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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2442, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415220

RESUMO

Berry phase associated with energy bands in crystals can lead to quantised observables like quantised dipole polarizations in one-dimensional topological insulators. Recent theories have generalised the concept of quantised dipoles to multipoles, resulting in the discovery of multipole topological insulators which exhibit a hierarchy of multipole topology: a quantised octupole moment in a three-dimensional bulk induces quantised quadrupole moments on its two-dimensional surfaces, which in turn induce quantised dipole moments on one-dimensional hinges. Here, we report on the realisation of an octupole topological insulator in a three-dimensional acoustic metamaterial. We observe zero-dimensional topological corner states, one-dimensional gapped hinge states, two-dimensional gapped surface states, and three-dimensional gapped bulk states, representing the hierarchy of octupole, quadrupole and dipole moments. Conditions for forming a nontrivial octupole moment are demonstrated by comparisons with two different lattice configurations having trivial octupole moments. Our work establishes the multipole topology and its full hierarchy in three-dimensional geometries.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 257: 112677, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278761

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Albizia (Leguminosae) comprises about 150 species and some species have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, stomachache, cough, diarrhea, and wounds in traditional and local medicine. The aim of the review: This review article documents and critically assesses the current status of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of the Albizia species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All provided literatures on the Albizia species were searched using the electronic databases (e.g. Web of Science, Elsevier, Springer, PubMed, ACS, CNKI, Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar), books, and theses with keywords of 'Albizia' and 'Albizzia'. RESULTS: Albizia species have been used for melancholia, insomnia, wounds, fever, abscesses, diabetes, headache, stomachache, diarrhea, cough, rheumatism, snake bite, malaria, and parasitic infection in traditional and local medicine. These plants mainly contain triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, lignanoids, alkaloids, phenolic glycosides, etc. Albizia species have been demonstrated to possess various pharmacological activities. Among them, the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, antianxiety, antidepressant, and anti-fever properties are consistent with the traditional and local applications of the Albizia species. CONCLUSIONS: The traditional and local uses of Albizia species have been partially demonstrated by the pharmacological investigation. However, some traditional applications have not been assessed scientifically due to incomplete methodologies and ambiguous findings. Moreover, no clinical evidences support the health benefits of these plants. The systematic and comprehensive preclinical studies and clinical trials are still required to verify the pharmacological activities, clinical efficacy, and safety of Albizia species.

3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(11)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198171

RESUMO

Our current understanding of the host-microbiota interaction in the gut is dominated by studies focused primarily on prokaryotic bacterial communities. However, there is an underappreciated symbiotic eukaryotic protistic community that is an integral part of mammalian microbiota. How commensal protozoan bacteria might interact to form a stable microbial community remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a murine protistic commensal, phylogenetically assigned as Tritrichomonas musculis, whose colonization in the gut resulted in a reduction of gut bacterial abundance and diversity in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Meanwhile, dietary nutrient and commensal bacteria also influenced the protozoan's intestinal colonization and stability. While mice fed a normal chow diet had abundant T. musculis organisms, switching to a Western-type high-fat diet led to the diminishment of the protozoan from the gut. Supplementation of inulin as a dietary fiber to the high-fat diet partially restored the protozoan's colonization. In addition, a cocktail of broad-spectrum antibiotics rendered permissive engraftment of T. musculis even under a high-fat, low-fiber diet. Furthermore, oral administration of Bifidobacterium spp. together with dietary supplementation of inulin in the high-fat diet impacted the protozoan's intestinal engraftment in a bifidobacterial species-dependent manner. Overall, our study described an example of dietary-nutrient-dependent murine commensal protozoan-bacterium cross talk as an important modulator of the host intestinal microbiome.IMPORTANCE Like commensal bacteria, commensal protozoa are an integral part of the vertebrate intestinal microbiome. How protozoa integrate into a commensal bacterium-enriched ecosystem remains poorly studied. Here, using the murine commensal Tritrichomonas musculis as a proof of concept, we studied potential factors involved in shaping the intestinal protozoal-bacterial community. Understanding the rules by which microbes form a multispecies community is crucial to prevent or correct microbial community dysfunctions in order to promote the host's health or to treat diseases.

