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1.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134510, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240550

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to explore the salt penetration and water migration in the cooked salted egg yolk (CSEY) gel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salt and water on the physicochemical, structural and flavor characteristics of CSEY gel stored at 25 °C. The hardness of the yolk increased significantly (608.0 g â†’ 2730.7 g) during storage. The results of LF-NMR showed that the free water content in the yolk gel was enhanced. The microstructure of CSEY could be observed by SEM, which showed that during storage, polyhedral particles were dispersed due to the heating process. In addition, ethyl acetate (71.9 %) was completely undetectable in the CSEY-21 d. In summary, the sample at and before 14 d of storage had good processing value. Therefore, this work would provide theoretical guidance for the low-sodium pickling of SEY (salted egg yolk) and its suitable storage methods.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo , Água , Gema de Ovo/química , Água/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Culinária , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 194: 15-28, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368222

RESUMO

Iron nanoparticles (NPs) priming is known to affect the seed germination and seedling growth in many plants. However, whether it has an important role in stimulating the growth of perennial Qinghai-Tibet Plateau plants remains unclear. In this study, the effects of seed priming with different concentrations of nFe2O3 and FeCl3 (10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 mg L-1) on seed germination, plant growth, photosystem, antioxidant enzyme activities, root morphology, and biomass distribution of Kobresia capillifolia were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that compared with treatment materials, concentration had more significant effects on K. capillifolia development. There was no significant impact on germination rate were discovered under all treatments, but decreased the seed mildew rate at 100 mg L-1 nFe2O3. Compare with control, Fe-based priming significantly decreased root biomass. All Fe-based treatments increased rubisco activity of leaves, and significantly enhanced Pn at ranged from 10 to 100 mg L-1. Meanwhile, chlorophyll contents were decreased, the chloroplasts were swollen, and thylakoids were disorganized under all Fe treatments. Iron-based priming significantly enhanced SOD, POD, and CAT activities in Kobresia roots. In conclusion, the thick cuticle-covered seed coat of K. capillifolia postponed the penetration of FeNPs into seeds, so FeNPs priming had a weak impact on seed germination. The sustainable release of Fe ions from FeNPs and the uptake of Fe ions by roots affected the physiology, biochemistry and morphology of K. capillifolia. The findings of this study provide an in-depth understanding of how FeNPs impact the alpine meadow plant, K. capillifolia.

3.
Environ Int ; 170: 107579, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265358

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely used pesticide worldwide and can provoke placental injury. However, whether and how GBHs damage angiogenesis in the placenta is not yet known. This work evaluated the safety of glyphosate on pregnant sows based on the limit level by governments and investigated the effects and mechanism of Low-GBHs (20 mg/kg) and High-GBHs (100 mg/kg) exposure on placental angiogenesis. Results showed that gestational exposure to GBHs decreased placental vessel density and cell multiplication by interfering with the expression of VEGFA, PLGF, VEGFr2 and Hand2 (indicators of angiogenesis), which may be in relation to oxidative stress-induced disorders of mitochondrial fission and fusion as well as the impaired function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Additionally, GBHs destroyed barrier function and nutrient transport in the placenta, and was accompanied by jejunum oxidative stress in newborn piglets. However, GBHs exposure had no significant differences on sow reproductive performance. As a natural antioxidant, betaine treatment protected placenta and newborn piglets against GBHs-induced damage. In conclusion, GBHs impaired placental angiogenesis and function and further damaged the health of postnatal progeny, these effects may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Betaine treatment following glyphosate exposure provided modest relief.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 938865, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092415

RESUMO

In the long-term growth process, alfalfa rhizosphere forms specific microbiome to provide nutrition for its growth and development. However, the effects of different perennial alfalfa cultivars on changes in the rhizosphere soil characteristics and microbiome are not well understood. In this study, 12 perennial alfalfa cultivars were grown continuously for eight years. Rhizosphere samples were tested using Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with co-occurrence network analysis to explore the relationship between alfalfa (biomass and crude protein content), soil properties, and the microbial composition and diversity. Redundancy analysis showed SOC and pH had the greatest impact on the composition of the rhizosphere microbial community. Moreover, microbial diversity also contributes to microbial composition. Soil properties (AP, EC, SOC and pH) exhibited a significant positive correlation with soil bacterial communities, which was attributed to the differences between plant cultivars. Partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) revealed that microbial biomass and community composition rather than diversity, are the dominant determinants in the rhizosphere soil nitrogen content of perennial alfalfa. Our findings demonstrate that the soil microbial biomass and composition of rhizosphere bacterial communities are strongly affected by cultivar, driving the changes in soil nitrogen content, and variances in the selective capacities of plants.

