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1.
Plant Physiol ; 187(2): 716-738, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608970

RESUMO

Plant phenomics bridges the gap between traits of agricultural importance and genomic information. Limitations of current field-based phenotyping solutions include mobility, affordability, throughput, accuracy, scalability, and the ability to analyze big data collected. Here, we present a large-scale phenotyping solution that combines a commercial backpack Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) device and our analytic software, CropQuant-3D, which have been applied jointly to phenotype wheat (Triticum aestivum) and associated 3D trait analysis. The use of LiDAR can acquire millions of 3D points to represent spatial features of crops, and CropQuant-3D can extract meaningful traits from large, complex point clouds. In a case study examining the response of wheat varieties to three different levels of nitrogen fertilization in field experiments, the combined solution differentiated significant genotype and treatment effects on crop growth and structural variation in the canopy, with strong correlations with manual measurements. Hence, we demonstrate that this system could consistently perform 3D trait analysis at a larger scale and more quickly than heretofore possible and addresses challenges in mobility, throughput, and scalability. To ensure our work could reach non-expert users, we developed an open-source graphical user interface for CropQuant-3D. We, therefore, believe that the combined system is easy-to-use and could be used as a reliable research tool in multi-location phenotyping for both crop research and breeding. Furthermore, together with the fast maturity of LiDAR technologies, the system has the potential for further development in accuracy and affordability, contributing to the resolution of the phenotyping bottleneck and exploiting available genomic resources more effectively.

2.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(20): 2465-2474, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) has been shown to be associated with the occurrence of various cancers and involved in many tumorigenic processes. This study aimed to investigate the specific molecular mechanism through which UBE2C affects breast cancer (BC) proliferation. METHODS: BC-related datasets were screened according to filter criteria in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Then differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Venn diagram analysis. By using DEGs, we conducted the following analyses including Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), protein-protein interaction (PPI), and survival analysis, and then validated the function of the hub gene UBE2C using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, transwell assay, and Western blot assay. RESULTS: In total, 151 DEGs were identified from the GEO and TCGA databases. The results of GO analysis demonstrated that the DEGs were significantly enriched with mitotic nuclear division, lipid droplet, and organic acid-binding. KEGG analysis showed that the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, and proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation were significantly enriched in the signal transduction pathway category. The top three hub genes that resulted from the PPI network were FOXM1, UBE2C, and CDKN3. The results of survival analysis showed a close relationship between UBE2C and BC. The results of CCK-8 and transwell assays suggested that the proliferation and invasion of UBE2C knockdown cells were significantly inhibited (P < 0.050). The results of Western blot assay showed that the level of phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10 (p-PTEN) was obviously increased (P < 0.050), whereas the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) were dramatically decreased (P < 0.050) in the UBE2C knockdown cell. CONCLUSION: UBE2C can promote BC proliferation by activating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biologia Computacional , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
3.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 211: 106422, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) technique is widely used in the examination of retinal diseases. In analysis of FFA sequential images, accurate vessel segmentation is a prerequisite for quantification of vascular morphology. Current vessel segmentation methods concentrate mainly on color fundus images and they are limited in processing FFA sequential images with varying background and vessels. METHODS: We proposed a multi-path cascaded U-net (MCU-net) architecture for vessel segmentation in FFA sequential images, which is capable of integrating vessel features from different image modes to improve segmentation accuracy. Firstly, two modes of synthetic FFA images that enhance details of small vessels and large vessels are prepared, and are then used together with the raw FFA image as inputs of the MCU-net. By fusion of vessel features from the three modes of FFA images, a vascular probability map is generated as output of MCU-net. RESULTS: The proposed MCU-net was trained and tested on the public Duke dataset and our own dataset for FFA sequential images as well as on the DRIVE dataset for color fundus images. Results show that MCU-net outperforms current state-of-the-art methods in terms of F1-score, sensitivity and accuracy, and is able of reserving details such as thin vessels and vascular connections. It also shows good robustness in processing FFA images captured at different perfusion stages. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method can segment vessels from FFA sequential images with high accuracy and shows good robustness to FFA images in different perfusion stages. This method has potential applications in quantitative analysis of vascular morphology in FFA sequential images.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27288, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664889