4.
Theranostics ; 10(2): 516-536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903135

RESUMO

Background: The leading cause of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) is the presence of colorectal cancer-initiating cells (CCICs). The interplay between the tumor microenvironment (TME) and CRC cells induces reacquisition of initiating cell characteristics, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Methods: Candidate molecules were screened by global differential cDNA expression profiles of CCICs, which were enriched from patient-derived tumor xenograft models. Luciferase reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to explore the mechanism of TME factors regulating the transcription of ANKRD22. The effects of Ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 22 (ANKRD22) on energy metabolism were monitored by extracellular flux and 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the interacting partners of ANKRD22. Morphological changes of CCICs overexpressing ANKRD22 were observed by electron microscopy. The effects of ANKRD22 on mitochondrial lipid metabolism were analyzed by lipidomics. Results: We identified a novel nucleus-encoded mitochondrial membrane protein, ANKRD22, which was upregulated in CCICs. We found that ANKRD22 was induced by the p38/MAX pathway activated by different TME stimuli. As a key transcription factor, MAX promoted the transcription of ANKRD22. Expression of ANKRD22 promoted glycolysis associated with a decrease in ATP/ADP and an increase in AMP/ATP levels, which were related to its interaction with pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 1 (PDK1) and multiple subunits of ATP synthase. Further, in CCICs, ANKRD22 cooperated with the lipid transport protein, Extended Synaptotagmin-1 (E-Syt1), to transport excess lipids into mitochondria and reduced the number of mitochondria in an autophagy-independent manner, thus meeting the metabolic requirements of CCICs. Conclusion: ANKRD22 induced by TME promotes the metabolic reprogramming of CRC cells. Our study has identified ANKRD22/E-Syt1 as a potential target for eradicating CCICs.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5185, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729392

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) gapless topological phases can be classified by the dimensionality of the band degeneracies, including zero-dimensional (0D) nodal points, one-dimensional (1D) nodal lines, and two-dimensional (2D) nodal surfaces. Both nodal points and nodal lines have been realized recently in photonics and acoustics. However, a nodal surface has never been observed in any classical-wave system. Here, we report on the experimental observation of a twofold symmetry-enforced nodal surface in a 3D chiral acoustic crystal. In particular, the demonstrated nodal surface carries a topological charge of 2, constituting the first realization of a higher-dimensional topologically-charged band degeneracy. Using direct acoustic field measurements, we observe the projected nodal surface and its Fermi-arc-like surface states and demonstrate topologically-induced robustness of the surface states against disorders. This discovery of a higher-dimensional topologically-charged band degeneracy paves the way toward further explorations of the physics and applications of new topological semimetal phases.

6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 77: 105955, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678866

RESUMO

The saponin active fraction from the stem bark of Albizia julibrissin (AJSAF) is an ideal vaccine adjuvant, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The recent evidences indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play essential roles in regulating the activation and function of macrophages. The current experiments were designed to investigate the effects of AJSAF on the activation of RAW264.7 macrophages and to explore its intracellular molecular mechanisms using a global gene expression microarray. AJSAF could significantly enhance phagocytic activity, induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), promote surface molecule expression, and up-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of cytokines and chemokines in RAW264.7 cells. AJSAF induced the differential expression of 223 mRNAs and 103 lncRNAs in RAW264.7 cells. Bioinformatics were used to predict the potential target mRNAs and function of up-regulated lncRNA A_30_P01018532 in RAW264.7 cells induced by AJSAF. The total 99 co-expressed mRNAs were classified as putative target genes of A_30_P01018532. A_30_P01018532 was associated with the inflammatory and immune response. AJSAF significantly increased the intracellular free Ca2+ levels and induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 and CREB inhibitor KG-501 significantly inhibited the up-regulation of TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL2, CCL22, and A_30_P01018532 in RAW264.7 cells induced by AJSAF. These results suggested that AJSAF could activate RAW264.7 cells via Ca2+-ERK1/2-CREB pathways and that A_30_P01018532 might be an important regulator of mRNA expression in AJSAF-activated macrophage. This study may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of AJSAF.


