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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 110032, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187961

RESUMO

This study was devised to investigate if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated the drug-drug interaction (DDI) between genistein and repaglinide. When genistein was added, the plasma concentrations of repaglinide in rats were increased. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of repaglinide increased from 70.80 ± 7.98 ng/mL to 124.71 ± 9.02 ng/mL and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased from 134.89 ± 13.65 µg·h/L to 245.95 ± 7.24 µg·h/L. Intestinal absorption of repaglinide was markedly enhanced by genistein or P-gp inhibitor verapamil (Ver), both in situ rat jejunal perfusion studies and in vitro transport assays using everted rat intestinal sac preparations. Furthermore, the accumulation of repaglinide in both Caco-2 cells and IEC-6 cells also increased significantly in the presence of genistein and Ver. The transepithelial transport rate of repaglinide from basolateral-to-apical in MDR1-MDCK cells was 3.6-fold higher than the apical-to-basolateral rate with a net efflux ratio of 1.92 compared with mock-MDCK cells, which was significantly decreased following co-administration with genistein or Ver. In an intracellular accumulation experiment using Rhodamine 123 as a P-gp substrate, genistein significantly increased the intracellular fluorescence of Rhodamine 123. These results indicated that genistein had an inhibitory effect on the efflux function of P-gp. Through molecular docking assays we further found that genistein could bind to the nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) in the cytoplasm of P-gp, thus affecting the functions of P-gp. In conclusion, genistein inhibited the efflux of repaglinide mediated by P-gp in rats and in vitro. The findings suggested that the DDI between genistein and repaglinide is mediated by P-gp, and a dosage adjustment may be needed when they are co-administered in a clinical setting.

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126159

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), or gelatinase B, has been hypothesized to be involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. In the arterial wall, accumulated macrophages secrete considerable amounts of MMP-9 but its pathophysiological functions in atherosclerosis have not been fully elucidated. To examine the hypothesis that macrophage-derived MMP-9 may affect atherosclerosis, we created MMP-9 transgenic (Tg) rabbits to overexpress the rabbit MMP-9 gene under the control of the scavenger receptor A enhancer/promoter and examined their susceptibility to cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. Tg rabbits along with non-Tg rabbits were fed a cholesterol diet for 16 and 28 weeks, and their aortic and coronary atherosclerosis was compared. Gross aortic lesion areas were significantly increased in female Tg rabbits at 28 weeks; however, pathological examination revealed that all the lesions of Tg rabbits fed a cholesterol diet for either 16 or 28 weeks were characterized by increased monocyte/macrophage accumulation and prominent lipid core formation compared with those of non-Tg rabbits. Macrophages isolated from Tg rabbits exhibited higher infiltrative activity towards a chemoattractant, MCP-1 in vitro and augmented capability of hydrolysing extracellular matrix in granulomatous tissue. Surprisingly, the lesions of Tg rabbits showed more advanced lesions with remarkable calcification in both aortas and coronary arteries. In conclusion, macrophage-derived MMP-9 facilitates the infiltration of monocyte/macrophages into the lesions thereby enhancing the progression of atherosclerosis. Increased accumulation of lesional macrophages may promote vascular calcification.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(3): 2049-2069, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023549

RESUMO

Hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress are considered to be the sequential steps in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously found that catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the root of Romania glutinosa L, protected against diabetes-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Here, we found that the increased expression of p66shc was observed in NAFLD models and catalpol could inhibit p66shc expression to ameliorate NAFLD effectively. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the p66shc-targeting miRNAs in regulating oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis, also the mechanisms of catalpol inhibiting NAFLD. We found that the effects of catalpol inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and steasis are dependent on inhibiting P66Shc expression. In addition, miR-96-5p was able to suppress p66shc/cytochrome C cascade via targeting p66shc mRNA 3'UTR, and catalpol could lead to suppression of NAFLD via upregulating miR-96-5p level. Thus, catalpol was effective in ameliorating NAFLD, and miR-96-5p/p66shc/cytochrome C cascade might be a potential target.