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) is a rare manifestation of plasma cell tumor. Although axial skeleton is the most frequently affected site of SBP, adjacent disc space involvement is rare. Herein we report a case of SBP in thoracic vertebra with involvement of adjacent disc space. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of intermittent back pain with activity. The patient's back pain intensity with activity was a score of 5 of the 10-point visual analog scale). DIAGNOSES AND INTERVENTION: The patient underwent a posterior fusion procedure from T6 to T10, and an open biopsy of the vertebral lesion confirmed that final diagnosis of SBP. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy with a total of 4000 Gy to the T7-T9 vertebral levels over a 20-day period. OUTCOMES: Following radiotherapy, the patient's pain intensity was reduced to the visual analog scale score of 1 at the 6-month follow-up. LESSONS: SBP lacks typical clinical symptoms, and the accurate diagnosis before clinical intervention remains challenging. Due to the disc involvement, SBP often manifests as spinal infection. Hence, differential diagnosis in spinal lesions involving the disc should include SBP.

5.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 3955-3963, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584473

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the distribution characteristics and influencing factors for the interval between entering mainland China and the diagnosis of imported COVID-19 cases in Guangdong province, in order to provide valuable experience for global pandemic in prevention and control. Methods: We collected publicly reported data between March 1 and June 2, 2020. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the significant associated factors with the interval between entering mainland China and diagnosis of imported COVID-19 cases. Results: As of June 2, 2020, a total of 200 imported cases were reported in Guangdong province. The average interval time was 4.25 days with a median of 2 days, the interval time of 68% cases was between 1 and 3 days. The multivariate model results show that the three following factors were critical influencing factors: nationality was foreign nationality (P = 0.037), results of initial nucleic acid detection were negative (P = 0.000) and the interval between entering mainland China and the detection of positive results (T) exceeded two days (P = 0.008). Conclusion: The results suggested that all travelers and returning resident should be taken strict sampling and testing, and isolation measures, improved the accuracy of the initial nucleic acid test results, and the detection efficiency and shortening the interval between entering mainland China and detection of positive results.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17686, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480055

RESUMO

The fluorescent molecules utilizing hybridized local and charge-transfer (HLCT) state as potential organic light-emitting diodes materials attract extensive attention due to their high exciton utilization. In this work, we have performed the density functional theory method on three HLCT-state molecules to investigate their excited-state potential energy surface (PES). The calculated results indicate the T1 and T2 energy gap is quite large, and the T2 is very close to S1 in the energy level. The large gap is beneficial for inhibiting the internal conversion between T1 and T2, and quite closed S1 and T2 energies are favor for activating the T2 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing path. However, considering the singlet excited-state PES by twisting the triphenylamine (TPA) or diphenylamine (PA) group, it can be found that the TPA or PA group almost has no influence on T1 and T2 energy levels. However, the plots of S1 PES display two kinds of results that the S1 emissive state is dominated by charge-transfer (CT) or HLCT state. The CT emission state formation would decrease the S1 energy level, enlarge the S1 and T2 gap, and impair the triplet exciton utilization. Therefore, understanding the relationship between the S1 PES and molecular structures is important for designing high-performance luminescent materials utilizing HLCT state.

7.
ACS Appl Polym Mater ; 3(3): 1618-1627, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541542

RESUMO

Porous nanofibrous membranes have ultrahigh specific surface areas and could be broadly employed in protein purification, enzyme immobilization, and biosensors with enhanced selectivity, sensitivity, and efficiency. However, large biomolecules, such as proteins, have hindered diffusion behavior in the micro-porous media, significantly reducing the benefits provided by the nanofibrous membranes. The study of protein diffusion in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes produced under varied humidity and polymer concentration of electrospinning revealed that heterogeneous structures of the nanofibrous membranes possess much smaller effective pore sizes than the measured pore sizes, which significantly affects the diffusion of large molecules through the system though sizes of proteins and pH conditions also have great impacts. Only when the measured membrane pore size is at least 1000 times higher than the protein size, the diffusion behavior of the protein is predictable in the system. The results provide insights into the design and applications of proper nanofibrous materials for improved applications in protein purification and immobilizations.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(14): 1268-1279, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The appropriate target for systolic blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular risk in older patients with hypertension remains unclear. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned Chinese patients 60 to 80 years of age with hypertension to a systolic blood-pressure target of 110 to less than 130 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of 130 to less than 150 mm Hg (standard treatment). The primary outcome was a composite of stroke, acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction and hospitalization for unstable angina), acute decompensated heart failure, coronary revascularization, atrial fibrillation, or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Of the 9624 patients screened for eligibility, 8511 were enrolled in the trial; 4243 were randomly assigned to the intensive-treatment group and 4268 to the standard-treatment group. At 1 year of follow-up, the mean systolic blood pressure was 127.5 mm Hg in the intensive-treatment group and 135.3 mm Hg in the standard-treatment group. During a median follow-up period of 3.34 years, primary-outcome events occurred in 147 patients (3.5%) in the intensive-treatment group, as compared with 196 patients (4.6%) in the standard-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.92; P = 0.007). The results for most of the individual components of the primary outcome also favored intensive treatment: the hazard ratio for stroke was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.97), acute coronary syndrome 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.94), acute decompensated heart failure 0.27 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.98), coronary revascularization 0.69 (95% CI, 0.40 to 1.18), atrial fibrillation 0.96 (95% CI, 0.55 to 1.68), and death from cardiovascular causes 0.72 (95% CI, 0.39 to 1.32). The results for safety and renal outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups, except for the incidence of hypotension, which was higher in the intensive-treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: In older patients with hypertension, intensive treatment with a systolic blood-pressure target of 110 to less than 130 mm Hg resulted in a lower incidence of cardiovascular events than standard treatment with a target of 130 to less than 150 mm Hg. (Funded by the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and others; STEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03015311.).