Assuntos
Albizzia/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758993

RESUMO

The innate immune mechanisms by which adjuvants enhance the potency and protection of vaccine remain at cellular level, but the molecular mechanisms, especially in vivo, are ill-identified. Actinidia eriantha polysaccharide (AEPS) is a potent adjuvant with dual Th1 and Th2 potentiating activity, while Alum elicits a strict Th2 response. The current experiments were designed to compare the innate immune responses in the peritoneal cavity of mice induced by two adjuvants and explore their molecular mechanisms using gene expression microarray including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). AEPS induced the recruitment of monocytes, neutrophils and dendritic cells. However, Alum recruited neutrophils and eosinophils. AEPS and Alum specifically induced the differential expression of 546 and 922 genes in peritoneal cells, respectively. AEPS induced higher mRNA expression of CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL7, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL10, IL-12ß, and IL-23α in immune effector process, while Alum tended to Th17 response mRNAs such as IL-7A, IL-17F and IL-17RA. Furthermore, a robust adjuvant-specific expression pattern of lncRNAs was found in above mentioned biological processes, suggesting the involvement of lncRNAs in immune responses induced by AEPS and Alum. This study led to a better understanding of different molecular mechanisms of adjuvants and benefited the rational design of effective vaccines.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12754-12763, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596577

RESUMO

Fertilization success is crucial for the population recruitment of an organism. However, little is known about the threat of nanoparticles (NPs) to the fertilization of broadcast spawners. Therefore, the effects of nTiO2 on fertilization success, polyspermy rate, sperm velocity, gametic DNA damage, sperm-egg collision probability, gamete fusion, and oocyte ultrastructure were investigated in a broadcast spawning bivalve, Tegillarca granosa. The results obtained show that fertilization success significantly decreased, whereas polyspermy risk markedly increased upon nTiO2 exposure. In addition, nTiO2 exposure led to a significant reduction in sperm swimming velocity, which would subsequently constrain gamete collisions. In addition, nTiO2 exposure resulted in a significant decline in gamete fusion per collision along with aggravated DNA damage in gametes. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis illustrated the attachment of nTiO2 to the oocyte surface, which subsequently resulted in microvillus disassociation and plasma membrane damage. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest a significant threat from NP pollution to the recruitment of broadcast spawning invertebrates.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Fertilização , Animais , Invertebrados , Masculino , Espermatozoides
9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(20): 1901307, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637167

RESUMO

It is reported both experimentally and numerically that dual-band acoustic Fano resonances (AFRs) of low-frequency sound are realized by a compound unit array composed of two types of multiple-cavity unit cells with different inner radii. Eigenmode analyses show that two types of monopolar Mie resonance (MMR) modes can be observed below 650 Hz, which arise from the coupling resonance of the overall structure and the Helmholtz resonance of each resonance cavity, respectively. Based on the MMRs with the out-of-phase characteristic induced by the mutual coupling of the two types of unit cells, the dual-band AFRs, in which the quality factor of the AFR II can exceed 600 when the ratio of the inner radii is closed to 1.0, can be observed. More interestingly, the application of the dual-band AFRs in sound encryption communication is further discussed. The proposed multiple-cavity unit cell and its associated dual-band AFRs provide diverse routes to design multiband sound devices with versatile applications, such as filtering, sensing, and communication.

10.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581526

RESUMO

The root bark of Illicium henryi has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat lumbar muscle strain and rheumatic pain. Its ethanol extract (EEIH) has been previously reported to attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury in mice. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities and in vivo protective effects of EEIH against LPS-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice as well as explore its molecular mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with EEIH at the doses of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg every day for 5 days. One hour after the last administration, the mice were administered i.p. with LPS (8 mg/kg). After fasting for 12 h, blood and liver tissues were collected to histopathological observation, biochemical assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analyses. EEIH possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) disodium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activities and ferric-reducing antioxidant capacity in vitro. The histopathological examination, serum biochemical analysis, and liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity showed that EEIH pretreatment alleviated LPS-induced liver injury in mice. EEIH significantly dose-dependently decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and COX-2 in liver tissue of LPS-induced ALI mice via downregulating the mRNA and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibiting the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65. Furthermore, EEIH markedly ameliorated liver oxidative and nitrosative stress burden in LPS-treated mice through reducing the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) levels, restoring the decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and up-regulating nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). These results demonstrate that EEIH has protective effects against ALI in mice via alleviating inflammatory response, oxidative and nitrosative stress burden through activating the Nrf2 and suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways. The hepatoprotective activity of EEIH might be attributed to the flavonoid compounds such as catechin (1), 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (2), and taxifolin (7) that most possibly act synergistically.

