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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dentate gyrus (DG), a "gate" that controls information flow into the hippocampus, plays important roles in regulating both cognitive (e.g., spatial learning and memory) and mood behaviors. Deficits in DG neurons contribute to the pathogenesis of not only neurological, but also psychiatric, disorders, such as anxiety disorder. Whereas DG's function in spatial learning and memory has been extensively investigated, its role in regulating anxiety remains elusive. METHODS: Using c-Fos to mark DG neuron activation, we identified a group of embryonic born dorsal DG (dDG) neurons, which were activated by anxiogenic stimuli and specifically express osteocalcin (Ocn)-Cre. We further investigated their functions in regulating anxiety and the underlying mechanisms by using a combination of chemogenetic, electrophysiological, and RNA-sequencing methods. RESULTS: The Ocn-Cre+ dDG neurons were highly active in response to anxiogenic environment but had lower excitability and fewer presynaptic inputs than those of Ocn-Cre- or adult born dDG neurons. Activating Ocn-Cre+ dDG neurons suppressed anxiety-like behaviors and increased adult DG neurogenesis, whereas ablating or chronically inhibiting Ocn-Cre+ dDG neurons exacerbated anxiety-like behaviors, impaired adult DG neurogenesis, and abolished activity (e.g., voluntary wheel running)-induced anxiolytic effect and adult DG neurogenesis. RNA-sequencing screening for factors induced by activation of Ocn-Cre+ dDG neurons identified BDNF, which was required for Ocn-Cre+ dDG neurons mediated antianxiety-like behaviors and adult DG neurogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate critical functions of Ocn-Cre+ dDG neurons in suppressing anxiety-like behaviors but promoting adult DG neurogenesis, and both functions are likely through activation of BDNF.

2.
J Int Med Res ; 48(11): 300060520962928, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167723

RESUMO

When a patient harbors two or more neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), it can be difficult to determine whether they are double primary tumors or metastases. A 60-year-old man complained of voice change lasting 1 month. On physical examination and imaging, a 1.8-cm mass was observed in his epiglottis, and a laser epiglottectomy was performed. Upon microscopic examination, the tumor consisted of medium-sized ovoid or short spindle cells. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells was positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and calcitonin but negative for CD56; the Ki-67 proliferation index was approximately 5%. The patient was diagnosed with atypical carcinoid tumor. In 2015, a hypermetabolic endobronchial tumor was identified in the left lower lobe by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Bronchoscopic biopsy revealed palisading large tumor cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, frequent mitoses, and necrosis. The tumor cells were positive for CD56 and negative for cytokeratin-7, thyroid transcription factor-1, P40, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and calcitonin; the Ki-67 proliferation index was approximately 90%. Overall histologic findings were consistent with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma rather than metastatic atypical carcinoid tumor. Detailed clinical and pathological review are essential to differentiate between metastatic NET and double primary NETs and, therefore, to provide the best management of the patient.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110798, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011612

RESUMO

Calcium dobesilate (Cad), a protective agent, protects against microvascular damage, and diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy. However, these vascular protective effects have not been demonstrated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to determine the ability of Cad to protect against renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and identify the underlying therapeutic mechanisms of Cad during hypoxia/serum deprivation (H/SD) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). A total of 36 male mice were randomly assigned into 3 groups (12 mice in each group): the Sham-operated group (Sham), the saline solution-treated UUO mice group (UUO), and the Cad administration (intragastrically) group (Cad). The mice in Cad group were administered Cad (100 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage and slaughtered on the 7th and 14th days post-surgery. Six mice from each group were sacrificed by sodium pentobarbital injection on the 7th and 14th day after surgery. Tissue hypoxia, cell apoptosis and fibrotic lesions were detected by Immunostaining and Western blot. Peritubular capillaries (PTCs) injury was measured by a novel technique of fluorescent microangiography (FMA). Endothelial cell-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) were identified by immunofluorescence and Western blot. HUVECs proliferation was measured via Cell Counting Kit­8 assays and Edu staining. Sirt1 and its downstream gene in Cad regulation of endothelial were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE), Masson-trichrome stains and Histological findings showed that Cad administration markedly reduced hypoxia and renal interstitial fibrosis at each time point in UUO. Meanwhile, Cad protect against EndMT process of PTCs by increasing CD31 expression and decreasing α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin expression. in vitro studies showed that there was a proliferative response of the HUVECs incubated with Cad (10 µM) in H/SD. Sirt1 was suppressed after small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected in HUVECs. Mechanistically, Cad enhanced Sirt1 signaling, which was accompanied by increased levels of p53 acetylation (ac-p53). Meanwhile, protein expression of Bcl-2, and VE-cadherin were downregulated, Bax, and α-SMA were upregulated. In summary, the therapeutic effect of Cad in obstructive nephropathy were likely through suppressing EndMT progression and promoting anti-apoptotic effects after via activating the Sirt1/p53 signaling pathway.

