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1.
Gene ; 780: 145532, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631244

RESUMO

As one of the most common complications of diabetes, nephropathy develops in approximately 40% of diabetic individuals. Although end stage kidney disease is known as one of the most consequences of diabetic nephropathy, the majority of diabetic individuals might die from cardiovascular diseases and infections before renal replacement treatment. Moreover, the routine medical treatments for diabetes hold undesirable side effects. The explosive prevalence of diabetes urges clinicians and scientists to investigate the complementary or alternative therapies. Phytochemicals are emerging as alternatives with a wide range of therapeutic effects on various pathologies, including diabetic kidney disease. Of those phytochemicals, resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic stilbene, has been found to exert a broad spectrum of health benefits via various signaling molecules. In particular, resveratrol has gained a great deal of attention because of its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, cardiovascular-protective, and anti-tumor properties. In the renal system, emerging evidence shows that resveratrol has already been used to ameliorate chronic or acute kidney injury. This review critically summarizes the current findings and molecular mechanisms of resveratrol in diabetic renal damage. In addition, we will discuss the adverse and inconsistent effects of resveratrol in diabetic nephropathy. Although there is increasing evidence that resveratrol affords great potential in diabetic nephropathy therapy, these results should be treated with caution before its clinical translation. In addition, the unfavorable pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics profiles, such as poor bioavailability, may limit its extensive clinical applications. It is clear that further research is needed to unravel these limitations and improve its efficacy against diabetic nephropathy. Increasing investigation of resveratrol in diabetic kidney disease will not only help us better understand its pharmacological actions, but also provide novel potential targets for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/farmacocinética , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Humanos
2.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101813, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279869

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease is known as a major cause of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Polysulfides, a class of chemical agents with a chain of sulfur atoms, are found to confer renal protective effects in acute kidney injury. However, whether a polysulfide donor, sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4), confers protective effects against diabetic nephropathy remains unclear. Our results showed that Na2S4 treatment ameliorated renal dysfunctional and histological damage in diabetic kidneys through inhibiting the overproduction of inflammation cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as attenuating renal fibrosis and renal cell apoptosis. Additionally, the upregulated phosphorylation and acetylation levels of p65 nuclear factor κB (p65 NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in diabetic nephropathy were abrogated by Na2S4 in a sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-dependent manner. In renal tubular epithelial cells, Na2S4 directly sulfhydrated SIRT1 at two conserved CXXC domains (Cys371/374; Cys395/398), then induced dephosphorylation and deacetylation of its targeted proteins including p65 NF-κB and STAT3, thereby reducing high glucose (HG)-caused oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, inflammation response and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression. Most importantly, inactivation of SIRT1 by a specific inhibitor EX-527, small interfering RNA (siRNA), a de-sulfhydration reagent dithiothreitol (DTT), or mutation of Cys371/374 and Cys395/398 sites at SIRT1 abolished the protective effects of Na2S4 on diabetic kidney insulting. These results reveal that polysulfides may attenuate diabetic renal lesions via inactivation of p65 NF-κB and STAT3 phosphorylation/acetylation through sulfhydrating SIRT1.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096924

RESUMO

Cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapy for the treatment of various tumors, is clinically limited due to its extensive nephrotoxicity. Inflammatory response in tubular cells is a driving force for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The plant-derived agents are widely used to relieve cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction in preclinical studies. Polysulfide and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are ubiquitously expressed in garlic, and both of them are documented as potential agents for preventing and treating inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to determine whether polysulfide and H2S could attenuate cisplatin nephrotoxicity through suppression of inflammatory factors. In renal proximal tubular cells, we found that sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4), a polysulfide donor, and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and GYY4137, two H2S donors, ameliorated cisplatin-caused renal toxicity through suppression of the massive production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Mechanistically, the anti-inflammatory actions of Na2S4 and H2S may be mediated by persulfidation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and inhibitor kappa B kinase ß (IKKß), followed by decreased phosphorylation of STAT3 and IKKß. Moreover, the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor protein alpha (IκBα) induced by cisplatin, were also mitigated by both polysulfide and H2S. In mice, after treatment with polysulfide and H2S donors, cisplatin-associated renal dysfunction was strikingly ameliorated, as evidenced by measurement of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, renal morphology, and the expression of renal inflammatory factors. Our present work suggests that polysulfide and H2S could afford protection against cisplatin nephrotoxicity, possibly via persulfidating STAT3 and IKKß and inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory cascade. Our results might shed light on the potential benefits of garlic-derived polysulfide and H2S in chemotherapy-induced renal damage.