5.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diclofenac is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, adverse effects in the kidney limit its clinical application. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential effect of cilastatin on diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury and to clarify the potential roles of renal organic anion transporters (OATs) in the drug-drug interaction between cilastatin and diclofenac. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of cilastatin was evaluated in diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury in mice. Human OAT1/3-transfected HEK293 cells and renal primary proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) were used to investigate OAT1/3-mediated transport and the cytotoxicity of diclofenac. KEY RESULTS: Cilastatin treatment decreased the pathological changes, renal dysfunction and elevated renal levels of oxidation products, cytokine production and apoptosis induced by diclofenac in mice. Moreover, cilastatin increased the plasma concentration and decreased the renal distribution of diclofenac and its glucuronide metabolite, diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DLF-AG). Similarly, cilastatin inhibited cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in RPTCs but did not change the intracellular accumulation of diclofenac. DLF-AG but not diclofenac exhibited OAT-dependent cytotoxicity and was identified as an OAT1/3 substrate. Cilastatin inhibited the intracellular accumulation and decreased the cytotoxicity of DLF-AG in RPTCs. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Cilastatin alleviated diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury in mice by restoring the redox balance, suppressing inflammation, and reducing apoptosis. Cilastatin inhibited OATs and decreased the renal distribution of diclofenac and DLF-AG, which further ameliorated the diclofenac-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Cilastatin can be potentially used in the clinic as a therapeutic agent to alleviate the adverse renal reaction to diclofenac.

6.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(4): 3309-3319, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587272

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore whether rhein could enhance the effects of pemetrexed (PTX) on the therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to clarify the associated molecular mechanism. Our study shows that rhein in combination with PTX could obviously increase the systemic exposure of PTX in rats, which would be mediated by the inhibition of organic anion transporters (OATs). Furthermore, the toxicity of PTX was significantly raised by rhein in A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Concomitant administration of rhein and PTX-induced cell apoptosis compared with PTX alone in flow cytometry assays, which was further validated by the protein expressions of the apoptotic markers B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl-2-associated x (Bcl-2/Bax) and Cleaved-Caspase3 (Cl-Caspase3). Meanwhile, the results of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) dyeing experiments showed that PTX-induced autophagy could be enhanced by combination therapy with rhein in A549 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the synergistic effect of rhein on PTX-mediated autophagy may be interrelated to PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibition and to the enhancement of p-AMPK and light chain 3-II (LC3-II) protein levels. From these findings, it could be surmised that rhein enhanced the antitumor activity of PTX through influencing autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway and Bcl-2 family of proteins in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that the potential application of rhein as a candidate drug in combination with PTX is promising for treatment of the human lung cancer.

8.
ChemMedChem ; 15(2): 182-187, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755225

RESUMO

A new class of pyrimidine derivatives were identified as potent protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Most of these small-molecule inhibitors displayed strong enzymatic activity against BTK and JAK3 kinases at concentrations lower than 10 nM. The representative compound N-(3-((5-chloro-2-(4-((1-morpholino)acetylamino)phenylamino)-4-pyrimidinyl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (6 a) also exhibited high inhibitory potency toward both BTK and JAK kinase families, as well as ErbB4, at a concentration of 10 nM, achieving rates of inhibition higher than 57 %. Additionally, in vivo biological evaluations showed that 6 a can remarkably decrease the severity of IPF disease. All these investigations suggested that the multi-PTK inhibitor 6 a may serve as a promising agent for the treatment of IPF.

9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(2): 115254, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866272

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a serious and fatal lung disease, with a median survival of only 3-5 years from diagnosis. Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) has a well-established role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and autoimmune-related pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, through the use of a conformationally-constrained design strategy, a series of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines were synthesized as potent JAK3 inhibitors for the treatment of IPF. Among them, the most potent JAK3 inhibitor, namely 8e (IC50 = 1.38 nM), significantly reduced the degree of airsacculitis and fibrosis according to hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining assay for the lung tissue in the bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The clear reduction of the lung collagen deposition by the determination of Masson and hydroxyproline (HYP) content also demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of fibrosis. In addition, 8e also reduced the expression of the inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-17A, TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lung tissue, which indicated its higher anti-inflammatory activity compared with that of the reference agents (nintedanib and gefitinib). Furthermore, it possessed low cytotoxicity against normal human bronchial epithelia (HBE) cells (IC50 > 39.0 µM) and C57BL mice. All these evaluated biological properties suggest that 8e may be a potential JAK3 inhibitor for the treatment of IPF.