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563099

RESUMO

Sodium and potassium intake in hypertensive patients in China is not clear. The authors aimed to investigate the distribution of sodium and potassium intake in hypertensive patients in China, and to analyze the relationship between sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure. The study was performed in 130 hospitals from 23 provinces across China from 2016 to 2019. Finally, 9501 hypertensive patients average aged 54 years were included. 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured. Distribution of urinary electrolytes were described according to age, gender and region. The association between urinary electrolytes and blood pressure was analyzed by multivariate linear regression. Hypertensive patients exhibited an average 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion of 156.7 ± 81.5 mmol/d and 39.2 ± 20.2 mmol/d (equivalent to sodium chloride of 9.2 g/d, potassium chloride of 2.9 g/d), sodium/potassium ratio (median) of 4.14 (2.92,5.73). Urinary electrolytes were lower in women than men (sodium: 171.1 vs 138.7, p < .05; potassium: 40.3 vs 37.7, p < .05), in the elderly than in the younger (sodium: 168.7 vs 139.9, p < .05; potassium: 39.5 vs. 37.5, p < .05). For every 1 unit of Na/K ratio increase, blood pressure increased by 0.46/0.24 mmHg. Blood pressure was 2.75/1.27 mmHg higher in quartile 4 than quartile 1 of Na/K. It remains high sodium and low potassium for hypertensive patients in China. Decreased sodium, Na/K ratio and increased potassium may help for blood pressure management.

10.
Anal Chem ; 93(33): 11424-11432, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378906

RESUMO

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), as one of the most used immunoassays, have been conducted ubiquitously in hospitals, research laboratories, etc. However, the conventional ELISA procedure is usually laborious, occupies bulky instruments, consumes lengthy operation time, and relies considerably on the skills of technicians, and such limitations call for innovations to develop a fully automated ELISA platform. In this paper, we have presented a system incorporating a robotic-microfluidic interface (RoMI) and a modular hybrid microfluidic chip that embeds a highly sensitive nanofibrous membrane, referred to as the Robotic ELISA, to achieve human-free sample-to-answer ELISA tests in a fully programmable and automated manner. It carries out multiple bioanalytical procedures to replace the manual steps involved in classic ELISA operations, including the pneumatically driven high-precision pipetting, efficient mixing and enrichment enabled by back-and-forth flows, washing, and integrated machine vision for colorimetric readout. The Robotic ELISA platform has achieved a low limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL in the detection of a low sample volume (15 µL) of chloramphenicol within 20 min without human intervention, which is significantly faster than that of the conventional ELISA procedure. Benefiting from its modular design and automated operations, the Robotic ELISA platform has great potential to be deployed for a broad range of detections in various resource-limited settings or high-risk environments, where human involvement needs to be minimized while the testing timeliness, consistency, and sensitivity are all desired.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Colorimetria , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Microfluídica
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26718, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397811