4.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 35: 1533317520949782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043683

RESUMO

Hypertension increases the risk of cognitive impairment independent of detectable stroke or cerebral lesions. However, the principal pathophysiological basis of this increase has not been fully elucidated. The present study investigates the relationships among blood pressure, hippocampal subfields volume, and cognitive function in a relatively young non-stroke population. A total of 59 non-stroke non-dementia subjects (mean age, 57.2 ± 4.9 years) were enrolled. All subjects were subjected to complete assessment of vascular risk factors including 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, various neuropsychological tests, and 3D-T1 MR scan. Freesurfer V6.0 was used for segmentation of hippocampal subfields. Our analyses revealed that both 24-hour and daytime mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly associated with the low volume of the left DG. Higher coefficient of variation (CV) of daytime SBP was significantly associated with lower volume of the left Cornu Ammonis 4 and dentate gyrus (DG) region. Both higher CV of 24-hour mean SBP and daytime SBP were significantly associated with lower performance in both executive and linguistic function. The low volume of the left DG was significantly associated with the low performance in linguistic function. Our findings support that reduced DG volume and increased SBP variability associated with hypertension-related cognitive impairment.

5.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045808

RESUMO

In the past decades, questions arose whether hyperuricemia works as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular and renal disease, many evidence cleared this question, that hyperuricemia works as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular diseases. Hyperuricemia defined as an abnormally high level of uric acid. In general, it's defined as serum urate concentration excess of 6.8 mg/dl. Hyperuricemia, which is commonly thought to be just a complication of chronic kidney disease, seems to play a pathogenic role in the progression of renal diseases. In recent years, more attention has been paid to the link between hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. Randomized controlled trials have shown that there may be independent associations between hyperuricemia and the progression of cardiovascular and renal morbidity. It is thought to be mediated by renin-angiotensin system activation, nitric oxide syntheses inhibition, and the development of macro and microvascular diseases. Debate continues regarding serum uric acid concentration as an indirect index of renal vascular disease. To sort out the thread, our literature review focus on the role of asymptomatic hyperuricemia in the progress of chronic kidney disease along with the association between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases and a general review of the physiological metabolism of uric acid.

6.
Sci Robot ; 5(38)2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022589

RESUMO

As researchers create better robots, major robotics initiatives and government funding programs need better international cooperation and collaboration.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 25991-25998, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020292

RESUMO

Graphene has emerged as an attractive candidate for flexible transparent electrode (FTE) for a new generation of flexible optoelectronics. Despite tremendous potential and broad earlier interest, the promise of graphene FTE has been plagued by the intrinsic trade-off between electrical conductance and transparency with a figure of merit (σDC/σOp) considerably lower than that of the state-of-the-art ITO electrodes (σDC/σOp <123 for graphene vs. ∼240 for ITO). Here we report a synergistic electrical/optical modulation strategy to simultaneously boost the conductance and transparency. We show that a tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)boric acid (HTB) coating can function as highly effective hole doping layer to increase the conductance of monolayer graphene by sevenfold and at the same time as an anti-reflective layer to boost the visible transmittance to 98.8%. Such simultaneous improvement in conductance and transparency breaks previous limit in graphene FTEs and yields an unprecedented figure of merit (σDC/σOp ∼323) that rivals the best commercial ITO electrode. Using the tailored monolayer graphene as the flexible anode, we further demonstrate high-performance green organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the maximum current, power and external quantum efficiencies (111.4 cd A-1, 124.9 lm W-1 and 29.7%) outperforming all comparable flexible OLEDs and surpassing that with standard rigid ITO by 43%. This study defines a straightforward pathway to tailor optoelectronic properties of monolayer graphene and to fully capture their potential as a generational FTE for flexible optoelectronics.