11.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 8(24): e1901005, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738019

RESUMO

A great challenge still remains to explore the facile approaches to construct multifunctional nanoparticles for acquiring precise cancer theranostics. Herein, a biocompatible theranostic nanoplatform capable of simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy is attempted by loading of paclitaxel (PTX) and indocyanine green (ICG) molecules into the matrix of Gd2 O3 @human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles (PIGH NPs) via hydrophobic interaction. The subsequent in vitro investigations reveal that the PIGH NPs afford uniform particle size, sustained drug release profile, strong longitudinal relaxivity, potent photothermal effect, effective singlet oxygen generation, and ideal resistance to photobleaching. Moreover, the PIGH NPs achieve high cellular uptake, efficient cytoplasmic drug translocation based on singlet oxygen-triggered endolysosomal disruption and prominent cytotoxicity effect against 4T1 cells under 808 nm near-infrared (NIR) irradiation in contrast to PTX/ICG-loaded HSA nanoparticles (PIH NPs) and free PTX/ICG. After intravenous injection, the PIGH NPs exhibit preferable tumor accumulation and achieve effective tumor ablation in 4T1 tumor bearing mouse model with excellent dual near-infrared fluorescence/magnetic resonance (NIRF/MR) imaging guided synergistic chemo-phototherapy. Hence, the PIGH NPs can be utilized as potential theranostic nanosystem for simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy.

12.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 9(5): 986-996, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649848

RESUMO

Imipenem is a carbapenem antibiotic. However, Imipenem could not be marketed owing to its instability and nephrotoxicity until cilastatin, an inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase-I (DHP-I), was developed. In present study, the potential roles of renal organic anion transporters (OATs) in alleviating the nephrotoxicity of imipenem by cilastatin were investigated in vitro and in rabbits. Our results indicated that imipenem and cilastatin were substrates of hOAT1 and hOAT3. Cilastatin inhibited hOAT1/3-mediated transport of imipenem with IC50 values comparable to the clinical concentration, suggesting the potential to cause a clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI). Moreover, imipenem exhibited hOAT1/3-dependent cytotoxicity, which was alleviated by cilastatin and probenecid. Furthermore, cilastatin and probenecid ameliorated imipenem-induced rabbit acute kidney injury, and reduced the renal secretion of imipenem. Cilastatin and probenecid inhibited intracellular accumulation of imipenem and sequentially decreased the nephrocyte toxicity in rabbit primary proximal tubule cells. Renal OATs, besides DHP-I, was also the target of interaction between imipenem and cilastatin, and contributed to the nephrotoxicity of imipenem. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which cilastatin protected against imipenem-induced nephrotoxicity. Thus, OATs can potentially be used as a therapeutic target to avoid the renal adverse reaction of imipenem in clinic.

13.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(23): 4558-4573, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Catalpol, a water-soluble active ingredient isolated from Rehmannia glutinosa, exhibits multiple pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism(s) underlying protection against renal injury by catalpol remains unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Adriamycin-induced kidney injury models associated with podocyte damage were employed to investigate the nephroprotective effects of catalpol. In vivo, TUNEL and haematoxylin-eosin staining was used to evaluate the effect of catalpol on kidney injury in mice. In vitro, effects of catalpol on podocyte damage induced by adriamycin was determined by elisa kit, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342, and TUNEL staining. The mechanism was investigated by siRNA, EX527, and docking simulations. KEY RESULTS: In vivo, catalpol treatment significantly improved adriamycin-induced kidney pathological changes and decreased the number of apoptotic cells. In vitro, catalpol markedly decreased the intracellular accumulation of adriamycin and reduced the calcium ion level in podocytes and then attenuated apoptosis. Importantly, the regulatory effects of catalpol on sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and the TRPC6 channel were mostly abolished after incubation with SIRT1 siRNA or the SIRT1-specific inhibitor EX527. Furthermore, docking simulations showed that catalpol efficiently oriented itself in the active site of SIRT1, indicating a higher total binding affinity score than that of other SIRT1 activators, such as resveratrol, SRT2104, and quercetin. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that catalpol exhibits strong protective effects against adriamycin-induced nephropathy by inducing SIRT1-mediated inhibition of TRPC6 expression and enhancing MRP2 expression.

