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1.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048746

RESUMO

AIM: This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits, and intestinal of growing-finishing pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty pigs (27.4 ± 0.4 kg) were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets: basal diet (negative control group), basal diet + 40 ppm zinc bacitracin (positive control group), and basal diet + 0.2% sodium butyrate (sodium butyrate group), respectively. The experiment lasted for 69 days, including 3 days for diet and housing condition adaptation. On day 70, five piglets from each diet group were slaughtered for collecting blood and tissue samples. When compared to the control group, final body weight, daily body weight gain, and daily feed intake of pigs in the sodium butyrate group were increased (P < 0.05) and feed intake/body weight gain ratio was decreased (P < 0.05). Carcass weight of pigs in the sodium butyrate group was higher than that of pigs in the negative and positive groups (P < 0.05); backfat thickness of pigs in the positive group was higher than that of pigs in the negative group and sodium butyrate group (P < 0.001). When compared to the negative and positive groups, pigs fed diet supplemented with sodium butyrate showed a increased relative abundance of bacteroidetes in the caecum and a decreased relative abundance of fiemicutes and proteobacteria in the caecum (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that dietary sodium butyrate supplementation increased growth performance of growing-finishing pigs and improved the carcass traits and intestinal health. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Antibiotics-free feed has become an inevitable worldwide trend. This study showed that dietary sodium butyrate supplementation improved growth performance and intestinal health of growing-finishing pigs. Thus, sodium butyrate can be applied in growing-finishing pig feed as an alternative of antibiotics.

2.
Carbohydr Res ; 485: 107807, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520817

RESUMO

A series of tricyclic benzimidazole-iminosugars 1(a-f) and 2(a-f) were synthesized and evaluated for their their inhibitory activities against five glycosidases. The synthesis initiated from the benzyl protected sugar (aldehyde) 5 that reacted with 1,2-diaminobenzene to afford aldo-benzimidazole 6 by the iodine-induced oxidative condensation. Then, tricyclic compound 7 was obtained in high yields of 73%-87% by the key Mitsunobu reaction through intramolecular cyclization of the unprotected OH and the NH in 6. After removal of the benzyl group in CF3SO3H, the target tricyclic benzimidazole-iminosugars 1 and 2 were achieved. The protocol was effective for the preparation of the tricyclic iminosugar in satisfactory yield. The results of the glycosidase inhibitory activities of 1 and 2 showed that three compounds derived from d-ribose exhibited specific and good inhibitory effects on ß-glucosidase. Among them, 1e-1 was the best one with IC50 value of 5.37 µM. All hydroxyl groups on ß-position would be favourable to the inhibitory activity of such tricyclic benzimidazole-iminosugars against ß-glucosidase.

3.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4256-4267, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504586

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the effects of adding sodium butyrate (SB), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) to the diet of sows during late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance and intestinal health of suckling piglets. Twenty-four sows (Landrace × Large-White hybrid; third parity; 200 ± 15 kg) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: basal diet (control group), basal diet + 1 g SB/kg (SB group), basal diet + 7.75 g MCFA/kg (MCFA group), or basal diet + 68.2 g n-3 PUFA/kg (n-3 PUFA group). The experiment began on day 85 of gestation and ended day 22 of lactation. Colostrum samples were collected from each sow. After the experiment, blood and tissue samples were collected from 1 randomly selected piglet. The results showed that the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was shorter than that of sows in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea in suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was lower than that of piglets in the control group (P < 0.05). The fat, protein, IgA, IgG, and IgM concentration in colostrum from sows increased following dietary supplementation with SB, MCFA, or n-3 PUFA (P < 0.05). Comparison with the control group, the mRNA expression of claudin-1, zona occludens 1, and interleukin-10 increased in the jejunum mucosa of suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups, while that of TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the Chao1 and ACE indexes of microbial flora in the colon contents of piglets in the SB, MCFA, and MCFA groups increased (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Synergistetes decreased at the phylum level (P < 0.05). In conclusion, during late pregnancy and lactation, dietary SB supplementation had a greater effect on intestinal health and caused a greater decrease in preweaning mortality of suckling piglets than did dietary MCFA or n-3 PUFA supplementation; dietary MCFA supplementation shortened the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows to a greater extent than did dietary SB or n-3 PUFA supplementation; and dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation increased the fat and protein content in the colostrum to the greatest extent.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Colostro/química , Colostro/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame
4.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 66(5): 44-53, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the Taiwan government has subsidized the provision of palliative care at home since 2000, the utilization rate of this service has been low. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to explore the experiences of palliative care at home as perceived by family caregivers. METHODS: This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to collect the data. Six family caregivers who had been providing home-based palliative care services for at least 2 weeks were invited to participate. RESULTS: Four themes related to the care experiences of the participants emerged: (1) Choosing palliative care at home for the end-of-life journey: Considering the wishes of patients and the capacities of caregivers, with hospitals providing powerful support to caregivers; (2) Facing the burdens of providing palliative care in a home setting: Determining the caring skills while feeling fear and stress, and needing to resolve this stress and achieve a respite; (3) Pursuing stable home palliative care: Relying on consultations with the professional palliative care team for information, support, and insights regarding the value of home palliative care; and (4) Fulfilling the promise of a good death at home: Preparing the patient to say goodbye and to experience a peaceful death and family members to express their sadness and adapt to a new life. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Home palliative care services help provide patients and their families convenience, intimate care, and reassurance at home. However, all caregivers must be properly trained in caring skills and the skills necessary to sustain their long-term care responsibilities. Home palliative care services have been described as the internal and external needs that patients and families require to maintain a stable quality of life and as the comfort required by the bereaved family members. The findings of this study demonstrate the value of home palliative care and of promoting home palliative care at the end of life.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Assistência Domiciliar/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Taiwan
5.
Carbohydr Res ; 478: 10-17, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039450