5.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144132

RESUMO

With the development of silicon photonics, dense photonic integrated circuits play a significant role in applications such as light detection and ranging systems, photonic computing accelerators, miniaturized spectrometers, and so on. Recently, extensive research work has been carried out on the phase shifter, which acts as the fundamental building block in the photonic integrated circuit. In this review, we overview different types of silicon photonic phase shifters, including micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), thermo-optics, and free-carrier depletion types, highlighting the MEMS-based ones. The major working principles of these phase shifters are introduced and analyzed. Additionally, the related works are summarized and compared. Moreover, some emerging applications utilizing phase shifters are introduced, such as neuromorphic computing systems, photonic accelerators, multi-purpose processing cores, etc. Finally, a discussion on each kind of phase shifter is given based on the figures of merit.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 955812, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016934

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed at establishing a mouse model of immune-related adverse in humanized BALB/c-hPD1/hCTLA4 mice to investigate their potential pathogenesis and explore therapeutic targets for immune-related arthritis and pneumonitis. Methods: Humanized BALB/c-hPD1/hCTLA4 mice were injected with vehicle or collagen-specific antibodies (CA) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI, ipilimumab, anti-human CTLA-4; and nivolumab, anti-human PD-1), and some mice were treated with anti-TNF-α antibody, leading to the control, collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), CAIA+ICI and treatment groups. The severity of clinical arthritis and pneumonitis in mice was monitored longitudinally and the pathological changes in the joints and lungs were histologically analyzed and the contents of lung hydroxyproline were measured. The frequency of different subsets of T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and multiplex immunofluorescency. Results: Compared with the control, the ICI group of mice developed the delayed onset of moderate degrees of arthritis while the CAIA+ICI group of mice exhibited the early onset of severe arthritis. Treatment with ICI caused severe pneumonitis, especially in the mice with CA. Flow cytometry analysis indicated a significantly higher frequency of splenic TNF-α+CD4+ and TNF-α+CD8+ T cells, but not other subsets of T cells tested, in the CAIA+ICI group of mice, relative to that in other groups of mice. Treatment with anti-TNF-α significantly mitigated the severity of arthritis and pneumonitis as well as deposition of collagen in lung of mice. The treatment also decreased the frequency of TNF-α+CD4+ and TNF-α+CD8+ T cells as well as effector memory T cells in the periphery lymph orangs and lungs of mice. Conclusions: We successfully established a humanized mouse model of ICI-related severe arthritis and pneumonitis with a higher frequency of TNF-α+ T cells, which were significantly mitigated by anti-TNF-α treatment. Conceptually, ICI treatment can induce multiple autoimmune-like diseases in autoimmune-prone individuals and TNF-α+ T cells may be therapeutic targets for intervention of immune-related arthritis and pneumonitis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Pneumonia , Animais , Anticorpos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Camundongos , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/farmacologia , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 323, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790925

