (P = .55) and calf muscular vein thrombosis (P = .19) between oral and IV TXA. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the IV TXA, oral TXA has similar effects on reducing the Hb drop, total blood loss, transfusion rate, drain blood loss, and length of hospital stay without increasing the risk of calf muscular vein thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis. Furthermore, oral TXA is easy to access and administer, which decreases the workload of nurses and even delivers cost-saving benefits to the health care system. We thus conclude that oral TXA may be an optimal approach in total joint arthroplasty. However, more high-quality and multicenter RCTs are still needed to confirm our conclusions. REGISTRATION: The current meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews), and the registration number was CRD42018111291.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem
7.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 297, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) or Hoffa's fat pad is often resected during total knee arthroplasty in order to improve visibility. However, the management of the IPFP during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the subject of an ongoing debate that has no clear consensus. The purpose of this review was to appraise if resection of the IPFP affects clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to identify relevant randomized controlled trials involving infrapatellar fat pad resection and infrapatellar fat pad preservation during total knee arthroplasty in electronic databases, including Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Highwire, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang database, up to March 2020. RESULTS: Nine randomized controlled trials, involving 783 TKAs (722 patients), were included in the systematic review. Outcome measures included patellar tendon length (PTL), Insall-Salvati ratio (ISR), rate of anterior knee pain, Knee Society Scores (KSS), and knee range of motion. The meta-analysis identified a trend toward the shortening of the patellar tendon with IPFP resection at 6 months (P = 0.0001) and 1 year (P = 0.001). We found no statistical difference in ISR (P = 0.87), rate of anterior knee pain within 6 months (p = 0.45) and 1 year (p = 0.38), KSS at 1 year (p = 0.77), and knee range of motion within 6 months (p = 0.61) and 1 year (0.46). CONCLUSION: Based on the available level I evidence, we were unable to conclude that one surgical technique of IPFP can definitively be considered superior over the other. More adequately powered and better-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies with long-term follow-up are required to produce evidence-based guidelines regarding IPFP resection.

8.
J Knee Surg ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838462

RESUMO

Multiple surgical techniques exist to repair iatrogenic medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The objective of the study is to confirm the clinical effectiveness of meniscus transfer for treatment of iatrogenic MCL midsubstance transection in which remaining MCL is of poor quality, and there is a persistent gap between both ligament ends during TKA. From January 2015 to November 2019, we treated 11 patients with MCL injuries of 882 primary TKAs by meniscus transfer. Another 24 primary TKAs were recruited as a control group. The two groups of patients were comparable for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Knee Society scoring (KSS), knee function score (KFS), and type of prosthesis comparison without significant difference (p > 0.05). We reviewed the patient's stability, as well as objective measures such as KSS and KFS scores, physical examinations, and radiographs. No patient of either group reported impaired wound healing, joint instability on physical examination, pain, radiographic changes, signs of loosening, and other complications. At the final follow-up, there was no significant difference in terms of KSS (p = 0.780) and KFS (p = 0.612) between the injury group and control group at last follow-up. X-ray image review showed no prosthesis loosening or subsidence for both groups. Based on these results, we are cautiously optimistic that midsubstance transections in which the quality of remaining tendon is weak, there is suspicion of stretching, or there is a persistent gap between both ligament ends that can be reconstructed with meniscus autograft transfer augmentation and an unconstrained implant.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9096, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499551