RESUMO

A series of novel tricyclic quinazolinone-iminosugars 1 (a-c) were synthesized from the benzyl protected sugars through three steps. Firstly, the benzyl protected sugar (aldehyde) 5 reacted with o-aminobenzamide by the iodine-induced oxidative condensation to afford the corresponding aldo-quizanolinone 6. Secondly, through the intramolecular cyclization of the unprotected OH and the amide NH in 6, the tricyclic compounds 7 and 8 were constructed by the key Mitsunobu reaction. Finally, removal of the benzyl group gave the target tricyclic quinazolinone-iminosugars 1. The protocol was effective for the preparation of the tricyclic iminosugars in satisfactory yield. Interestingly, an unusual C-2 epimerization was observed with d-mannose and d-ribose compounds under the conditions of the Mitsunobu reaction that generated the products having the trans configuration at the C-2 and C-3 positions. Unfortunately, such tricyclic quinazolinone-iminosugars showed no inhibitory effects on the tested five glycosidases.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Imino Açúcares/farmacologia , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/enzimologia , Canavalia/enzimologia , Configuração de Carboidratos , Café/enzimologia , Ciclização , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Imino Açúcares/síntese química , Imino Açúcares/química , Prunus dulcis/enzimologia , Quinazolinonas/síntese química , Quinazolinonas/química
6.
J Anim Sci ; 96(9): 3804-3814, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059979

RESUMO

This study was performed to determine if pyruvate, which acts as a critical intermediate in energy metabolism, can substitute the role of glutamate as a metabolic fuel and effectively reduce nitrogen excretion in pigs. First, the experiment in vitro was carried out to investigate the effects of culturing porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line with pyruvate on the oxidation. Then, barrows weighing 40 kg were used in the experiment investigating the changes of nitrogen balance in response to addition of pyruvate to low-protein diets. Last, barrows (40 kg), which were surgically fitted with permanent catheters in the mesenteric vein, portal vein, hepatic vein, and carotid artery, were used to investigate the effects of supplementing low-protein diets with calcium pyruvate on the net portal fluxes of amino acids (AAs) and the consumption of AAs in the liver. The results showed that culturing cells with sodium pyruvate significantly reduced the number of glutamate oxidation (P < 0.05). Addition of calcium pyruvate to low-protein diets significantly reduced urinary nitrogen excretion from 13.2 g/d (18.0% crude protein, CP) to 10.3 g/d (15.0% CP) or 7.80 g/d (13.5% CP) and total nitrogen excretion from 22.5 g/d (18.0% CP) to 17.8 g/d (15.0% CP) or 14.2 g/d (13.5% CP) (P < 0.05), without obviously negative effects on the nitrogen retention (P > 0.05). Addition of calcium pyruvate to low-protein diets significantly decreased essential AA consumption rate in the liver (P < 0.05). This diet modification reduced the net portal fluxes of NH3, glycine, and alanine, as well as urea production rate in the liver (P < 0.05). The results indicated that pyruvate is an effective substitute for glutamate as a supplement in low-protein diets, reducing porcine nitrogen excretion and nitrogen consumption.

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(31): 8262-8271, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984998

