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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2105635, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865245

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have shown great promise for use in next-generation photovoltaic devices. However, some challenges need to be addressed before their commercial production, such as enormous defects formed on the surface, which result in severe SRH recombination, and inadequate material interplay between the composition, leading to thermal-, moisture-, and light-induced degradation. 2D perovskites, in which the organic layer functions as a protective barrier to block the erosion of moisture or ions, have recently emerged and attracted increasing attention because they exhibit significant robustness. Inspired by this, surface passivation by employing 2D perovskites deposited on the top of 3D counterparts has triggered a new wave of research to simultaneously achieve higher efficiency and stability. Herein, we exploited a vast amount of literature to comprehensively summarize the recent progress on 2D/3D heterostructure PSCs using surface passivation. The review begins with an introduction of the crystal structure, followed by the advantages of the combination of 2D and 3D perovskites. Then, the surface passivation strategies, optoelectronic properties, enhanced stability, and photovoltaic performance of 2D/3D PSCs are systematically discussed. Finally, we propose the perspectives of passivation techniques using 2D perovskites to offer insight into further improved photovoltaic performance in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(11): 13010-13016, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical effects of insulin glargine combined with repaglinide on the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: One hundred and twelve T2D patients were divided into two groups based on the treatment strategy, the control group (N=56) receiving insulin glargine and the experimental group (N=56) receiving insulin glargine combined with repaglinide. Clinical effects were analyzed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2h-postprandial blood glucose (2h-PBG), and glycosylated hemoglobin of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). The levels of fasting C-peptide (FCP) and 2h-postprandial C-peptide (2h-PCP) of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05) after treatment. Compared with the control group, the therapeutic efficacy was significantly higher (P<0.05), the time to normal blood glucose was notably shorter (P<0.05), and the insulin dosage was considerably lower in the experimental group (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse effects of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05), and the treatment satisfaction of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Insulin glargine combined with repaglinide is an effective and safe regimen in clinical practice, which can effectively control the blood glucose level, lower insulin dosage, and reduce adverse effects of T2D.

3.
Mater Horiz ; 8(10): 2750-2760, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617552

RESUMO

The design of effective energy systems is crucial for the development of flexible and wearable electronics. Regarding the direct conversion of heat into electricity, thermoelectrochemical cells (TECs) are particularly suitable for low-grade heat harvesting to enable flexible and wearable applications, despite the fact that the electrolyte leakage and complex packaging issues of conventional liquid-based TECs await to be further addressed. Herein, a quasi-solid-state TEC is assembled using the polyacrylamide/acidified-single-walled carbon nanotube (PAAm/a-SWCNT) composite hydrogel, developed via a facile in situ free-radical polymerization route with tin(IV) chloride/tin(II) chloride (Sn4+/Sn2+) as the redox couple. The as-fabricated TEC with a 0.6 wt% a-SWCNT content presents a large thermoelectrochemical Seebeck coefficient of 1.59 ± 0.07 mV K-1 and exhibits excellent stability in thermoelectrochemical performance against large mechanical stretching and deformation. Owing to this superior stretchability, the as-fabricated TEC is further assembled into an energy-autonomous strain sensor, which shows high sensitivity. The strategy of utilizing a quasi-solid-state TEC for energy-autonomous strain sensing unveils the great potential of heat-to-electricity conversion in flexible and wearable electronics.