RESUMO

The application of nanotechnology in agriculture can remarkably improve the cultivation and growth of crop plants. Many studies showed that nanoparticles (NPs) made plants grow more vigorously. Light can make NPs aggregated, leading to the reduction of the NPs toxicity. In addition, treatment with NPs had a "hormesis effect" on plants. In this study, light-induced silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by using the alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) extracts, and then the optimal synthetic condition was determined. Light-induced AgNPs were aggregated, spherical and pink, and they were coated with esters, phenols, acids, terpenes, amino acids and sugars, which were the compositions of alfalfa extracts. The concentration of free Ag+ was less than 2 % of the AgNPs concentration. Through nanopriming, Ag+ got into the seedlings and caused the impact of AgNPs on alfalfa. Compared with the control group, low concentration of light-induced AgNPs had a positive effect on the photosynthesis. It was also harmless to the leaf cells, and there was no elongation effect on shoots. Although high concentration of AgNPs was especially beneficial to root elongation, it had a slight toxic effect on seedlings due to the accumulation of silver. With the increase of AgNPs concentration, the content of silver in the seedlings increased and the silver enriched in plants was at the mg/kg level. Just as available research reported the toxicity of NPs can be reduced by using suitable synthesis and application methods, the present light induction, active material encapsulation and nanopriming minimized the toxicity of AgNPs to plants, enhancing the antioxidant enzyme system.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Plântula/metabolismo , Prata/química , Nitrato de Prata/farmacologia
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(21): 24602-24609, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604049

RESUMO

Ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) is one promising candidate for next-generation nonvolatile data storage and neural network computing systems. In this work, the high-performance 50 nm-diameter Au/Ti/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (∼3 nm, (111)-oriented)/Nb:SrTiO3 (Nb: 0.7 wt %) FTJs are achieved to demonstrate the scaling down capability of FTJ. As a nonvolatile memory, the FTJ shows eight distinct resistance states (3 bits) with a large ON/OFF ratio (>103), and these states can be switched at a fast speed of 10 ns. Intriguingly, the long-term potentiation/depression and spike timing-dependent plasticity, that is, fundamental functions of biological synapses, can be emulated in the nanoscale FTJ-based artificial synapse. A convolutional neural network (CNN) simulation is then carried out based on the experimental results, and a high recognition accuracy of ∼93.8% on fashion product images is obtained, which is very close to the result of ∼94.4% by a floating-point-based CNN software. In particular, the FTJ-based CNN simulation also exhibits robustness to input image noises. These results indicate the great potential of FTJ for high-density information storage and neural network computing.

9.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(4): 333-337, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583063

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2) on the proportion of CD4+T cells by detecting the proportion of CD4+T cell subsets and Id2 expression in peripheral blood and joint synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A total of 51 RA patients (including 18 patients providing synovial fluid) and 31 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. The proportions of CD4+T cells, Th1 cells, and Th17 cells, and their expression of Id2 in peripheral blood and synovial fluid of RA patients and HCs were detected by flow cytometry. Results Compared with HCs group, the proportions of circulating CD4+T cells, Th1 cells, and Th17 cells and their expression of Id2 in RA patients did not change significantly. The proportions of CD4+T cells and Th1 cells, and Id2 expression in CD4+T cells in synovial fluid of RA patients were significantly higher than those in peripheral blood of RA patients and HCs. The expression rate of Id2 in CD4+T cells was positively correlated with the expression of IFN-γ, but not with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28). Conclusion CD4+T cells are enriched in RA synovial fluid, and their Id2 expression may promote Th1 cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Proteína 2 Inibidora de Diferenciação , Líquido Sinovial , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Proteína 2 Inibidora de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Células Th1
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(20): 6224-6238, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549255

RESUMO

As a food contaminant, oxidized oil or lipid oxidative products have been proven to exert toxicological effects on the growth and development of animals and humans. Research shows that maternal oxidative stress damage might transmit to another generation by epigenetic modulation. However, current evidence is still not clear on the mechanism of the effects of dietary oxidized oil during pregnancy on the two generations. This study employed a rat model fed with oxidized soybean oil (OSO) during pregnancy and lactation to explore the effects of the oxidative degree (0, 200, 400, and 800 mequiv of O2/kg) on the placental RNA methylation and DNA methylation in offspring jejunum. The results showed that following the ingestion of OSO, the placental genes of different m6A methylation were significantly enriched to nutrient metabolic processes and hormone activity. In addition, the intestine in offspring hypofunctioned observably, such as reducing the height of villi and the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine. Furthermore, maternal intake of OSO during pregnancy can damage the intestinal barrier function of offspring by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells and reducing the activity of intestinal DNA methyltransferase. In conclusion, this study reinforces the assertion that maternal OSO consumption during gestation and lactation negatively affects the placental health and intestinal development of suckling pups.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Óleo de Soja , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Intestinos , Lactação , Placenta , Gravidez , Ratos , Óleo de Soja/efeitos adversos
11.
Adv Compos Hybrid Mater ; 5(2): 1221-1232, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35539508