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To provide references for global pandemic prevention and control, this study aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of 103 new confirmed cases between June 12 and June 15, 2020, in Beijing. All confirmed cases in this study were tested with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and extracting data from the Beijing Municipal Health Commission (June 11 to July 6, 2020). We selected the 103 typical confirmed cases (excluding imported cases) between June 12 and June 15 for statistical analysis and explored differences among different clinical cases. A cluster of COVID-19 was reported in Beijing between June 12 and June 15, 2020, involving 103 confirmed cases. Patients aged 21 to 65 years old and the mean age was 42.38 ±â€Š11.507, the male-to-female sex ratio was 1.40:1. All confirmed cases had a direct or indirect exposure history in the Beijing Xinfadi Market (BXM), and the clinical manifestations of 97% confirmed cases was diagnosed as mild or moderate. Different clinical classification in age (P = .041), exposure history (P = .025), fever (P = .020), and cough (P = .000) were the statistically significant difference, but there was no statistically significant difference in gender (P = .501), the type of diagnosis (P = .478), expectoration (P = .979), fatigue (P = .906), dizziness or headache (P = .848), muscle pain (P = .825), sore throat or throat discomfort (P = .852), chills (P = .933), diarrhea (P = .431) and runny nose or nasal congestion (P = .898). This study shows that Beijing's epidemic scope was mainly concentrated in the Xinfadi Market. The initial cases were epidemiologically related to the BXM, the clinical classification of most cases was mild and moderate, and the differences in age, exposure history, fever, and cough among different clinical cases were statistically significant.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Supermercados , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(9): 1744-1751, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350677

RESUMO

The blood pressure (BP) control rate among treated hypertensives in China remains low at 37.5%. The relationship between home blood pressure telemonitoring (HBPT) and BP control is controversial. The authors aimed to investigate the relationship between HBPT and BP control in middle-aged and elderly hypertensives. In total, 252 hypertension patients aged between 60 and 79 years were enrolled. The patients were given either HBPT through interactive platforms between physicians and patients (telemonitoring group, n = 126) or conventional management (routine management group, n = 126). All patients were followed-up for 15 months. BP control was defined as home systolic blood pressure < 135 mm Hg and home diastolic blood pressure < 85 mm Hg. At baseline, there were no significant differences in the baseline BP control rate (p = .083). However, after 15 months, the BP control rate improved in both groups, and the telemonitoring group (71.3%) had a significantly higher BP control than the routine management group (49.8%) (p < .001). The change of BP control rate from baseline in the routine management group increased by 26.1%, and that of the telemonitoring group increased by 35.4%. The results of the fully adjusted binary logistic regression showed that HBPT was positively associated with BP control after adjusting for confounders (OR = 4.15, 95% CI 2.05-8.39). Similar results were observed after 3, 9, and 12 months. The association of HBPT with BP control was similar in subgroups. In conclusions, HBPT is recommended for BP control in middle-aged and elderly hypertensives in the community setting.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 185, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study analyzed the common points and discrepancies of COVID-19 control measures of the two countries in order to provide appropriate coping experiences for countries all over the world. METHOD: This study examined the associations between the epidemic prevention and control policies adopted in the first 70 days after the outbreak and the number of confirmed cases in China and Singapore using the generalized linear model. Policy comparisons and disparities between the two countries were also discussed. RESULTS: The regression models show that factors influencing the cumulative number of confirmed cases in China: Locking down epicenter; activating Level One public health emergency response in all localities; the central government set up a leading group; classified management of "four categories of personnel"; launching makeshift hospitals; digital management for a matrix of urban communities; counterpart assistance. The following four factors were the key influencing factors of the cumulative confirmed cases in Singapore: The National Centre for Infectious Diseases screening center opens; border control measures; surveillance measures; Public Health Preparedness Clinics launched. CONCLUSIONS: Through analyzing the key epidemic prevention and control policies of the two countries, we found that the following factors are critical to combat COVID-19: active case detection, early detection of patients, timely isolation, and treatment, and increasing of medical capabilities. Countries should choose appropriate response strategies with health equity in mind to ultimately control effectively the spread of COVID-19 worldwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Políticas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Singapura/epidemiologia
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(34): 41056-41065, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412464