11.
Org Lett ; 21(16): 6539-6542, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364857

RESUMO

Talaromyolides A-D (1-4) and talaromytin (5) were isolated from a marine fungus Talaromyces sp. CX11. Their structures were unambiguously determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry, X-ray crystallography experiments, and time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism calculations. Talaromyolides A and D represent two novel carbon skeletons. Talaromytin exhibits two slowly interconverting conformers in DMSO-d6 and CH3OH-d4 that were studied by temperature-dependent NMR experiments. Talaromyolide D exhibits potent antiviral activity against pseudorabies virus (PRV) with a CC50 value of 3.35 µM.

12.
J Sep Sci ; 42(18): 2922-2941, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298460

RESUMO

The purified active fraction of Albizia julibrissin saponin was proved to be a promising adjuvant candidate for vaccine. In this study, a simple, convenient, and practical strategy was established for characterizing the saponins in this purified active fraction. The personal accurate mass database including chemical structure, molecular formula, and theoretical mass was first constructed by collecting 110 reported known saponins from genus Albizia species. The raw data was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. The potential compounds were extracted from raw data, and matched with the accurate mass databases. A series of saponin compounds were predicted and their chemical structures were characterized by interpreting the tandem mass spectrometry data. A total of 29 saponins including 10 new compounds and 5 first found saponins from A. julibrissin were successfully characterized in this purified active fraction using this new strategy.


Assuntos
Albizzia/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Conformação Molecular , Saponinas/química , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234591

RESUMO

The root bark of Illicium henryi has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases. Its ethanol extract (EEIH) was found to contain a large number of phenols and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to investigate its protective effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with EEIH for five days, and then LPS injection was applied to induce AKI. Blood samples and kidney tissues were collected and used for histopathology, biochemical assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analyses. EEIH not only significantly dose-dependently attenuated histological damage and reduced renal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (from 9.77 ± 0.73 to 0.84 ± 0.30 U/g tissue) but also decreased serum creatinine (from 55.60 ± 2.70 to 27.20 ± 2.39 µmol/L) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (from 29.95 ± 1.96 to 16.12 ± 1.24 mmol/L) levels in LPS-treated mice. EEIH also markedly dose-dependently inhibited mRNA expression and production of TNF-α (from 140.40 ± 5.15 to 84.74 ± 5.65 pg/mg), IL-1ß (from 135.54 ± 8.20 to 77.15 ± 5.34 pg/mg), IL-6 (from 168.74 ± 7.23 to 119.16 ± 9.35 pg/mg), and COX-2 in renal tissue of LPS-treated mice via downregulating mRNA and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65. Moreover, EEIH significantly dose-dependently reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) (from 5.43 ± 0.43 to 2.80 ± 0.25 nmol/mg prot) and NO (from 1.01 ± 0.05 to 0.24 ± 0.05 µmol/g prot) levels and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) (from 22.32 ± 2.92 to 47.59 ± 3.79 U/mg prot) and glutathione (GSH) (from 6.57 ± 0.53 to 16.89 ± 0.68 µmol/g prot) levels in renal tissue induced by LPS through upregulating mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, EEIH inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from RAW264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that EEIH has protective effects against AKI in mice through regulating inflammation and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Illicium , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/química , Illicium/química , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Solventes/química , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 980-993, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220493