4.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888271

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen polysulfides are recognized as important signaling molecules that are generated physiologically in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). Studies have shown that these two molecules are involved in cytoprotection against oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In the brain system, H2S and polysulfides exert multiple functions in both health and diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), memory decline, and glioma. Mechanistically, S-Persulfidation (also known as S-sulfuration or S-sulfhydration) of target proteins is believed to be a fundamental mechanism that underlies H2S-regulated signaling pathways. Cysteine S-Persulfidation is an important paradigm of post-translational protein modification in the process of H2S signaling. This model is established as a critical redox mechanism to regulate numerous biological functions, especially in H2S-mediated neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Although the current research of S-Persulfidation is still in its infancy, accumulative evidence suggests that protein S-Persulfidation may share similar characteristics with protein S-nitrosylation. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive insight into the S-Persulfidation biology of H2S and polysulfides in neurological ailments and presume potential avenues for therapeutic development in these disorders based on S-Persulfidation of target proteins.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964302

RESUMO

Hypertension, a chronic and progressive disease, is an outstanding public health issue that affects nearly 40% of the adults worldwide. The increasing prevalence of hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite of the available treatment medications, an increasing number of hypertensive individuals continues to have uncontrolled blood pressure. In the vasculature, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and adventitial fibroblasts play a fundamental role in vascular homeostasis. The aberrant interactions between vascular cells might lead to hypertension and vascular remodeling. Identification of the precise mechanisms of vascular remodeling may be highly required to develop effective therapeutic approaches for hypertension. Recently, extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of proteins or noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) between vascular cells holds promise for the treatment of hypertension. Especially, extracellular vesicle-packaging ncRNAs have gained enormous attention of basic and clinical scientists because of their tremendous potential to act as novel clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets of hypertension. Here we will discuss the current findings focusing on the emerging roles of extracellular vesicle-carrying ncRNAs in the pathologies of hypertension and its associated vascular remodeling. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential of extracellular vesicles and ncRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for hypertension. The future research directions on the challenges and perspectives of extracellular vesicles and ncRNAs in hypertensive vascular remodeling are also proposed.

6.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985618

RESUMO

Hypertension is a multifactorial disorder that involves complex genetic and environmental factors. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important components of blood vessels, and their dysregulation has been shown to be involved in vascular remodeling during the development of systemic hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) via multiple mechanisms, such as aberrant apoptosis, phenotype conversion, proliferation, and migration of VSMCs. With increasing advances in microarrays and next-generation sequencing, nonprotein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their numerous functions in health and diseases. Among ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs are emerging as novel modulators in the biological behaviors of VSMCs, especially in systemic hypertension and PAH. Studies have recommended miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circular RNAs as predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets for systemic hypertension and PAH. In this review, we summarize the current studies focusing on the roles of VSMC-derived miRNAs, lncRNAs and circular RNAs in the pathologies of systemic hypertension and PAH. MiRNAs, lncRNAs, and circular RNAs might serve as attractive targets for the prevention and treatment of VSMC dysfunction-linked systemic hypertension and PAH.