RESUMO

Disinfecting pathogenic contaminated water rapidly and effectively on sites is one of the critical challenges at point-of-use (POU) situations. Currently available technologies are still suffering from irreversible depletion of disinfectants, generation of toxic by-products, and potential biofouling problems. Herein, we developed a chlorine rechargeable biocidal nanofibrous membrane, poly(acrylonitrile-co-5-methyl-5-(4'-vinylphenyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione) (P(AN-VAPH)), via a combination of a free radical copolymerization reaction and electrospun technology. The copolymer exhibits good electrospinnability and desirable mechanical properties. Also, the 5-methyl-5-(4'-vinylphenyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (VAPH) moieties containing unique hydantoin structures are able to be chlorinated and converted to halamine structures, enabling the P(AN-VAPH) nanofibrous membrane with rapid and durable biocidal activity. The chlorinated P(AN-VAPH) nanofibrous membranes showed intriguing features of unique 3D morphological structures with large specific surface area, good mechanical performance, rechargeable chlorination capacity (>5000 ppm), long-term durability, and desirable biocidal activity against both bacteria and viruses (>99.9999% within 2 min of contact). With these attributes, the chlorinated P(AN-VAPH) membranes demonstrated promising disinfecting efficiency against concentrated bacteria-contaminated water during direct filtration applications with superior killing capacity and high flowing flux (5000 L m-2 h-1).

15.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 3323-3332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408516

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to make a comparative analysis of the public health containment measures between China and India, explore the causes of the serious COVID-19 epidemic in India, and eventually to improve global infectious disease control. Methods: We extracted publicly available data from official websites, summarized the containment measures implemented in China and India, and assessed their effectiveness. Results: China has responded to the COVID-19 outbreak with strict public health containment measures, including lockdown of Wuhan city, active case tracing, and large-scale testing, ultimately preventing a large increase in daily new cases and maintaining a low mortality rate per million population (as of May 5, 2021, daily new cases were 11 and mortality rate per million population was 3.37). India, although imposing a national lockdown to control the pandemic, has not implemented strict testing, tracking, and quarantine measures due to the overburdened healthcare system. Combined with massive lockdown, it has accelerated human mobility and exacerbated the epidemic, resulting in a rapid increase in daily new cases and a high mortality rate per million population (as of May 5, 2021, daily new cases were 412,431 and mortality rate per million population was 166.79). Conclusion: China and India implemented public health containment measures to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic based on their national situations. Meanwhile, daily new cases and mortality of COVID-19 also were affected by environmental and socioeconomic. Countries make a comprehensive strategy not only in terms of the biological, pharmaceutical, health, and sanitation sectors but also based on sustainability science and environmental science.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(30): 36275-36285, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308624

RESUMO

A biobased rechargeable antimicrobial modification approach was developed using a covalent immobilization of food grade yeast cell wall particles on a model plastic film. We demonstrate the applications of this modification approach on poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) surface to inactivate inoculated bacteria with or without the presence of organic content, reducing the cross-contamination between food contact surface and model fresh produce, and inhibiting the growth of biofilms on the film surface. These biobased cell wall particle modified plastic films can enhance the binding of chlorine to the plastic surface in the form of N-halamine, extend the stability of chlorine against high organic content and ambient storage, and improve the rechargeability of the plastic films. Upon charging with chlorine, these modified plastic films inactivated 5 log of model Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7) and Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria innocua used as a surrogate of pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes) within 2 min of surface inoculation in water and within 20 min in an organic-rich aqueous environment. The modified plastic films prevented the transfer of bacteria and eliminated cross-contamination from the contaminated films to a spinach leaf surface, while 3 log CFU/leaf of bacteria were transferred from a contaminated native film to a noninoculated spinach surface. In addition, these modified plastic films reduced the adhesion of L. innocua cells by 2.7-3.6 log CFU/cm2 compared with control films during extended incubation for biofilm formation. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of this biobased food grade modification approach to reduce microbial contamination and improve produce safety in the food processing industry.

17.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 46(4): 513-525, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lenabasum is a synthetic agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) with anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties. Utilizing Simcyp, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model based on physicochemical properties, cell culture data, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) phenotyping, inhibition, and induction data. METHODS: Clinical data from healthy volunteers treated with 20 mg of lenabasum in a single ascending dose (SAD) study were used for model development. The model was verified using lenabasum SAD (10 and 40 mg) data as well as multiple dose (20 mg three times per day) data. Lenabasum is a CYP substrate, and the model predicted lenabasum clearance of 51% by CYP2C9, 37% by CYP2C8, and 12% by CYP3A4. Lenabasum is also an inhibitor of these isozymes. RESULTS: The model accurately described the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) for lenabasum within 1.19-fold and 1.25-fold accuracy, respectively, of the observed clinical values. The simulations of CYP inducers predicted that the strongest interaction would occur with rifampin, with the AUC decreasing to 0.36 of the control value, whereas the simulations of CYP inhibitors predicted that the greatest effect would occur with fluconazole, with a 1.43-fold increase in AUC. CONCLUSIONS: Our model is a useful tool for predicting the pharmacokinetics of lenabasum and adjustments to its dosing in possible drug-drug interaction scenarios.