RESUMO

Poorly water-soluble pesticide compounds are difficult to be formulated as environmentally friendly formulations with high efficacy. For the conventional formulations, more than 50% of pesticides are lost during application due to the decomposition of active ingredient, dust drift and running off. Therefore, there is an urgent need to construct a novel formulation for improving the bioavailability of pesticides. The avermectin B2 solid nanodispersion was developed by self-emulsifying and solidification technology. The average particle size, surface tension and contact angle on cabbage leaves of the solid nanodispersion were 35.3 nm, 36.6 mN/m and 58°, respectively. The toxicities of the nanoformulation against diamondback moths and root-knot nematode were more than 1.7 times that of conventional emulsion in water and water dispersible granule. This investigation demonstrated that for foliage-applied pesticides, the formulation bioavailability had positive correlation with wettability which was negatively correlated with surface tension and contact angle. This study provides an easy and scalable technique to construct the effective and environmentally friendly nanoformulations. The toxicity improvement of the solid nanodispersion will significantly reduce dosage and environmental pollution of pesticide. The clarified relationship between formulation parameters and biological activity will contribute to the design and construction of novel pesticide formulations.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20320, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adductor canal block (ACB) has emerged as an alternative to the femoral nerve block (FNB) after total knee arthroplasty. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate which ACB method provides better pain relief and functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty METHODS:: We conducted a meta-analysis to identify randomized controlled trials involving single-shot adductor canal block (SACB) and continuous catheter ACB (CACB) after TKA up to December 2019 by searching databases including the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases. Finally, we included 8 randomized controlled trials involving 702 knees in our study. We used Review Manager Software and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation profiler to perform the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Compared with SACB, CACB can achieve better postoperative pain relief at 24 and 48 h both at rest and after mobilization, lower amount of opioid consumption at 72 h, a shorter length of hospital stay (LOH) and larger range of motion (ROM). In addition, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test results; quadriceps strength; and incidence of complications, including postoperative nausea and vomiting, DVT, catheter-related infections, catheter dislodgement and neurologic deficits, showed no significant difference between the two ACB methods. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that CACB is an effective alternative to SACB and can provide better pain relief, a shorter LOH, more degrees of maximum flexion and a lower amount of opioid consumption over time, but it provides a comparable level of recovery of quadriceps strength and mobility with a similar risk of catheter-related complications. Thus, CACB may be a better analgesia strategy than SACB after TKA at present.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Medição da Dor , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
11.
J Knee Surg ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462647

RESUMO

Newer methods of wound closure such as barbed sutures hold the potential to reduce closure time and equivalent wound complications in various surgeries. However, few studies have compared barbed suture and conventional wound closure techniques in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this review was to appraise the efficacy and safety of the barbed suture in closure of TKA. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify relevant randomized-controlled trials involving barbed sutures and conventional sutures in TKA in electronic databases, including Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Highwire, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database, up to August 2019. Finally, we identified 1,472 TKAs (1,270 patients) assessed in 13 randomized-controlled trials. Compared with conventional wound closure techniques, barbed sutures resulted in shorter total wound closure time (p < 0.001), fewer needle puncture injuries to members of the surgical team (p = 0.02). There were no significant differences in terms of blister formation (p = 1.0), superficial infection (p = 0.82), range of motion (p = 0.94), incisional exudate (p = 0.75), suture abscess (p = 0.26), or suture breakage (p = 0.11), wound-related complications (p = 0.10), ecchymosis (p = 0.08) between barbed and conventional wound closure. Based on the available level I evidence, we thus conclude that a knotless barbed suture is a safe and effective approach for wound closure in TKA. Given the relevant possible biases in our meta-analysis, more adequately powered and better-designed randomized-controlled trials studies with long-term follow-up are required to recommend barbed sutures for routine administration in TKA.

12.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(8): 2829-2837, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of efficient and safe green pesticides is a scientific strategy to alleviate current pesticide residues, environmental pollution, and threats to non-target organisms. Pesticide controlled-release formulations (CRFs) have attracted wide attention because they can control the rate of release of active ingredients and prolong the effective duration. In particular, nanoscale pesticide sustained-release systems have excellent biological activity and distribution performance because of their small particle size. Some technical difficulties remain in obtaining nanoscale CRFs. RESULTS: We successfully fabricated pyraclostrobin nanosphere CRF by combining high-pressure homogenization technology and emulsion-solvent evaporation methods. The pyraclostrobin nanospheres had a uniform spherical shape with a mean particle size of 450 nm and polydispersity index of less than 0.3. The pyraclostrobin loading capacity reached 53.6%, with excellent storage stability. The contact angle of nanospheres on cucumber leaf surfaces demonstrated that it had good wettability. Compared with pyraclostrobin technical and commercial formulations, the nanosphere systems showed a significantly sustained release of pyraclostrobin for longer (up to 250 h). A preliminary bioassay against Penicillium ochrochloron showed that the bioactivity and long-term efficiency of pyraclostrobin nanospheres were superior to those of the commercial formulation. CONCLUSION: This research introduced a simple, fast, expandable method for preparing pyraclostrobin nanospheres. The results showed that pyraclostrobin nanospheres could prolong the duration of pesticide efficacy and enhance bioactivity. Furthermore, this technology provides a platform for scale-up production of nano-scale pesticide CRFs. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Estrobilurinas/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Pressão
13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228817, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032382