4.
Small ; 17(43): e2103214, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590404

RESUMO

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising devices for clean power generation in fuel cell electric vehicles applications. The further request of high-efficiency and cost competitive technology make high-temperature proton exchange membranes utilizing phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole be favored because they can work well up to 180 °C without extra humidifier. However, they face quick loss of phosphoric acid below 120 °C and resulting in the limits of commercialization. Herein UiO-66 derived carbon (porous carbon-ZrO2 ), comprising branched poly(4,4'-diphenylether-5,5'-bibenzimidazole) and polyacrylamide hydrogels self-assembly (BHC1-4) membranes for wide-temperature-range operation (80-160 °C) is presented. These two-phase membranes contained the hygroscopicity of polyacrylamide hydrogels improve the low-temperature proton conductivity, relatively enable the membrane to function at 80 °C. An excellent cell performance of BHC2 membrane with high peak power density of 265 and 656 mW cm-2 at both 80 and 160 °C can be achieved. Furthermore, this membrane exhibits high stability of frequency cold start-ups (from room temperature to 80 °C) and long-term cell test at 160 °C. The improvement of cell performance and stability of BHC2 membrane indicate a progress of breaking operated temperature limit in existing PEMFCs systems.

5.
Small ; 17(43): e2103514, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590421

RESUMO

2D metal-halide perovskites have attracted intense research interest due to superior long-term stability under ambient environments. Compared to their 3D analog, the alternate arrangement of organic and inorganic layers leads to forming a multilayer quantum well (MQW), which endows 2D perovskites with anisotropic optoelectronic properties. In addition, the spacer layer functions as a hydrophobic barrier to effectively prevent 2D perovskite films from ion migration and moisture penetrating, thus realizing outstanding stability. Recently, 2D perovskites have been widely developed with abundant species. The stunning photovoltaic performance with the coexistence of long-term stability and high-power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been realized in 2D perovskite solar cells (PSCs), which paves an avenue for commercialization of PSCs. This review begins with an introduction of crystal structure and crystallization kinetics to illustrate the unique layer characters in 2D perovskites. Then, electron structure, excitons, dielectric confinement, and intrinsic stability properties are discussed in detail. Next, the photovoltaic performance based on recent Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), Dion-Jacobson (DJ), and alternating cations in the interlayer (ACI) phase 2D-PSCs is comprehensively summarized. Finally, the confronting challenges and strategies toward structural design and optoelectronic studies of 2D perovskites are proposed to offer insight into the advanced underlying properties of this family of materials.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(19): 22774-22784, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944548

RESUMO

Polyacrylamide is widely employed in constructing functional hydrogels. However, the volume expansion of this hydrogel in water weakens its mechanical properties and restricts its application. Herein, we report a strategy to convert the swollen and weak polyacrylamide/carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel into a strong and tough one by hydrolysis in acid solution with an elevated temperature. The obtained hydrolyzed hydrogels possess a high strength, toughness, and tearing fracture energy of 5.9 MPa, 22 MJ/m3 and 7517 J/m2, which are 254, 535 and 186 times higher than those of the original swollen one, respectively. In addition, the gels demonstrate low residual strain and rapid self-recovery abilities. Moreover, the gels have good shape memory behavior controlled by temperature. Furthermore, the gels can be worked as strain sensors with a broad strain window, high sensitivity, excellent linear response, and great durability in monitoring human motions after immersing treatment in a normal saline solution. This work provides a new method for preparing the stretchable and tough polyacrylamide-based hydrogels used in the areas of soft actuators and flexible electronics.

7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 594: 54-63, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756368

RESUMO

Organic dye-containing wastewater has become an increasingly serious environmental problem due to the rapid development of the printing and dyeing industry. Hydrogel is a promising adsorbent for organic dyes because of its unique three-dimension network structure and versatile functional groups. Though many efforts have been made in hydrogel adsorbents recently, there is still a critical challenge to fabricate hydrogel adsorbent with high adsorption capacity and high efficiency at the same time. To address this concern, we developed a calcium hydroxide nano-spherulites/poly(acrylic acid -[2-(Methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethyl ammonium chloride) hydrogel adsorbent with novel villi-like structure. The hydrogels were prepared through a simple free radical copolymerization method using calcium hydroxide nano-spherulites as crosslinker. The resultant hydrogel adsorbents showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 2249 mg/g in a 400 mg/L methylene blue solution and a high removal ratio of 98% in 1 h for a 50 mg/L methylene blue solution. In addition, the adsorption behaviors of our hydrogel adsorbents could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Furthermore, this kind of hydrogel adsorbent showed selective adsorption behavior for methylene blue. Altogether, the hydrogel adsorbent developed in this work has a high capacity and high efficiency in organic dye removing and promised a great potential in wastewater treatment application.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(6): 7443-7452, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528998