RESUMO

The worldwide pandemic, coronavirus COVID-19, has been posing a serious threat to the global economy and security in last 2 years. The monthly consumption and subsequent discarding of 129 billion masks (equivalent to 645,000 tons) pose a serious detrimental impact on environmental sustainability. In this study, we report a novel type of nanofibrous membranes (NFMs) with supreme filtration performance and controllable degradation rates, which are mainly composed of polylactic acid (PLA) and artificially cultured diatom frustules (DFs). In this way, the filtration efficiency of particular matter (PM) and the pressure drop were significantly improved in the prepared PLA/DFs NFMs as compared with the neat PLA NFM. In specific, with incorporation of 5% DFs into fibers, PM0.3 removal with a filtration efficiency of over 99% and a pressure drop of 109 Pa were achieved with a membrane thickness of only 0.1 mm. Moreover, the yield strength and crystallinity degree of the PLA/DFs5 NFMs were sharply increased from 1.88 Mpa and 26.37% to 2.72 Mpa and 30.02%. Besides those unique characters, the PLA/DFs5 presented excellent degradability, accompanied by the degradation of 38% in 0.01 M sodium hydroxide solution after 7 days and approximately 100% in natural condition after 42 days, respectively. Meanwhile, the environmentally friendly raw materials of the composite polylactic acid and artificially cultured diatom frustules could be extracted from corn-derived biomass and artificially cultivated diatoms, ensuring the conformance to carbon neutrality and promising applications in personal protection. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42114-022-00474-7.

12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 863753, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603149

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the changes in quantity and function of T helper (Th)-like T regulatory (Treg) cell subsets in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to understand their relationship with disease activity. Methods: A total of 86 RA patients and 76 gender and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study. Th-like Treg frequency and function were determined using flow cytometry. The inhibitory function of Th-like Treg cells was detected using an in vitro co-culture suppression assay. Results: The proportion and absolute number of Th1-like Treg cells from RA PB and RA SF were significantly higher than those of HC PB. In RA SF, the proportions of Treg cells and Th1-like Treg cells were significantly lower in the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or the C-Reactive Protein group, and in the positive groups of anti-CCP antibody and anti-MCV antibody. Additionally, the proportions of Treg cells and Th1-like Treg cells from RA SF were negatively correlated with disease activity. However, the expression levels of CD73 and TGF-ß1 in Th1-like Treg cells were decreased, and these Treg cells could not effectively inhibit the proliferation of effector T (Teff) cells. Conclusion: Our data indicate that Th1-like Treg cells are the predominant Treg cell subset in RA SF, but their suppressive function is defective. Improving the function of Th1-like Treg cells may control inflammation in joints and provide new strategies for Treg-targeted therapies in RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Líquido Sinovial
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(4): e1009979, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363786

RESUMO

As the most widespread viral infection transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes, dengue has been estimated to cause 51 million febrile disease cases globally each year. Although sustained vector control remains key to reducing the burden of dengue, current understanding of the key factors that explain the observed variation in the short- and long-term vector control effectiveness across different transmission settings remains limited. We used a detailed individual-based model to simulate dengue transmission with and without sustained vector control over a 30-year time frame, under different transmission scenarios. Vector control effectiveness was derived for different time windows within the 30-year intervention period. We then used the extreme gradient boosting algorithm to predict the effectiveness of vector control given the simulation parameters, and the resulting machine learning model was interpreted using Shapley Additive Explanations. According to our simulation outputs, dengue transmission would be nearly eliminated during the early stage of sustained and intensive vector control, but over time incidence would gradually bounce back to the pre-intervention level unless the intervention is implemented at a very high level of intensity. The time point at which intervention ceases to be effective is strongly influenced not only by the intensity of vector control, but also by the pre-intervention transmission intensity and the individual-level heterogeneity in biting risk. Moreover, the impact of many transmission model parameters on the intervention effectiveness is shown to be modified by the intensity of vector control, as well as to vary over time. Our study has identified some of the critical drivers for the difference in the time-varying effectiveness of sustained vector control across different dengue endemic settings, and the insights obtained will be useful to inform future model-based studies that seek to predict the impact of dengue vector control in their local contexts.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Mosquitos Vetores
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 699, 2022 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121735