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6610045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159196

RESUMO

Background: This study is aimed at confirming the effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical interventions during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hubei, China. Methods: The data are all from the epidemic information released by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China and the Health Commission of Hubei Province. We used the multivariable linear regression by the SPSS 19.0 software: the cumulative number of confirmed cases, the cumulative number of cured cases, and the number of daily severe cases were taken as dependent variables, and the six policies, including the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council, lockdown Wuhan city, the first-level response to public health emergencies, the expansion of medical insurance coverage to suspected patients, mobile cabin hospitals, and counterpart assistance in Hubei province, were gradually entered into multiple linear regression models as independent variables. Results: The factors influencing the cumulative number of diagnosed cases ranged from large to small: mobile cabin hospitals and the expansion of medical insurance coverage to suspected patients. The factors influencing the cumulative number of cured cases ranged from large to small: counterpart support medical teams in Hubei province and mobile cabin hospitals. The factors influencing the number of daily severe cases ranged from large to small: mobile cabin hospitals and the expansion of medical insurance coverage to suspected patients. Conclusion: The mobile cabin hospital is a major reason for the successfully defeating COVID-19 in China. As COVID-19 pandemic spreads globally, the mobile cabin hospital is a successful experience in formulating policies to defeat COVID-19 for other countries in the outbreak phase.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/terapia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Médico Ampliado/normas , Modelos Lineares , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Políticas , Software , Telemedicina/métodos
19.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(7): 31, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191017

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate microvascular parameters that are related to the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: In total, 105 eyes from 105 diabetic patients were recruited in this prospective cross-sectional study, including 37 eyes with no clinical signs of DR (NoDR), 43 eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 25 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Angiogram images from the parafoveal superficial capillary plexus (SCP), the deep capillary plexus (DCP), and the radial peripapillary capillary plexus were analyzed, and metrics were compared among groups. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the best OCTA parameters that could distinguish DR severity among groups. Results: Parafoveal vessel diameter index in the SCP and vessel density (VD) in the DCP showed the strongest correlation with the severity of DR (P < 0.01). Extrafoveal avascular area in the SCP was the parameter that could most distinguish NoDR from NPDR (P < 0.01) with sensitivity and specificity of 83.72% and 78.38%, respectively. VD in the DCP also was the most sensitive biomarker to distinguish NPDR from PDR (P < 0.01) with sensitivity and specificity of 84.00% and 79.07%, respectively. Conclusions: The microvascular changes in the SCP and DCP in DR may have different characteristics that could be identified with specific OCTA parameters. OCTA serves as a promising technology to discriminate eyes with different severity of DR. Translational Relevance: Our study investigated OCTA metrics and severity of DR. At different stages of DR, ophthalmologists may focus on specific OCTA parameters to predict the progression of retinopathy in individual patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Estudos Transversais , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
20.
Mater Adv ; 2(11): 3569-3578, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179787

RESUMO

The aggregation-caused self-quenching of photosensitizers (PS), especially on a solid substrate, has highly limited their photo-induced biocidal efficiency in practical applications. Here, we designed a unique "posture" of rose Bengal (RB) on cotton-based super-adsorptive fibrous equipment, with RB being separately captured in the mesopores of porous organic polymers (POPs). The resultant daylight-induced biocidal cotton fabric with enhanced efficiency was named as DBwEE-Cotton. The enhanced biocidal activity of the DBwEE-Cotton was achieved based on two mechanisms: (1) the separation of RB in mesopores on the fabric avoids the aggregation-caused self-quenching; and (2) other than singlet oxygen generation, RB is forced to undergo type I photoreaction by surrounding the RB with massive amounts of good hydrogen donors (i.e., POP) under daylight irradiation. Given the enhanced production efficiency of reactive oxygen species by the DBwEE-Cotton, 99.9999% of E. coli and L. innocua bacteria were killed within 20 min of daylight exposure. The DBwEE-Cotton also presents excellent wash and light durability with no biocidal function loss. The development of DBwEE-Cotton provides a facile strategy of avoiding aggregation-caused self-quenching and modulating photoreactions of PS on a flexible substrate, which may guide the design of novel personal protective equipment (PPE) integrated with improved biocidal efficiency, wearability, and repeated and long-term applicability for protecting people from lethal infectious diseases.

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