14.
Pharmacol Res ; 148: 104414, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449974

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is one of the major causes leading to mortality of dysfunctional cardiovascular events in the menopausal women, which has long-term deficiency of estrogen. At present, the primary treatment for postmenopausal AS is hormone replacement therapy (HRT). However, it can increase the risks of ovarian and uterine cancers with long-term therapy. So seeking for a phytoestrogen which can overcome the disadvantages of HRT is a great mission. Dioscin, a traditional Chinese medicine, extracted from the roots of dioscorea nipponica, has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-apoptosis activities. Especially, it also has estrogenic activity. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of dioscin on postmenopausal AS. Currently, ovariectomy (OVX) is the accepted model for AS associated with estrogen deficiency, and it can mimic the cessation of ovarian function that occurs in postmenopausal women as well. We used the high fat diet and ovariectomy(HFD-OVX)model to induce postmenopausal AS in the low-density lipoprotein receptor- deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. (1) The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, HDLC, MDA, GSH, MDA and GSH in serum of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice were measured by colorimetric assay. (2) The artery injury of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice was detected with Oil Red O staining. (3) The protein expressions of NOX4, P22phox, IκB, p-p65, n-p65, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, bcl-2, PGC-1α, ERα, ERß in the arterial tissue of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice were detected by Western blot analysis. In vitro, the model of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) (150 µg /ml) was established, and the molecular mechanism of dioscin on atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women was investigated. (1) The levels of MDA, GSH, MDA and GSH in ox-LDL induced HAECs were measured by colorimetric assay. (2) Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) of ox-LDL induced HAEC cells was detected by fluorescence staining. (3) The protein expressions of PGC-1α, ERα, ERß, NOX4, P22phox, IκB, p-p65, n-p65, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, bcl-2 and LC3 in ox-LDL induced HAECs were detected by Western blot analysis. (4) The autophagy level of ox-LDL induced HAECs was measured by transmission electron microscopy. (5) The applications of si-RNA transfection were used to explore whether dioscin could activate PGC-1α/ERα pathway to inhibit postmenopausal atherosclerosis. In vivo, we found that dioscin decreased the level of TG, TC, LDL-C and increased the level of HDLC in serum of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice, and it has protective effects to maintain the lipid homeostasis; The Oil Red O staining study showed that dioscin could significantly inhibit the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in HFD-OVX-treated LDLR-/- mice; Dioscin decreased the levels of NOX4, P22phox, p-p65, n-p65, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, but increased the levels of HDL-C, GSH, SOD, PGC-1α, ERα, ERß, IκB, Bcl-2 and elevated the autophagy level in arterial tissues of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice. It is particularly worth mentioning that the up-regulating effect of dioscin on ERα is stronger than ERß in OVX treated mice. In vitro, the results of colorimetric assay showed that dioscin decreased the level of MDA and LDH, increased the level of SOD and GSH in ox-LDL-induced HAEC cells; Dioscin also suppressed the release of ROS in ox-LDL-induced HAECs by fluorescence staining; Dioscin decreased the levels of NOX4, P22phox, p-p65, n-p65, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, but increased the levels of PGC-1α, ERα, ERß, IκB, Bcl-2 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I in ox-LDL-induced HAECs; Dioscin significantly elevated the autophagy level of ox-LDL-induced HAECs by transmission electron microscopy analysis; In addition, by si-RNA transfection, we found that the inhibitory effects of dioscin on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis might partly through PGC-1α/ERα pathway in ox-LDL induced HAECs. The data of dual-Luciferase reporter assay revealed that dioscin activated ERα at least partly through PGC-1α pathway. Dioscin significantly inhibited oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis and increased the level of autophagy in vivo and vitro. In addition, dioscin could regulate the balance of lipid metabolism. Moreover, we proved that the effects of dioscin attenuating postmenopausal atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis were partly dependent on PGC-1α/ERα pathway. Therefore, dioscin, as a phytoestrogen, might become a drug for the treatment of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.