RESUMO

The rapid development of neuro-inspired computing demands synaptic devices with ultrafast speed, low power consumption, and multiple non-volatile states, among other features. Here, a high-performance synaptic device is designed and established based on a Ag/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT, (111)-oriented)/Nb:SrTiO3 ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ). The advantages of (111)-oriented PZT (~1.2 nm) include its multiple ferroelectric switching dynamics, ultrafine ferroelectric domains, and small coercive voltage. The FTJ shows high-precision (256 states, 8 bits), reproducible (cycle-to-cycle variation, ~2.06%), linear (nonlinearity <1) and symmetric weight updates, with a good endurance of >109 cycles and an ultralow write energy consumption. In particular, manipulations among 150 states are realized under subnanosecond (~630 ps) pulse voltages ≤5 V, and the fastest resistance switching at 300 ps for the FTJs is achieved by voltages <13 V. Based on the experimental performance, the convolutional neural network simulation achieves a high online learning accuracy of ~94.7% for recognizing fashion product images, close to the calculated result of ~95.6% by floating-point-based convolutional neural network software. Interestingly, the FTJ-based neural network is very robust to input image noise, showing potential for practical applications. This work represents an important improvement in FTJs towards building neuro-inspired computing systems.

15.
Adv Mater ; 34(5): e2101976, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807475

RESUMO

The developments of next-generation electric power systems and electronics demand for high temperature (≈150 °C), high energy density, high efficiency, scalable, and low-cost polymer-based dielectric capacitors are still scarce. Here, the nanocomposites based on polyimide-poly(amic acid) copolymers with a very low amount of boron nitride nanosheets are designed and synthesized. Under the actual working condition in hybrid electric vehicles of 200 MV m-1 and 150 °C, a high energy density of 1.38 J cm-3 with an efficiency higher than 96% is achieved. This is about 2.5 times higher than the room temperature energy density (≈0.39 J cm-3 under 200 MV m-1 ) of the commercially used biaxially oriented polypropylene, the benchmark of dielectric polymer. Especially, the energy density and efficiency at 150 °C show no sign of degradation after 20 000 cycles of charge-discharge test and 35 days' high-temperature endurance test. This research provides an effective and low-cost strategy to develop high-temperature polymer-based capacitors.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 1355-1361, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958206

RESUMO

HfO2-based ferroelectric materials are good candidates for constructing next-generation nonvolatile memories and high-performance electronic synapses and have attracted extensive attention from both academia and industry. Here, a Hf0.5Zr0.5O2-based ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) memristor is successfully fabricated by epitaxially growing a Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film on a 0.7 wt % Nb-doped SrTiO3 (001) substrate with a buffer layer of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (∼1 u.c.). The FTJ shows a high switching speed of 20 ns, a giant electroresistance ratio of ∼834, and multiple states (eight states or three bits) with good retention >104 s. As a solid synaptic device, tunable synapse functions have also been obtained, including long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and spike-timing-dependent plasticity. These results highlight the promising applications of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2-based FTJ in ultrafast-speed and high-density nonvolatile memories and artificial synapses.