7.
Gene ; 763: 145066, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827686

RESUMO

Diabetes is characterized by changed homeostasis of blood glucose levels, which is associated with various complications, including cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy. In recent years, accumulative evidence has demonstrated that circular RNAs are identified as a novel type of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) involving in the regulation of various physiological processes and pathologic conditions. Specifically, the emergence of complications response to diabetes is finely controlled by a complex gene regulatory network in which circular RNAs play a critical role. Recently, circular RNAs are emerging as messengers that could influence cellular functions under diabetic conditions. Dysregulation of circular RNAs has been closely linked to the pathophysiology of diabetes-related complications. In this review, we aimed to summarize the current progression and underlying mechanisms of circular RNA in the development of diabetes-related complications. We will also provide an overview of circular RNA-regulated cell communications in different types of cells that have been linked to diabetic complications. We anticipated that the completion of this review will provide potential clues for developing novel circular RNAs-based biomarkers or therapeutic targets for diabetes and its associated complications.


Assuntos
Angiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/genética , Neuropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética
8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(11): e23495, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563, which is located on chromosome 14, contains conserved binding sites with miR-155/130a and RNA-binding proteins according to bioinformatic prediction. We investigated the association of BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 expression in coronary artery segments with atherosclerotic stenosis and identified the proteome-wide BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563-regulated proteins in human coronary artery. METHODS: The atherosclerotic grade and extent in coronary artery segments were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 expression in eight coronary artery segments from one patient was quantified by RT-qPCR assay. A proteomic approach was adopted to reveal significant differences in protein expression between among four groups differing in their BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 expression levels. RESULTS: The RT-qPCR assay revealed that coronary artery segments with severe atherosclerotic stenosis had significantly low BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 levels. The proteomic analysis identified 49 differentially expressed proteins among the segment groups with different BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 expression levels, of which 10 were downregulated and 39 were upregulated with increases in the BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 level. The 10 downregulated proteins were P61626 (LYSC_HUMAN), P02760 (AMBP_HUMAN), Q02985 (FHR3_HUMAN), P01701 (LV151_HUMAN), P06312(KV401_HUMAN), P01624 (KV315_HUMAN), P13671 (CO6_HUMAN), P01700(LV147_HUMAN), Q9Y287(ITM2B_HUMAN), and A0A075B6I0 (LV861_HUMAN). The top 10 upregulated proteins were Q92552 (RT27_HUMAN), Q9UJY1(HSPB8_HUMAN), Q9Y235(ABEC2_HUMAN), P19022 (CADH2_HUMAN), O43837(IDH3B_HUMAN), Q9H479(FN3K_HUMAN), Q9UM22(EPDR1_HUMAN), P48681(NEST_HUMAN), Q9NRP0(OSTC_HUMAN), and Q15628(TRADD_HUMAN). CONCLUSION: BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 is involved in the atherosclerotic changes in human coronary artery segments. Verification, mechanistic, and function studies are needed to confirm whether patients with coronary artery disease would benefit from such personalized medicine in the future.

9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(7): 5535-5547, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567025

RESUMO

Endothelial cells are major constituents in the vasculature, and they act as important players in vascular homeostasis via secretion/release of vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. In healthy arteries, endothelial cells play a key role in the regulation of vascular tone, cellular adhesion, and angiogenesis. A shift in the functions of the blood vessels toward vasoconstriction, proinflammatory state, oxidative stress and deficiency of nitric oxide (NO) might lead to endothelial dysfunction, a key event implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular metabolic diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Thus, reversibility of endothelial dysfunction may be beneficial for maintaining vascular homeostasis. In recent years, accumulative evidence has documented that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are critically involved in endothelial homeostasis. Specifically, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs are highly expressed in endothelial cells where they serve as important mediators in normal endothelial functions. Dysregulation of lncRNAs and circular RNAs has been tightly associated with hypertension-related endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we will summarize the current progression and underlying mechanisms of lncRNA and circular RNA in endothelial cell biology under hypertensive conditions. We will also highlight their potential as biomarkers or therapeutic targets for hypertension and its associated endothelial dysfunction.