8.
J Neurosci ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097641

RESUMO

Myosin X (Myo X) transports cargos to the tips of filopodia for cell adhesion, migration, and neuronal axon guidance. Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) is one of Myo X cargos essential for Netrin-1-regulated axon pathfinding. Myo X's function in axon development in vivo and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence for Myo X's role in Netrin-1-DCC regulated axon development in developing mouse neocortex. Knocking-out (KO) or knocking-down (KD) Myo X in cortical neurons of embryonic mouse brain impairs axon initiation and contralateral branching/targeting. Similar axon deficits are detected in Netrin-1-KO or DCC-KD cortical neurons. Further proteomic analysis of Myo X binding proteins identifies KIF13B (a kinesin family motor protein). Myo X interaction with KIF13B is induced by Netrin-1. Netrin-1 promotes anterograde transportation of Myo X into axons in KIF13B dependent manner. KIF13B-KD cortical neurons exhibit similar axon deficits. Together, these results reveal Myo X-KIF13B as a critical pathway for Netrin-1 promoted axon initiation and branching/targeting.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTNetrin-1 increases Myo X interaction with KIF13B, and thus promotes axonal delivery of Myo X and axon initiation and contralateral branching in developing cerebral neurons, revealing unrecognized functions and mechanisms underlying Netrin-1 regulation of axon development.

9.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(3): 522-528, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874105

RESUMO

The diagonal shot (DS) and straight shot (SS) using the forehand loop are the most common techniques used in table tennis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic differences of the lower limbs between DS and SS. Twelve male table tennis athletes performed DS and SS in random order. Kinematic data were captured using a three-dimensional Vicon motion analysis system. The major findings of this study were that DS showed significantly less time compared with SS during the backward swing (BS) and the forward swing (FS) phases. Meanwhile, DS showed significantly larger ankle internal rotation and inversion with smaller knee abduction and external rotation during the BS. DS showed significantly larger knee extension with smaller hip adduction and knee internal rotation compared with SS during the FS. However, SS showed a significantly larger range of motion (ROM) of ankle plantar flexion external rotation, and significantly larger ROM of knee extension. Moreover, SS showed significantly larger knee internal rotation compared with DS. These differences between the two shot techniques could be beneficial for helping coaches and table tennis athletes optimize performance, both in training and competition.

10.
J Med Chem ; 63(20): 11819-11830, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945676

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as an essential contributor to many human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. However, the exact pathological role of mitochondrial dysfunction, especially in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-associated oxidative stress, remains elusive, partially due to the lack of chemical probes with well-defined mechanisms of action. Herein, we describe the characterization and discovery of a rationally designed small molecule ZCM-I-1 as a selective modulator of the production of reactive oxygen species from mitochondrial complex I that does not alter mitochondrial membrane potential and bioenergetics. Chemical biology studies employing photoaffinity probes derived from ZCM-I-1 demonstrated its novel mechanism of action of modulating complex I via interactions with the flavin mononucleotide site, proximal in the reaction pathway within complex I.

11.
Surgery ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients experience long-term voice change after thyroidectomy. One of the most common symptoms of voice change is pitch lowering, which is closely related to unfavorable voice quality. Here we observed voice outcomes for 6 months of follow-up after thyroidectomy to identify factors closely related to low-pitched voice. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 2,297 patients who underwent thyroidectomy between January 2014 and December 2017. All the patients had their vocal status examined using videostroboscopy, acoustic voice analyses, aerodynamic study, and Thyroidectomy-Related Voice Questionnaire scores. We stratified patients into 2 groups (low-pitched voice versus favorable voice) according to pitch lowering (reduction in speaking fundamental frequency ≥12 Hz 1 month after thyroidectomy compared to the preoperative value). We compared preoperative data with postoperative data collected 1, 3, and 6 months after thyroidectomy to identify factors contributing to low-pitched voice. RESULTS: Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that factors related to low-pitched voice were female sex, older age, low body weight, short stature, and a high positive lymph node ratio. Multivariate analyses showed that female sex and older age were significantly associated with a negative prognosis for low-pitched voice 1 month after thyroidectomy (odds ratios 0.41 and 1.04, respectively; P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting sustained low-pitched voice during 6 months showed that speaking fundamental frequency ≥12.48 Hz 1 month after thyroidectomy was the optimal cutoff value, with 87.9% sensitivity and 95.8% specificity (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Female sex and older age are strongly associated with increased risk for low-pitched voice after thyroidectomy. Speaking fundamental frequency ≥12.48 Hz 1 month after thyroidectomy can be used to predict sustained low-pitched voice after thyroidectomy.