RESUMO

Abamectin is a common biocide used to control agricultural insect pests. However, the water insolubility of abamectin may result in extra organic solvent introduced in the environment. To solve this issue, it is desirable to develop nanoformulations to encapsulate abamectin with environment-friendly polymers. In this study, two polylactic acid based abamectin nanoformulations were prepared. The average particle sizes, measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope, were 240 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The insecticidal activity of these nano-formulated abamectin was examined in the laboratory on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The acute toxicity of nano-formulated abamectin on non-target aphid predator Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was also evaluated by topical, residual and oral exposure. The two nano-formulated abamectin had comparable insecticidal effect with commercial abamectin formulation against the pea aphid. Taking median lethal concentration (LC50) as the toxicological endpoint, nanoformulations had higher contact toxicity and lower oral toxicity to first-instar larvae of the predator A. bipunctata. These results are expected to contribute to the application of solvent-free nano-formulated pesticides that comply with the integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nanoestruturas/química , Poliésteres/química , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição de Medicamentos , Inseticidas/química , Ivermectina/química , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Tamanho da Partícula
14.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(2)2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012747

RESUMO

The prevention and control of pests and diseases are becoming increasingly difficult owing to extensive pesticide resistance. The synergistic use of pesticides for disease control is an effective way of slowing pesticide resistance, reducing the number of pesticide applications, and protecting the environment. In this study, a dual-functionalized pesticide nanocapsule delivery system loaded with two active ingredients (AIs)-validamycin and thifluzamide-was developed to prevent and control rice sheath blight; the nanocapsule system was based on a water-oil-water double emulsion method combined with high-pressure homogenization technology. Our results showed that the dual-functionalized pesticide nanocapsules were monodisperse spheres with a mean particle size of ~260 nm and had good storage stability. Compared with commercial formulations, the dual-functionalized pesticide nanocapsules exhibited good foliar spread owing to their small size, which is beneficial for reducing the loss of pesticides on the leaves. The 50% median effect concentration and synergistic ratio against Rhizoctonia solani of the dual-functionalized pesticide nanocapsules and commercial formulation were 0.0082 and 0.0350 µg/mL, and 2.088 and 0.917, respectively. These findings indicate that the bioactivity of the dual-functionalized system was significantly better than that of the commercial formulations and that the dual-functionalized system demonstrated a clear synergistic effect between the two AIs. The system presented here is simple, fast, and capable of dual-pesticide loading with significant synergistic effects. Our findings could help to facilitate the improvement of pesticides efficiency and the slowing of pesticide resistance.

15.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(10): 2756-2764, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poorly water-soluble and photosensitive pesticide compounds are difficult to be formulated as environmentally friendly formulations with high efficacy. Conventional wettable powder, emulsifiable concentrate and emulsion in water have disadvantages of dust drift, overuse of organic solvent and low efficacy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to construct a novel formulation to improve the bioavailability of pesticides. RESULTS: An abamectin nanosuspension was developed using a wet-milling method combined with orthogonal experimental design. The average particle sizes of the abamectin nanosuspension measured by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were 233, 90 and 140 nm, respectively. The zeta potential and sliding angle on cabbage leaves were -36.9 mV and 62°. Retention and anti-photolysis were around 1.5 and 1.6 times those of emulsions in water. Furthermore, the biological activity of the nanosuspension towards diamondback moths was approximately twice that of conventional formulations. CONCLUSION: This study provides an easy and scalable technique for constructing pesticide nanosuspensions. The preparation and composition of the nanosuspension avoid the use of organic solvents. Application of the highly effective nanoformulation will significantly enhance pesticide efficacy, and reduce the dosage and environmental pollution of the pesticide. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacocinética , Antinematódeos/farmacocinética , Inseticidas/farmacocinética , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nanopartículas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Molhabilidade
16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(10): 2785-2793, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic fungi are the causal agents of 70-80% of plant diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to explore new and high effective fungicides. Constructing nanoscale fungicides using nanomaterial and nanotechnology has attracted wide attention in recent years. RESULTS: In this research, a pyraclostrobin solid nanodispersion (PSND) was prepared using the self-emulsifying method. The solid nanodispersion had a mean particle size of 20 nm and a zeta potential of -29.3 mV. The solubility and dissolution rate of the PSND increased owing to the decrease in particle size and the actions of the surfactants. The contact angle and retention volumes of the PSND on cucumber and cabbage leaf surfaces were greater than those of the commercial water dispersible granule. In addition, the median lethal concentration against Fusarium oxysporum was 0.7 43 µg mL-1 . The toxicity of the nanoparticles was 4.5 times that of the water dispersible granule (WDG). The high fungicidal activity of PSND promoted the production of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). The activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased in F. oxysporum. CONCLUSION: The research introduced a new method for preparing insoluble pyraclostrobin solid nanoformulation for fungicides to enhance the fungicidal activity and reduce environmental pollution. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas , Estrobilurinas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Emulsões/análise , Dose Letal Mediana , Nanopartículas/química , Estrobilurinas/química , Tensoativos/análise
17.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(2)2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678132