RESUMO

Flexible electronics greatly facilitate human life due to their convenience and comfortable utilization. Liquid metals are an ideal candidate for flexible devices; however, the high surface tension and poor surface wettability restrict their application on diverse substrates. Herein, a printable and recyclable ink composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and a liquid metal (PVA-LM) was developed to resolve these problems. The materials were designed considering the compatibility between PVA and the liquid metal, and the composite theory was applied to determine the component proportion. The developed composites improved the surface wettability of the liquid metal on diverse substrates, and three-dimensional (3D) printing technology was chosen to maximize the use of this material. Moreover, the PVA-LM ink showed excellent conductivity of about 1.3 × 105 S/m after being turned on, which favored the designing of alarm systems and object locators. The flexible sensors produced with this ink have broad application, high sensitivity, and superstable signal generation even after 200 cycles. When acting as strain sensors, the constructed composites had high sensitivity for monitoring the human movements. Furthermore, liquid metals in printed products can be recycled under alkaline conditions. This study opens a new direction for the next generation of environmentally friendly flexible devices.

9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 248: 116797, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919535

RESUMO

There is a growing demand for hydrogel-based sensors due to their biomimetic structures and properties, as well as biocompatibility. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate hydrogel sensor with integration of good mechanical properties and high conductivity. Herein, a tough and conductive hydrogel is developed with semi-interpenetrating network formed by incorporating carboxymethyl chitosan and sodium chloride into polyacrylamide network. The hydrogels have high tensile strength, elongation and toughness, but low modulus comparable to human skin. In addition, the hydrogels exhibit fast self-recovery and satisfactory self-healing capabilities. Owing to the existence of sodium chloride, the hydrogel also has high conductivity, good water retention property and anti-freezing ability. When used as a strain sensor, it demonstrates a broad strain window and shows a high sensitivity in monitoring human motions. This work provides a facile method in fabricating multifunctional ionic conductive hydrogel for applications in wearable electronics and soft robotics.

10.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(28): 6095-6104, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551670

RESUMO

The transport properties of water molecules in nanochannels are critical to the durability of porous materials. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the effects of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PAA), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on the durability of modified cement-based materials. By establishing ideal composite nanopores, the absorption of water molecules in the channel is simulated. The results show that PEG has the best water-blocking effect under the same simulated conditions, followed by PVA, and PAA is the most unfavorable. This difference in the water-blocking effect can be explained by two factors. On the one hand, hydrophobic alkane groups in these polymers can inhibit water molecule transport. A large number of -COOH and -OH functional groups in PAA and PVA will form a complex H-bond network with the water molecules in the nanopore, dragging the water molecules forward, thereby speeding up the water molecule transmission to a certain extent. However, PEG, which mainly contains low-polar oxygen (C-O-C), has weak hydrogen bonding with water molecules, so the water-blocking effect is more obvious. On the other hand, the van der Waals interaction and the electrostatic interaction mainly derived from Op-Caw-Os can ensure the absorption of the polymer on the C-S-H surface during the transport process. The -COOH in PAA ensures its strongest absorption. But PVA and PEG will morphologically agglomerate during the water absorption, occupying pores and hindering the transport of water molecules.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(9)2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135408