10.
Theranostics ; 10(14): 6149-6166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483445

RESUMO

Reduced hepatic Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and NKAα1 expression are engaged in the pathologies of metabolism diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the potential roles of NKAα1 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis in both hepatocytes and obese diabetic mice. Methods: Insulin resistance was mimicked by glucosamine (GlcN) in either human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells or primary mouse primary hepatocytes. Obese diabetic mice were induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 12 weeks. Results: We found that both NKA activity and NKAα1 protein level were downregulated in GlcN-treated hepatocytes and in the livers of obese diabetic mice. Pharmacological inhibition of NKA with ouabain worsened, while activation of NKAα1 with an antibody against an extracellular DR region of NKAα1 subunit (DR-Ab) prevented GlcN-induced increase in gluconeogenesis and decrease in glycogenesis. Likewise, the above results were also corroborated by the opposite effects of genetic knockout/overexpression of NKAα1 on both gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis. In obese diabetic mice, hepatic activation or overexpression of NKAα1 stimulated the PI3K/Akt pathway to suppress hyperglycemia and improve insulin resistance. More importantly, loss of NKA activities in NKAα1+/- mice was associated with more susceptibility to insulin resistance following HFD feeding. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that NKAα1 is a physiological regulator of glucose homoeostasis and its DR-region is a novel target to treat hepatic insulin resistance.

11.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104961, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474086

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are recognized to be a major cause of people morbidity and mortality. A host of stress signals contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. Deficiency of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or nitric oxide (NO) coordinately plays essential roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have shown that interaction between the two gaseostransmitters, H2S and NO, may give rise to nitroxyl (HNO), one-electron-reduced product of NO. HNO is found to exhibit a variety of biological and pharmacological properties including positive inotropy and cardiovascular protective effects, etc. In this review, recent progresses regarding HNO generation, detection, biochemical and pharmacological functions are discussed.

12.
Redox Biol ; 32: 101493, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182574

RESUMO

Nitroxyl (HNO), one-electron reduced and protonated sibling of nitric oxide (NO), is a potential regulator of cardiovascular functions. It produces positive inotropic, lusitropic, myocardial anti-hypertrophic and vasodilator properties. Despite of these favorable actions, the significance and the possible mechanisms of HNO in diabetic hearts have yet to be fully elucidated. H9c2 cells or primary neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were incubated with normal glucose (NG) or high glucose (HG). Male C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. Here, we demonstrated that the baseline fluorescence signals of HNO in H9c2 cells were reinforced by both HNO donor Angeli's salt (AS), and the mixture of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but decreased by HG. Pretreatment with AS significantly reduced HG-induced cell vitality injury, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. This effect was mediated by induction of caveolin-3 (Cav-3)/endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) complex. Disruption of Cav-3/eNOS by pharmacological manipulation or small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the protective effects of AS in HG-incubated H9c2 cells. In STZ-induced diabetic mice, administration of AS ameliorated the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, as evidenced by improved cardiac function and reduced cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis without affecting hyperglycemia. This study shed light on how interaction of NO and H2S regulates cardiac pathology and provide new route to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy with HNO.

13.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 9(1): 1698795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839907

RESUMO

Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays crucial roles in vascular remodelling and stiffening in hypertension. Vascular adventitial fibroblasts are a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure. This study is designed to investigate the roles of adventitial fibroblasts-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), an animal model of human essential hypertension. EVs were isolated from aortic adventitial fibroblasts of WKY (WKY-EVs) and SHR (SHR-EVs). Compared with WKY-EVs, miR155-5p content was reduced, while angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) content was increased in SHR-EVs. WKY-EVs inhibited VSMC proliferation of SHR, which was prevented by miR155-5p inhibitor. SHR-EVs promoted VSMC proliferation of both strains, which was enhanced by miR155-5p inhibitor, but abolished by captopril or losartan. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that ACE was a target gene of miR155-5p. MiR155-5p mimic or overexpression inhibited VSMC proliferation and ACE upregulation of SHR. WKY-EVs reduced ACE mRNA and protein expressions while SHR-EVs only increased ACE protein level in VSMCs of both strains. However, the SHR-EVs-derived from the ACE knockdown-treated adventitial fibroblasts lost the roles in promoting VSMC proliferation and ACE upregulation. Systemic miR155-5p overexpression reduced vascular ACE, angiotensin II and proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels, and attenuated hypertension and vascular remodelling in SHR. Repetitive intravenous injection of SHR-EVs increased blood pressure and vascular ACE contents, and promoted vascular remodelling in both strains, while WKY-EVs reduced vascular ACE contents and attenuated hypertension and vascular remodelling in SHR. We concluded that WKY-EVs-mediated miR155-5p transfer attenuates VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling in SHR via suppressing ACE expression, while SHR-EVs-mediated ACE transfer promotes VSMC proliferation and vascular remodelling.