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed significant progress in nanotechnology and pesticide research in pest control and crop protection. There are more motivations to develop nanoformulations that are less harmful to environment than conventional formulations. The use of nanosuspension has been proposed as a novel formulation to process poorly soluble pesticides. In this study, the lambda-cyhalothrin nanosuspension (LCNS) was prepared in a melt emulsification method. The prepared nanosuspension had a mean particle size of 12.0 ± 0.1 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.279 ± 0.135. The smaller particle size and polydispersity confer better wettability, stability and bioavailability than conventional suspension concentrates. The excellent properties of the nanosuspension were attributed to the reduced particle size and the emulsification and dispersion of the surfactants. The LCNS eliminates the need for organic solvents and significantly reduces the amount of surfactant required. The simple production process of LCNS saves production and equipment costs. The results indicate that lambda-cyhalothrin nanosuspensions would have a broad application prospect in agricultural production systems.

18.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(2): 380-389, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticide is an important agricultural necessity to control plant diseases and pests, ensuring safe production of food. However, the low efficacy, large dosage and high-frequency use of conventional pesticide formulation seriously induced food safety and ecological environment issues. In this research, lambda-cyhalothrin solid nanodispersion (LCSND) was developed by a self-dispersing method. RESULTS: The mean particle size of the lambda-cyhalothrin solid nanodispersion was 32.7 ± 1.1 nm. It exhibited excellent dispersibility, wettability and stability, especially the improved bioavailability compared to the commercial formulations. Notably, the solid nanodisperison had a small particle size and large specific surface area. The solid nanodispersion without organic solvents can minimize the environment pollution and overcome the instability characteristic of the liquid formulations. CONCLUSION: Therefore, lambda-cyhalothrin solid nanodispersion has broad application prospects in agricultural production and environmental protection. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/química , Inseticidas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nitrilos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Controle de Pragas/instrumentação , Piretrinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Solubilidade , Molhabilidade
19.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(10)2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347772

RESUMO

Size-controlled azoxystrobin-poly (lactic acid) microspheres (MS) were prepared by an oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation approach. The hydrated mean particle sizes of the MS1, MS2, and MS3 aqueous dispersions were 130.9 nm, 353.4 nm, and 3078.0 nm, respectively. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of the azoxystrobin microspheres had a positive relationship with particle size. However, the release rate and percentage of cumulative release were inversely related to particle size. The smaller-sized microspheres had a greater potential to access the target mitochondria. As a result, the more severe oxidative damage of Colletotrichum higginsianum Sacc and higher antagonistic activity were induced by the smaller particle size of azoxystrobin microspheres. The 50% lethal concentrations against Colletotrichum higginsianum Sacc of MS1, MS2, and MS3 were 2.0386 µg/mL, 12.7246 µg/mL, and 21.2905 µg/mL, respectively. These findings reveal that particle size is a critical factor in increasing the bioavailability of insoluble fungicide.

20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(2)2018 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439498

RESUMO

Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations. In this review, special attention has been paid to intelligent pesticides with precise controlled release modes that can respond to micro-ecological environment changes such as light-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, soil pH, and enzyme activity. Moreover, establishing intelligent and controlled pesticide release technologies using nanomaterials are reported. These technologies could increase pesticide-loading, improve the dispersibility and stability of active ingredients, and promote target ability.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...