RESUMO

The polysaccharide from the roots of Actinidia eriantha (AEPS) is a potent antitumor agent and immunological adjuvant. The recent evidences indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play essential roles in regulating the activation and function of immune cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs and explore the role of lncRNAs in AEPS-activated RAW264.7 cells using whole gene expression microarray. AEPS induced the differential expression of 1,807 mRNAs and 506 lncRNAs in RAW264.7 cells. The mRNA expression levels of both M1 and M2 specific cytokines and chemokines were significantly upregulated in RAW264.7 cells by AEPS. NF-κB inhibitors and shRNA-NF-κB p65 significantly decreased the up-regulation of IL-1ß expression in RAW264.7 cells induced by AEPS. Five AEPS-induced lncRNAs (D730047E02Rik, Gm14047, A_30_P01020139, A_30_P01026293 and A_30_P01032196) were identified and predicted to locally regulate mRNA expressions of immune response genes in RAW264.7 cells through the specific interaction with NF-κB p65. The inhibition of NF-κB could significantly suppress the expression of these lncRNAs induced by AEPS. These results indicated that AEPS induced the activation of macrophages via lncRNAs/NF-κB networks. This study further expanded current knowledge on the mechanisms of plant polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ontologia Genética , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8355, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175315

RESUMO

The recent rapid development of acoustic logic devices has opened up the possibilities of sound computing and information processing. However, simultaneous realization of acoustic logic devices with subwavelength size, broad bandwidth and passive structure still poses a great challenge. To overcome it, we propose a subwavelength acoustic logic gate which consists of binary-phase passive unit cells placed into a multi-port waveguide. Based on the phase manipulations of the unit cells, we experimentally and numerically realize three basic logic gates OR, NOT and AND, and a composite logic gate XOR with a uniform threshold of 0.4 Pa based on linear acoustic interferences. More importantly, We also design a composite logic gate XNOR by a four-port waveguide, and composite logic gates NOR and NAND and a logic operation A⊙(B+C) based on two logic gates. We demonstrate a 0.6λ-length, 0.3λ-width, and 0.2-fractional bandwidth acoustic logic gate constructed by passive structures, which may lead to important advances in various applications, such as acoustic computing, acoustic information processing and integrated acoustics.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 203-212, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914371

RESUMO

The polysaccharide from the roots of Actinidia eriantha (AEPS), a potent antitumor agent and immunological adjuvant, has been previously reported to activate RAW264.7 macrophages via TLRs/NF-κB signaling. The objective of this study was to investigate microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles and explore the role of miRNAs in AEPS-activated RAW264.7 cells using microarray assay and specific inhibitor. AEPS induced 82 differentially expressed miRNAs including 43 up-regulated and 39 down-regulated in RAW264.7 cells. A set of 11 differentially expressed miRNAs and their 62 target mRNAs were predicted to involve in activation of RAW264.7 cell induced by AEPS based on computational databases and validated reports. miR-155 inhibitor significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of proinflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, COX-2 and NOS2), and blocked the production of NO in RAW264.7 cell induced by AEPS. The expression of accessory and costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, MHC I and MHC II) in AEPS-activated RAW264.7 cells was also remarkably reduced by miR-155 inhibitor. These results suggested that AEPS may induce macrophage activation through regulating miRNAs expression such as miR-155. This study further expanded current knowledge on the mechanisms of plant polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 162: 109-121, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439592

RESUMO

Natural compounds are important sources of anticancer drugs. Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis (Chinese name "Tu Bei Mu") is the dry tuber of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae). It has long been widely used for treating various ailments including cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. Its major pharmacologically active components are the triterpenoid saponins tubeimosides (TBMs) including tubeimoside (TBM) I, II and III. Extensive researches have provided evidences of the anticancer activities of TBMs in different stages of carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo model. TBMs could inhibit cell growth and proliferation, induce cell differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy and, inhibit inflammation, and suppress angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis via various signaling pathways. They are effective in combination therapies, particularly at targeting drug-resistant cancer cells. This mini-review aims to summarize and analyze the current knowledge on the pre-clinical studies of anti-tumor effects, the underlying molecular mechanisms and discuss the prospects of the application of TBMs in cancer prevention and treatment. The potential of TBMs as pertinent candidates could be appropriately developed and designed into an efficacious anticancer drug.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
18.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 11(2): 93-106, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428057