17.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832723

RESUMO

Mid-infrared (MIR) photonics are generating considerable interest because of the potential applications in spectroscopic sensing, thermal imaging, and remote sensing. Silicon photonics is believed to be a promising solution to realize MIR photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The past decade has seen a huge growth in MIR PIC building blocks. However, there is still a need for the development of MIR reconfigurable photonics to enable powerful on-chip optical systems and new functionalities. In this paper, we present an MIR (3.7~4.1 µm wavelength range) MEMS reconfiguration approach using the suspended silicon waveguide platform on the silicon-on-insulator. With the sub-wavelength grating claddings, the photonic waveguide can be well integrated with the MEMS actuator, thus offering low-loss, energy-efficient, and effective reconfiguration. We present a simulation study on the waveguide design and depict the MEMS-integration approach. Moreover, we experimentally report the suspended waveguide with propagation loss (-2.9 dB/cm) and bending loss (-0.076 dB each). The suspended waveguide coupler is experimentally investigated. In addition, we validate the proposed optical MEMS approach using a reconfigurable ring resonator design. In conclusion, we experimentally demonstrate the proposed waveguide platform's capability for MIR MEMS-reconfigurable photonics, which empowers the MIR on-chip optical systems for various applications.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 731838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691110

RESUMO

Rare earth elements (REEs) of low concentration are usually beneficial to plant growth, while they are toxic at high concentrations. The effects of treatment with lanthanum (La) (10 and 20 µM), cerium (Ce) (10 and 20 µM), and terbium (Tb) (10 and 20 µM) on seedling growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), which is one of the most important perennial leguminous forages in the world, were studied. The results showed that all three REE treatments quickened the germination of seeds. The length of shoot under La (20 µM) treatment was significantly shortened (P < 0.05). In addition, treatment with La, Ce, and Tb had a "hormesis effect" on root length. There was a significant decrease in chlorophyll content on treatment with the three REEs, and the degree of decline was in the order of La < Ce < Tb, under the same concentration. In vitro experiments and quantum chemical calculations were further performed to explain why the treatments with REEs reduced the chlorophyll content. In vitro experiments showed that La, Ce, and Tb treatments reduced the absorbance of chlorophyll, and the decrease followed in the order of La > Ce > Tb. Quantum chemical calculations predicted that the decrease in absorption intensity was caused by the reactions between La, Ce, Tb, and chlorophyll, which formed lanthanides-chlorophyll; and there were five types of stable lanthanides-chlorophyll. In conclusion, the decrease in chlorophyll content on treatment with REEs was caused by the change in chlorophyll structure.

19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687291

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding fermented wheat bran (FWB) and yeast culture (YC) on growth performance, immune levels, and intestinal microflora in growing-finishing pigs. In total, 96 crossbred pigs were randomly distributed into four treatments with four replicates pens and six pigs per pen. This study was performed using a 2 × 2 factor design: 1) CON (basal diet), 2) FWB (basal diet + 5% FWB), 3) YC (basal diet + 2% YC), and 4) FWB + YC (basal diet + 5% FWB + 2% YC). Dietary FWB supplementation significantly increased the average daily gain and significantly decreased the feed gain ratio of growing-finishing pigs (P < 0.05). Supplementation of FWB and YC improved the immune capacity and reduced the inflammation level of growing-finishing pigs (P < 0.05). In addition, pigs fed FWB, YC, and FWB + YC diets showed better intestinal development and morphology compared with those CON pigs. The relative abundance of Streptococcus in the FWB group was significantly lower than that in the CON group (P < 0.05), and the relative abundance of probiotics (unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae, Turicibacter) increased significantly (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the relative abundance of probiotics (Lactobacillus, norank_f_Muribaculaceae) in the YC group was significantly increased compared with the CON group (P < 0.05). The results of this study observed positive effects of FWB and YC on growing-finishing pigs, which provides insights into the application of biological feed in swine industry.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Suínos
20.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(10): 942-946, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670672

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) specifically express forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and CD25, which are indispensable components in the immune system to maintain immune self-tolerance and homeostasis. In recent years, Tregs that exist in non-lymphatic tissues have gradually obtained people's attention. Through genomics, proteomics, metabolic regulation and other in vivo and in vitro functional studies, it has been found that tissue-resident Tregs have unique phenotype that are different from circulating Tregs, and can perform some non-immune functions in addition to its immunosuppressive function in the tissues. By summarizing various functions of non-lymphoid tissue Tregs, we aimed to provide reference for studies on the functional mechanism of tissue-resident Tregs and treatment targeting tissue-resident Tregs.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica
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