14.
Redox Biol ; 30: 101411, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884071

RESUMO

Salusin-ß is abundantly expressed in many organs and tissues including heart, blood vessels, brain and kidneys. Recent studies have identified salusin-ß as a bioactive peptide that contributes to various diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of salusin-ß in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of salusin-ß in cisplatin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal injury. Herein, we found that salusin-ß expression was upregulated in both renal tubular cells and kidney tissues induced by both cisplatin and LPS. In vitro, silencing of salusin-ß diminished, whereas overexpression of salusin-ß exaggerated the increased PKC phosphorylation, oxidative stress, histone γH2AX expression, p53 activation and apoptosis in either cisplatin or LPS-challenged renal tubular cells. More importantly, salusin-ß overexpression-induced tubular cell apoptosis were abolished by using the PKC inhibitor Go 6976, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger NAC, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor apocynin (Apo) or p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-α. In animals, blockade of salusin-ß alleviated PKC phosphorylation, ROS accumulation, DNA damage, and p53 activation as well as renal dysfunction in mice after administration of cisplatin or LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that overexpressed salusin-ß is deleterious in AKI by activation of the PKC/ROS signaling pathway, thereby priming renal tubular cells for apoptosis and death.

15.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 32(5): 331-349, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617376

RESUMO

Significance: As one-electron reduced molecule of nitric oxide (NO), nitroxyl (HNO) has gained enormous attention because of its novel physiological or pharmacological properties, ranging from cardiovascular protective actions to antitumoricidal effects. Recent Advances: HNO is emerging as a new entity with therapeutic advantages over its redox sibling, NO. The interests in the chemical, pharmacological, and biological characteristics of HNO have broadened our current understanding of its role in physiology and pathophysiology. Critical Issues: In particular, the experimental evidence suggests the therapeutic potential of HNO in tumor pharmacology, such as neuroblastoma, gastrointestinal tumor, ovarian, lung, and breast cancers. Indeed, HNO donors have been demonstrated to attenuate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. Future Directions: In this review, the generation and detection of HNO are outlined, and the roles of HNO in cancer progression are further discussed. We anticipate that the completion of this review might give novel insights into the roles of HNO in cancer pharmacology and open up a novel field of cancer therapy based on HNO.

16.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(11): 7115-7125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814914

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of coronary artery disease due to their high stability, covalently closed structure. And implied roles in gene regulation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize circRNAs from human coronary arteries. Epicardial coronary arteries were removed during the autopsy of an 81-year-old man who died from heart attack. The natural history and histological classification of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary artery segments were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and their circRNA expression profiles were characterized by RNA sequencing. RNA sequencing identified 1259 annotated and 381 novel circRNAs. Combined with the results of histologic examination, intersection analysis identified 54 upregulated and 12 downregulated circRNAs, representing 4.0% of the total number. Coronary artery segments with or without severe atherosclerosis showed distinctly different circRNA profiles on the basis of hierarchical clustering. Our results suggest that these 66 circRNAs contribute to the pathology underlying coronary artery atherosclerosis and may serve as diagnostic or therapeutic targets in coronary artery disease.