15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105833, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450152

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible would-healing response following chronic liver injury of different aetiologies and represents a major worldwide health problem. Up to date, there is no satisfactory drugs treated for liver fibrosis. The present study was to investigate hepatoprotection of yangonin against liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in mice and further to clarify the involvement of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in vivo and in vitro. Yangonin treatment remarkably ameliorated TAA-induced liver injury by reducing relative liver weight, as well as serum ALT and AST activities. Moreover, yangonin alleviated TAA-induced accumulation of bile acids through increasing the expression of bile acid efflux transporters such as Bsep and Mrp2, and reducing hepatic uptake transporter Ntcp expression, all of these are FXR-target genes. The liver sections stained by H&E indicated that the histopathological change induced by TAA was improved by yangonin. Masson and Sirius red staining indicated the obvious anti-fibrotic effect of yangonin. The mechanism of anti-fibrotic effect of yangonin was that yangonin reduced collagen content by regulating the genes involved in hepatic fibrosis including COL1-α1 and TIMP-1. Besides, yangonin inhibited hepatic stellate cell activation by reducing TGF-ß1 and α-SMA expression. In addition, yangonin protected against TAA-induced hepatic inflammation via its inhibition of NF-κB and TNF-α. These hepatoprotective effects of yangonin were abrogated by guggulsterone which is a FXR antagonist. In vitro experiment further demonstrated dose-dependent activation of FXR by yangonin using dual-luciferase reporter assay. In summary, yangonin produces hepatoprotection against TAA-induced liver fibrosis via FXR activation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Pironas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pregnenodionas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Tioacetamida
16.
Arch Oral Biol ; 106: 104473, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nasal obstruction on mandibular growth, especially condyle, in adolescent rats and explore the possible mechanism with a focus on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from condylar tissues. DESIGN: 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction (i.e. mouth-breathing, MB) and nasal-breathing (NB) groups. Self-made plugs were used to obstruct the nasal cavity in the MB group for 4 weeks, from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. every day. The body weights were recorded. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scanning of the craniomaxillary region was performed after 2 and 4 weeks of nasal obstruction. Other rats were sacrificed, and MSCs were isolated from condylar tissues and cultured in vitro for examining the cell proliferation and expression of chondrogenic marker genes. RESULTS: Significant decreases in body weight were observed in the MB group compared with the NB group during 4 weeks of nasal obstruction. All mandibular parameters in the sagittal, vertical, and transverse dimensions (except bi-condylar width) measured via 3D-CT were significantly smaller in the MB group. No significant difference was found in the proliferative ability of cultured MSCs derived from condylar tissues between the two groups. However, the expression of chondrogenic marker genes Acan, Col2a1 and Sox9 was significantly lower in the MB group-derived MSCs, using Cell Counting Kit-8 and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that mouth breathing forced by nasal obstruction lead to developmental defects in the mandibular condyle, which might be related to the reduced cartilage differentiation of condylar MSCs.


Assuntos
Côndilo Mandibular/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Obstrução Nasal/complicações , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Condrogênese , Masculino , Côndilo Mandibular/citologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 857: 172461, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220436

RESUMO

Estrogen-induced cholestasis is a common etiology of hepatic diseases in women with contraceptives administration, pregnancy or hormone replacement therapy. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor super family of ligand-activated transcription factors that is highly expressed in liver. FXR is acknowledged to contribute to the bile acid homeostasis, as well as the pathogenesis and progression of cholestasis. Specific targeting of FXR is an innovative approach for the treatment of cholestasis. The current study aimed to verify the anti-cholestasis effect of yangonin that is a natural product isolated from Kava via FXR signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. The analyses of FXR gain- or loss-of-function were performed. Yangonin treatment ameliorates estrogen-induced cholestasis through increasing bile flow and biliary bile acid output. The mechanisms were an induction in the hepatic efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2) and an inhibition in hepatic uptake transporter (Ntcp) by yangonin. Likewise, yangonin through repressing Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1 and inducing Sult2a1 expression suppressed bile acid synthesis and promoted bile acid metabolism. Furthermore, yangonin improved estrogen-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and the inflammation gene expression. In vitro experiments further consolidated that yangonin alleviated estrogen-caused cholestasis via FXR activation. Noteworthily, the effects of yangonin were enhanced by FXR expression plasmids but abrogated by FXR siRNA. In conclusion, yangonin alleviates estrogen-induced cholestasis, due to FXR-mediated gene regulation.