12.
Small ; 16(41): e1906908, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954642

RESUMO

Precise delivery of therapeutic cells to the desired site in vivo is an emerging and promising cellular therapy in precision medicine. This paper presents the development of a magnet-driven and image-guided degradable microrobot that can precisely deliver engineered stem cells for orthotopic liver tumor treatment. The microrobot employs a burr-like porous sphere structure and is made with a synthesized composite to fulfill degradability, mechanical strength, and magnetic actuation capability simultaneously. The cells can be spontaneously released from the microrobots on the basis of the optimized microrobot structure. The microrobot is actuated by a gradient magnetic field and guided by a unique photoacoustic imaging technology. In preclinical experiments on nude mice, microrobots carrying cells are injected via the portal vein and the released cells from the microrobots can inhibit the tumor growth greatly. This paper reveals for the first time of using degradable microrobots for precise delivery of therapeutic cells in vascular tissue and demonstrates its therapeutic effect in preclinical test.

13.
Theranostics ; 10(20): 9425-9442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802201

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as ideal cell-based therapeutic candidates for the structural and functional restoration of the diseased kidney. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been demonstrated to promote the therapeutic effect of MSCs on ameliorating renal injury. The mechanism may involve the transfer of endogenous molecules via paracrine factors to salvage injured cells, but these factors remain unknown. Methods: GDNF was transfected into human adipose mesenchymal stem cells via a lentiviral transfection system, and exosomes were isolated (GDNF-AMSC-exos). Using the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) against hypoxia/serum deprivation (H/SD) injury models, we investigated whether GDNF-AMSC-exos ameliorate peritubular capillary (PTC) loss in tubulointerstitial fibrosis and whether this effect is mediated by the Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway. Additionally, by using SIRT1 activators or siRNAs, the roles of the candidate mRNA and its downstream gene in GDNF-AMSC-exo-induced regulation of endothelial cell function were assessed. PTC characteristics were detected by fluorescent microangiography (FMA) and analyzed by the MATLAB software. Results: The green fluorescent PKH67-labeled exosomes were visualized in the UUO kidneys and colocalized with CD81. GDNF-AMSC-exos significantly decreased PTC rarefaction and renal fibrosis scores in mice with UUO. In vitro studies revealed that GDNF-AMSC-exos exerted cytoprotective effects on HUVECs against H/SD injury by stimulating migration and angiogenesis as well as conferring apoptosis resistance. Mechanistically, GDNF-AMSC-exos enhanced SIRT1 signaling, which was accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS). We also confirmed the SIRT1-eNOS interaction in HUVECs by immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we observed a correlation of the PTC number with the SIRT1 expression level in the kidney in vivo. Conclusion: Our study unveiled a mechanism by which exosomes ameliorate renal fibrosis: GDNF-AMSC-exos may activate an angiogenesis program in surviving PTCs after injury by activating the SIRT1/eNOS signaling pathway.

14.
Science ; 369(6504): 670-674, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764066

RESUMO

Identifying two-dimensional layered materials in the monolayer limit has led to discoveries of numerous new phenomena and unusual properties. We introduced elemental silicon during chemical vapor deposition growth of nonlayered molybdenum nitride to passivate its surface, which enabled the growth of centimeter-scale monolayer films of MoSi2N4 This monolayer was built up by septuple atomic layers of N-Si-N-Mo-N-Si-N, which can be viewed as a MoN2 layer sandwiched between two Si-N bilayers. This material exhibited semiconducting behavior (bandgap ~1.94 electron volts), high strength (~66 gigapascals), and excellent ambient stability. Density functional theory calculations predict a large family of such monolayer structured two-dimensional layered materials, including semiconductors, metals, and magnetic half-metals.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21396, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791752