RESUMO

Glucose metabolism plays a key role in thymocyte development. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a critical regulator of cell growth and metabolism, but its role in early thymocyte development and metabolism has not been fully studied. We show here that genetic ablation of Sin1, an essential component of mTORC2, in T lineage cells results in severely impaired thymocyte development at the CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) stages but not at the CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) or later stages. Notably, Sin1-deficient DN thymocytes show markedly reduced proliferation and glycolysis. Importantly, we discover that the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) is a novel and crucial Sin1 effector in promoting DN thymocyte development and metabolism. At the molecular level, we show that Sin1-mTORC2 controls PKM2 expression through an AKT-dependent PPAR-γ nuclear translocation. Together, our study unravels a novel mTORC2-PPAR-γ-PKM2 pathway in immune-metabolic regulation of early thymocyte development.

19.
Immunol Invest ; 48(3): 283-302, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325683

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purified fraction of Albizia julibrissin saponins (AJSAF) was evaluated and characterized for the adjuvant activity on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine. METHODS: The effects of AJSAF on serum PRRSV N protein-specific antibody titers, splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, mRNA expression of cytokines and transcription factors, secretion of cytokines, T cells response in splenocytes, as well as delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in the mice immunized PRRSV vaccine were determined by ELISA, MTT assay, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: AJSAF not only significantly enhanced the serum PRRSV N protein-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibody titers in the mice immunized with PRRSV CH-1R modified live vaccine (CH-1R MLV), inactivated vaccine (CH-1R IAV), and highly pathogenic JXA1-R modified live vaccine (JXA1-R MLV), but promoted the concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and PRRSV N protein-stimulated splenocyte proliferation, the activities of NK cells and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in the mice immunized CH-1R MLV. AJSAF also remarkably induced the production of both Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-10) cytokines, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) and transcription factors (T-bet and STAT4) as well as Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and transcription factors (GATA-3 and STAT6) in splenocytes from the CH-1R MLV-immunized mice. Furthermore, AJSAF markedly increased the frequencies of PRRSV N protein-specific Th1 (INF-γ+ and IL-2+) and Th2 (IL-4+ and IL-10+) CD4 T cells as well as Tc1 (INF-γ+ and IL-2+) and Tc2 (IL-4+ and IL-10+) CD8 T cells in splenocytes from the CH-1R MLV-immunized mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that AJSAF had a potential to enhance and improve immune responses and elicit both Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 response to PRRSV vaccine, and that AJSAF would be a promising adjuvant candidate for PRRSV vaccine.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Albizzia/química , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Saponinas/imunologia , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
20.
FASEB J ; 33(2): 1595-1604, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148680

RESUMO

The physiologic signals that regulate beige adipogenesis remain incompletely understood, especially those that limit browning and prevent overexpenditure of energy. In this study, the TNF family member cytokine lymphotoxin-like inducible protein that competes with glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry on T cells (LIGHT), also known as TNF super family protein 14 (TNFSF14), can inhibit adipose precursor differentiation into beige adipocytes. In acute cold stress, LIGHT deficiency in mice accelerated browning in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Further experiments showed that LIGHT interacting with lymphotoxin-ß receptor (LTßR) on adipose precursors blocked beige fat biogenesis. LTßR signals attenuated the JNK pathway, which contributed to their antibeiging effect. Blocking JNK activation using a small molecular inhibitor prevented cold-induced scWAT beiging. Furthermore, LIGHT/LTßR signals acted as an attenuator of white adipogenesis. LIGHT deficiency in mice promoted obesity during high-fat diet feeding. These findings identify the LIGHT axis as a regulator of adipose tissue homeostasis and suggest that LIGHT signaling functions as a mechanism to divert energy in favor of immune activation.-Kou, Y., Liu, Q., Liu, W., Sun, H., Liang, M., Kong, F., Zhang, B., Wei, Y., Liu, Z., Wang, Y. LIGHT/TNFSF14 signaling attenuates beige fat biogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Membro 14 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos Bege , Tecido Adiposo Bege/citologia , Animais , Receptor beta de Linfotoxina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Membro 14 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética
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