Assuntos
Colestase/metabolismo , Colestase/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Pironas/farmacologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Sistema Biliar/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Biliar/metabolismo , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Colestase/patologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(5): 3116-3127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217881

RESUMO

Small rodents, especially mice and rats, have been widely used in atherosclerosis studies even though humans exhibit completely different lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic characteristics. Until recently, various rodent models of human familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have been created, including mice, rats, and golden Syrian hamsters. Although hamsters reportedly possess metabolic features similar to humans, there is no systematic characterization of the properties of circulating lipids and atherosclerotic lesions in these rodent models. We used three FH animal species (mice, rats, and hamsters) with low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) deficiency to fully assess lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic characteristics. Compared to chow diet-fed mice and rats, Ldlr knockout (KO) hamsters showed increased cholesterols in LDL fractions similar to human FH patients. Upon 12-week high-cholesterol/high-fat diet feeding, both heterozygous and homozygous Ldlr KO hamsters displayed hyperlipidemic phenotypes, whereas only homozygous Ldlr KO mice and rats showed only moderate increases in plasma lipid levels. Moreover, rats were resistant to diet-induced atherosclerosis compared to mice, and hamsters showed more atherosclerotic lesions in the aortas and coronary arteries. Further morphological study revealed that only hamsters developed atherosclerosis in the abdominal segments, which is highly similar to FH patients. This unique animal model will provide insight into the translational study of human atherosclerosis and could be useful for developing novel treatments for FH patients.

19.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 3839-3850, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210195

RESUMO

Cholestatic liver injury induced by estrogen is a common clinical syndrome in women undergoing oral administration of contraceptives, pregnancy or hormone replacement therapy. Estrogen-induced cholestasis is associated with the accumulation of endogenous bile acids, which play critical roles in the disease progression and symptoms. In the present study, we described the protective effect of auraptene, a simple coumarin present in the peels of citrus fruits, such as grapefruit, against 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis, and further elucidated the involvement of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the hepatoprotective effect. Auraptene treatment alleviated EE-induced cholestasis through increasing the bile flow and biliary bile acid output. The mechanism underlying the alleviated cholestasis by auraptene was associated with the increased efflux and inhibited hepatic uptake of bile acids via an induction of efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2) and downregulation of Ntcp. Furthermore, auraptene reduced the bile acid synthesis through repressing Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1, and increased the bile acid metabolism through an induction in the gene expression of Sult2a1. The mentioned genes involved in the bile acid homeostasis were modulated by FXR. We further demonstrated that the changes in transporters and enzymes, as well as ameliorated liver histology by auraptene, were abrogated by the FXR antagonist guggulsterone. In conclusion, auraptene alleviated EE-induced cholestasis due to FXR-mediated gene regulation.


Assuntos
Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Colestase/prevenção & controle , Citrus/química , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Esteroide 12-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(4): 796-802, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989894

RESUMO

Catalpol is an iridoid glycoside extracted from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa. It has been reported to have antioxidant stress effects. Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase( AMPK) plays an important role in inhibiting oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of catalpol on TNF-α-exposed human aorta epithelial cells( HAECs) via inhibit oxidative stress,and the relationship between catalpol and AMPK was detected by RNA interference technique. Levels of superoxide dismutase( SOD),malonaldehyde( MDA),glutathione( GSH) and lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) were measured with a colorimetric assay kit. The level of ROS was measured with FACS calibur. Western blot was employed to detect the protein expression of AMPK,phosphorylated-AMPK and NOX4. Finally,RNA interference technique was used to investigate the role of AMPK in catalpol-induced protective effects. TNF-α treatment decreased the expression of phosphorylated-AMPK protein level,however,catalpol could reverse the decreased phosphorylated-AMPK level. Catalpol could inhibit NOX4 protein expression and decrease ROS overproduction. After using AMPK siRNA that effects of catalpol on ROS overproduction and NOX4 protein expression inhibition were attenuated. The above results suggest that catalpol inhibits oxidative stress in TNF-α-exposed HAECs by activating AMPK.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Iridoides , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
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