RESUMO

Reducing dietary crude protein (CP) intake effectively decreases nitrogen excretion in growing-finishing pigs but at the expense of poor growth when dietary CP content is reduced by ≥3%. In this study, we investigated the main disadvantages of low-protein diets supplemented with lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan in pigs. First, changes in the nitrogen balance in response to differences in dietary CP content (18%, 15%, and 13.5%) were investigated in barrows (40 kg). Then, barrows (40 kg) surgically fitted with catheters in the mesenteric vein, portal vein, hepatic vein, and carotid artery were used to investigate changes in amino acid (AA) metabolism in the portal-drained viscera and liver in response to differences in dietary CP content. The results showed that low-protein diets reduced fecal and urinary nitrogen excretion ( P < 0.05) meanwhile resulted in significant decreases in nitrogen retention ( P < 0.05). Moreover, a reduction in the dietary CP content from 18% to 13.5% resulted in decreases in the net portal fluxes of NH3, glycine, and alanine as well as in the urea production in the liver ( P < 0.05), whereas their values as a percentage of nitrogen intake did not decline ( P > 0.05). The net portal fluxes of nonessential AA (NEAA) were reduced in the low-protein diet groups ( P < 0.05), while essential AA consumption in the liver increased ( P < 0.05). Thus, low-protein diets result in reductions in both nitrogen excretion and retention, and NEAA deficiency may be a major disadvantage of low-protein diets.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Nitrogênio/urina , Treonina/administração & dosagem , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Ureia/metabolismo , Vísceras/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(15): 3793-3800, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471628

RESUMO

The extensive metabolism of amino acids (AA) as fuel is an important reason for the low use efficiency of protein in pigs. In this study, we investigated whether regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)/pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1 (PDHA1) pathway affected AA consumption by porcine intestinal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells and intestinal bacteria in pigs. The effects of knockdown of PDHA1 and PDK1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) on nutrient consumption by IPEC-J2 cells were evaluated. IPEC-J2 cells were then cultured with sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) to quantify AA and glucose consumption and nutrient oxidative metabolism. The results showed that knockdown of PDHA1 using siRNA decreased glucose consumption but increased total AA (TAA) and glutamate (Glu) consumption by IPEC-J2 cells ( P < 0.05). Opposite effects were observed using siRNA targeting PDK1 ( P < 0.05). Additionally, culturing IPEC-J2 cells in the presence of 5 mM DCA markedly increased the phosphorylation of PDHA1 and PDH phosphatase 1, but inhibited PDK1 phosphorylation ( P < 0.05). DCA treatment also reduced TAA and Glu consumption and increased glucose depletion ( P < 0.05). These results indicated that PDH was the regulatory target for shifting from AA metabolism to glucose metabolism and that culturing cells with DCA decreased the consumption of AAs by increasing the depletion of glucose through PDH activation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácido Dicloroacético/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Piruvatos/metabolismo
9.
J Biopharm Stat ; 21(6): 1079-93, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22023677

RESUMO

An F statistic was proposed by Good and Chernick ( 1993 ) in an unpublished paper, to test the hypothesis of the equality of variances from two independent groups using the bootstrap; see Hall and Padmanabhan ( 1997 ), for a published reference where Good and Chernick ( 1993 ) is discussed. We look at various forms of bootstrap tests that use the F statistic to see whether any or all of them maintain the nominal size of the test over a variety of population distributions when the sample size is small. Chernick and LaBudde ( 2010 ) and Schenker ( 1985 ) showed that bootstrap confidence intervals for variances tend to provide considerably less coverage than their theoretical asymptotic coverage for skewed population distributions such as a chi-squared with 10 degrees of freedom or less or a log-normal distribution. The same difficulties may be also be expected when looking at the ratio of two variances. Since bootstrap tests are related to constructing confidence intervals for the ratio of variances, we simulated the performance of these tests when the population distributions are gamma(2,3), uniform(0,1), Student's t distribution with 10 degrees of freedom (df), normal(0,1), and log-normal(0,1) similar to those used in Chernick and LaBudde ( 2010 ). We find, surprisingly, that the results for the size of the tests are valid (reasonably close to the asymptotic value) for all the various bootstrap tests. Hence we also conducted a power comparison, and we find that bootstrap tests appear to have reasonable power for testing equivalence of variances.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Modelos Estatísticos , Tamanho da Amostra , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 58(2): 49-56, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21455892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice experiences, while important, can be highly stressful for nursing students and have a deep effect on their subsequent professional development. PURPOSE: This study explored nursing student experiences during their first clinical practice. METHODS: The study used exploratory and descriptive research methodologies, and researchers selected a phenomenological approach to analysis. Nine nursing students described experiences centered on their first clinical practices using daily dairies and assignments. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Four major themes emerged from the data, including: (1) Joining an exciting and intimidating journey in which participants anticipated a precious learning opportunity while fearing failure; (2) Identifying professional role models in which participants learned about nursing content from nursing staff and through step by step instruction from teachers; (3) Growing into caring relationships in which participants increasingly realized the importance of communication, gave empathy and caring to patients, and discovered that patients are the best teachers; and (4) Insight into self-professional capacity and the expectation of their future learning in which participants learned from actual experience, evaluated self-performance and encouraged themselves. Such facilitated self-improvement and instilled the learning necessary to advance to the next stage. CONCLUSION: Nursing student clinical practice experiences may be used to both advance academic studies and enhance understanding of student feelings, difficulties and experiences. Such can assist nursing students to gain greater positive experiences in their profession.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Humanos
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