RESUMO

A large number of healthcare workers have been infected with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate their clinical and chest computed tomography (CT) characteristics.The clinical, laboratory test and CT features of 43 medical and hospital staff with confirmed COVID-19 (MP group, 26-70 years old) were retrospectively analyzed, and compared to 43 non-medical related patients (non-MP group, 26-71 years old). Follow-up CT characteristics were analyzed to assess the disease progression in the period of hospitalization.At admission, the main complaints of the MP group, including fever (81.4%), fatigue (48.8%) and cough (41.9%), were similar to the non-MP group. The C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were higher in the non-MP group than the MP group (17.5 ±â€Š22.4 mg/L, 20.2 ±â€Š23.4 mm/H and 219 ±â€Š66U/L, respectively, P < .05). Ground-grass opacities, consolidation, interstitial thickening were common CT features of both groups. The severity of opacities on initial CT were less in the MP group (5.3 ±â€Š3.9 scores) than in the non-MP group (9.1 ±â€Š4.8 scores, P < .05). Before regular treatments, the sum score of the opacities showed weak to moderate correlations with duration, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactate dehydrogenase levels (R ranged from 0.341-0.651, P < .05). In the study time window, the duration from illness onset to when the most obvious pulmonary opacities were observed, according to CT findings, were similar in the MP group (13.3 ±â€Š6.6 days) and the non-MP group (13.8 ±â€Š5.1 days, P = .69). Mild to moderate anxiety and depression were observed in both groups.Despite greater knowledge of how to protect themselves than the general population, healthcare workers are also susceptible to COVID-19 infection. Occupational exposure is a very important factor. Healthcare workers have a higher vigilance about the infection in the early stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 146: 105725, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805462

RESUMO

Human necks are vulnerable in train collision accidents. To design a safer cab workspace, the driver neck injury mechanism should be investigated first. In this study, this issue is addressed by investigating how neck injuries are influenced by the cab workspace dimensions. The driver-console-seat dynamic models are developed to quantify the neck injuries. The three-pivot head-neck-upper torso model is used to evaluate the relative rotation angle between head and upper torso (ß+γ). The injury mechanism with the larger (ß+γ) value results in more severe neck injuries. The decision tree model is established to explore the most important cab workspace dimensional parameter. The driver submarining posture (the driver exhibits the tendency of sliding down from the seat after contacting the console) generates more (ß+γ) value than the flipping over behavior (the driver contacts the console and the upper body continues to move over the top of the console). Four neck injury mechanisms are classified, in which the chest-first impact mechanisms are more dangerous than the knee-first impact mechanisms. The distance between the console edge and knee bolster has the greatest effect on the neck injury. This parameter determines the injury mechanism type as it influences the first contact region of the driver. The distance between the console and seat and the pedal height are the secondary dominant attributes. These three parameters should be considered preferentially for establishing driver protection measures.

17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105591, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853898

RESUMO

The effects of allelopathy and the potential harm of several isolated allelochemicals have been studied in detail. Microorganisms in the phycosphere play an important role in algal growth, decay and nutrient cycling. However, it is unknown and often neglected whether allelochemicals affect the phycosphere. The present study selected a phenolic acid protocatechuic acid (PA) - previously shown to be an allelochemical. We studied PA at a half maximal effective concentration of 0.20 mM (30 mg L-1) against Scrippsiella trochoidea to assess the effect of PA on its phycosphere in an acute time period (48 h). The results showed that: 1) OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in the treatment groups (31.4 ± 0.55) exceeded those of the control groups (28.2 ± 1.30) and the Shannon and Simpson indices were lower than the control groups (3.31 ± 0.08 and 0.84 ± 0.02, 3.45 ± 0.09 and 0.88 ± 0.01); 2) Gammaproteobacteria predominated in the treatment groups (44.71 ± 2.13 %) while Alphaproteobacteria dominated in the controls (67.17 ± 3.87 %); 3) Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were important biomarkers in the treatment and control groups respectively (LDA > 4.0). PA improved the relative abundance of Alteromonas significantly and decreased the one of Rhodobacteraceae. PICRUSt analysis showed that the decrease of Rhodobacterceae was closely related with the decline of most functional genes in metabolism such as amino acid, carbohydrate, xenobiotics, cofactors and vitamins metabolism after PA-treated.