17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 4616034, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636805

RESUMO

Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Sodium potassium ATPase (NKA) expression and activity are often regulated by angiotensin II (Ang II). This study is aimed at investigating whether DR-Ab, an antibody against 4th extracellular region of NKA, can protect Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our results showed that Ang II treatment significantly reduced NKA activity and membrane expression. Pretreatment with DR-Ab preserved cell size in Ang II-induced cardiomyopathy by stabilizing the plasma membrane expression of NKA and restoring its activity. DR-Ab reduced intracellular ROS generation through inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and protection of mitochondrial functions in Ang II-treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological manipulation and Western blotting analysis demonstrated the cardioprotective effects were mediated by the activation of the AMPK/Sirt-3/PPARγ signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that dysfunction of NKA is an important mechanism for Ang II-induced cardiomyopathy and DR-Ab may be a novel and promising therapeutic approach to treat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
18.
J Nutr Biochem ; 72: 108212, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473513

RESUMO

Migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and several other vascular diseases. Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a bioactive constituent from Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a spice, food additive or dietary pigment. It has several health benefits including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. This study examined the roles of curcumin in VSMC migration in hypertension and underlying mechanism. VSMC was isolated and prepared from thoracic aorta of Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). VSMC migration was evaluated with Boyden chamber assay and wound-healing assay. Curcumin attenuated VSMC migration, inhibited nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) expression and reduced interleukin (IL)-1ß concentration in VSMC of SHR, which were similar to the effects of NLRP3 knockdown on IL-1ß concentration and VSMC migration. Curcumin inhibited NFκB activation in VSMC of SHR, which was similar to the effects of NFκB inhibitor BAY11-7082 on NFκB activation. In another in vitro model of rat VSMC migration, curcumin also inhibited angiotensin II-induced VSMC migration, NFκB activation, NLRP3 expression and IL-1ß production. Intragastric administration of curcumin in SHR attenuated hypertension and reduced NFκB activation, NLRP3 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions and aortic media thickness. These results indicate that curcumin inhibits VSMC migration via inhibiting NFκB-mediated NLRP3 expression in VSMC of SHR or in angiotensin II-treated VSMC. Curcumin attenuates hypertension, vascular inflammation and vascular remodeling in SHR.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Wistar
19.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390847

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease develops in approximately 40% of diabetic patients and is a major cause of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), is synthesized in nearly all organs, including the kidney. Though studies on H2S regulation of renal physiology and pathophysiology are still in its infancy, emerging evidence shows that H2S production by renal cells is reduced under disease states and H2S donors ameliorate kidney injury. Specifically, aberrant H2S level is implicated in various renal pathological conditions including diabetic nephropathy. This review presents the roles of H2S in diabetic renal disease and the underlying mechanisms for the protective effects of H2S against diabetic renal damage. H2S may serve as fundamental strategies to treat diabetic kidney disease. These H2S treatment modalities include precursors for H2S synthesis, H2S donors, and natural plant-derived compounds. Despite accumulating evidence from experimental studies suggests the potential role of the H2S signaling pathway in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, these results need further clinical translation. Expanding understanding of H2S in the kidney may be vital to translate H2S to be a novel therapy for diabetic renal disease.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fibrose , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/patologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1165: 37-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399960

RESUMO

Arterial hypertension remains to be a serious problem with considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide in the present age. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, and heart failure. Hypertensive nephropathy is the second leading cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) around the world. Long-time hypertension loading results in renal interstitial fibrosis, which is associated with aberrant activation of renal fibroblasts and excessive generation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increasing evidence supported that proteinuria, tubular hypertrophy, oxidative stress, activation of renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system (RAAS), collagen turnover, chronic inflammation, and vasoactive substances synergistically contributed to the pathogenesis of hypertensive renal fibrosis. However, the mechanisms involving the pathogenesis of hypertensive renal fibrosis are complex and not fully understood. Also, the effective clinical therapy to halt or even reverse renal fibrosis in hypertension is still limited. In this chapter, we aimed to provide an overview of the main pathophysiologic and mechanistic features of renal fibrosis under hypertensive state. The completion of the studies in these directions would improve our understanding of renal fibrosis in hypertension and also help us better screen treatment strategies for preventing renal destruction associated with hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/complicações , Nefropatias/complicações , Fibrose , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Rim/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteinúria , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
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