RESUMO

Although the inorganic salt hydrate phase change materials (PCMs) such as CaCl2·6H2O have promising potential for thermal energy storage in building application, the issue of supercooling has restricted their practical application. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) and SrCl2·6H2O as binary nucleation agents were used to modify CaCl2·6H2O and reduce its supercooling degree. Compared with pure CaCl2·6H2O, the incorporation of graphene oxide (GO)/SrCl2·6H2O reduced the supercooling degree to 0.3 °C significantly. In addition, the supercooling degree of modified CaCl2·6H2O after 200 thermal cycles was still much lower than that of non-modified CaCl2·6H2O. From the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the latent heat value and phase change temperature of the modified CaCl2·6H2O were 207.88 J/g and 27.6 °C, respectively. Aluminum capsules were used to encapsulate the modified PCM and placed inside the composite wallboard. The thermal performances of the composite wallboard with modified PCM were investigated using infrared thermography. Experimental results showed that the average temperature difference between the top and bottom surfaces of modified CaCl2·6H2O/wallboard composite after 1 h heating was kept around 15.8 °C, while it was 4.9 °C for the control wallboard. The above test results proved that the modified CaCl2·6H2O demonstrated good thermal performance and can be used in buildings to maintain thermal comfort.

12.
ACS Nano ; 11(3): 2561-2574, 2017 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28245107

RESUMO

Adhesive hydrogels are attractive biomaterials for various applications, such as electronic skin, wound dressing, and wearable devices. However, fabricating a hydrogel with both adequate adhesiveness and excellent mechanical properties remains a challenge. Inspired by the adhesion mechanism of mussels, we used a two-step process to develop an adhesive and tough polydopamine-clay-polyacrylamide (PDA-clay-PAM) hydrogel. Dopamine was intercalated into clay nanosheets and limitedly oxidized between the layers, resulting in PDA-intercalated clay nanosheets containing free catechol groups. Acrylamide monomers were then added and in situ polymerized to form the hydrogel. Unlike previous single-use adhesive hydrogels, our hydrogel showed repeatable and durable adhesiveness. It adhered directly on human skin without causing an inflammatory response and was easily removed without causing damage. The adhesiveness of this hydrogel was attributed to the presence of enough free catechol groups in the hydrogel, which were created by controlling the oxidation process of the PDA in the confined nanolayers of clay. This mimicked the adhesion mechanism of the mussels, which maintain a high concentration of catechol groups in the confined nanospace of their byssal plaque. The hydrogel also displayed superior toughness, which resulted from nanoreinforcement by clay and PDA-induced cooperative interactions with the hydrogel networks. Moreover, the hydrogel favored cell attachment and proliferation, owning to the high cell affinity of PDA. Rat full-thickness skin defect experiments demonstrated that the hydrogel was an excellent dressing. This free-standing, adhesive, tough, and biocompatible hydrogel may be more convenient for surgical applications than adhesives that involve in situ gelation and extra agents.

13.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12095, 2016 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352822

RESUMO

The scope of hydrogel applications can be greatly expanded by the improvement of mechanical properties. However, enhancement of nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) has been severely limited because the size of crosslinking nanoparticles is too large, at least in one dimension. Here we report a new strategy to synthesize non-aggregated spherulite nanoparticles, with diameters <5 nm, in aqueous solution, and their enhancement to hydrogel. The stress and stretch ratio at rupture of our NC gel are 430 and 121 KPa with only 40-p.p.m. nanoparticle content. The NC gel containing 200-p.p.m. nanoparticles can revert to 90% of its original size after enduring 100-MPa compressive stress. Our results demonstrate that the suppression of nanoparticle size without aggregation helps to establish a super stretchable and high-toughness hydrogel network at very low inorganic content.

14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 358(2): 423-9, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21458819

RESUMO

High-impact polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites filled with individually dispersed halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of HNTs with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the emulsifier. The SDS is a good dispersing agent for HNTs in aqueous solution. The emulsion polymerization resulted in the formation of polystyrene nanospheres separating individual HNTs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the PS matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry were used to characterize the PS/HNT nanocomposites. The impact strength of the PS/HNTs nanocomposites was 300% higher than that of the neat PS. This paper presents a simple yet feasible method for the preparation of high-impact PS/halloysite nanocomposites.

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