Assuntos
Alelopatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoflagelados/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Alelopatia/genética , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota/genética , Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação
18.
Food Nutr Res ; 642020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821255

RESUMO

Background: Supplementation of fish oil has been shown to exert beneficial effects in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of fish oil in improving the quality of life of these patients through a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. Methods: Among the 103 patients enrolled in the study, a total of 74 patients were randomized to receive fish oil (intervention group) or placebo (n=37 per group). Patients received identical soft-gel capsules, with each capsule containing either 1000 mg fish oil or placebo for 4 months. Personnel responsible for data collection and analyses were blinded to the grouping. Results: The reduction of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in the intervention group was significantly more prominent compared to the placebo group (P=0.023). The intervention group demonstrated significant increase in midarm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness after fish oil intake. The intervention group also exhibited significant differences from the placebo group in creatinine, uric acid, and serum calcium levels. Significant improvement was seen regarding the physical role and energy/figure in the intervention group. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that fish oil intake in patient undergoing hemodialysis can significantly reduce PEW, and improve physical and biochemical parameters and quality of life, which could provide guidance to clinical management of these patients.

19.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853179

RESUMO

Astrocytes have multiple functions in the brain, including affecting blood vessel (BV) homeostasis and function. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that astrocytic neogenin (NEO1), a member of deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) family netrin receptors, is involved in blood vessel homeostasis and function. Mice with Neo1 depletion in astrocytes exhibited clustered astrocyte distribution and increased BVs in their cortices. These BVs were leaky, with reduced blood flow, disrupted vascular basement membranes (vBMs), decreased pericytes, impaired endothelial cell (EC) barrier, and elevated tip EC proliferation. Increased proliferation was also detected in cultured ECs exposed to the conditioned medium (CM) of NEO1-depleted astrocytes. Further screening for angiogenetic factors in the CM identified netrin-1 (NTN1), whose expression was decreased in NEO1-depleted cortical astrocytes. Adding NTN1 into the CM of NEO1-depleted astrocytes attenuated EC proliferation. Expressing NTN1 in NEO1 mutant cortical astrocytes ameliorated phenotypes in blood-brain barrier (BBB), EC, and astrocyte distribution. NTN1 depletion in astrocytes resulted in BV/BBB deficits in the cortex similar to those in Neo1 mutant mice. In aggregate, these results uncovered an unrecognized pathway, astrocytic NEO1 to NTN1, not only regulating astrocyte distribution, but also promoting cortical BV homeostasis and function.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605170

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the inter-limb joint kinematics, joint moments, muscle forces, and joint reaction forces in patients after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) via subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling. Six patients recovering from a surgically repaired unilateral ATR were included in this study. The bilateral Achilles tendon (AT) lengths were evaluated using ultrasound imaging. The three-dimensional marker trajectories, ground reaction forces, and surface electromyography (sEMG) were collected on both sides during self-selected speed during walking, jogging and running. Subject-specific musculoskeletal models were developed to compute joint kinematics, joint moments, muscle forces and joint reaction forces. AT lengths were significantly longer in the involved side. The side-to-side triceps surae muscle strength deficits were combined with decreased plantarflexion angles and moments in the injured leg during walking, jogging and running. However, the increased knee extensor femur muscle forces were associated with greater knee extension degrees and moments in the involved limb during all tasks. Greater knee joint moments and joint reaction forces versus decreased ankle joint moments and joint reaction forces in the involved side indicate elevated knee joint loads compared with reduced ankle joint loads that are present during normal activities after an ATR. In the frontal plane, increased subtalar eversion angles and eversion moments in the involved side were demonstrated only during jogging and running, which were regarded as an indicator for greater medial knee joint loading. It seems after an ATR, the elongated AT accompanied by decreased plantarflexion degrees and calf muscle strength deficits indicates ankle joint function impairment in the injured leg. In addition, increased knee extensor muscle strength and knee joint loads may be a possible compensatory mechanism for decreased ankle function. These data suggest patients after an ATR may suffer from increased knee overuse injury risk.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas , Tendão do Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendão do Calcâneo/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético , Projetos Piloto , Ruptura
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