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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 559: 197-205, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627143

RESUMO

Mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) demonstrates great potentials as a loading platform for bactericidal agents, but may be limited by its application form of bulk or powder. Herein, we developed MSN surface-enriched composite membranes with remarkable photodynamic antimicrobial activities via a facile electrospinning method. The mixture of zein and polycaprolactone (PCL) was served as the polymeric matrix, while the methylene blue (MB) loaded MSN was modified by trichloro (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-heptadecafluorodecyl) silane (THFS) and acted as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator to exert their antimicrobial performances. Owing to its low surface energy, the fluorinated MSN tended to be enriched on the surface of the nanofiber, hence significantly enhancing the ROS generation. Moreover, benefiting from the surface enrichment of the fluorinated nanoparticles, the composite membrane displayed obvious surface hydrophobicity and exhibited discernible bacterial repellency. Subsequently, upon visible light (660 nm) irradiation, the composite membrane demonstrated remarkable photodynamic antibacterial activities against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) but without essential detrimental impacts on the mammalian cells. We envision that this self-enriched MSN composite membrane may find broad applications in bacterial infection-resistant areas.

2.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1576-1587, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313286

RESUMO

K-homology (KH)-type splicing regulatory protein (KHSRP) is an RNA binding protein that participates in RNA variable splicing and stability, and facilitates the biogenesis of miRNAs that target mRNA. However, to date, the role of KHSRP in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression has not been reported. In this study, the function of KHSRP in CRC proliferation and 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) resistance was investigated. The upregulation of KHSRP expression was confirmed in CRC patient tissues and two CRC cell lines. Manipulating KHSRP expression altered cell proliferation and 5-FU resistance in CRC cells. ERRFI1, a downstream effector of KHSRP in CRC cells, reduced CRC cell proliferation. Sensitivity to 5-FU mediated by KHSRP knockdown was reversed by ERRFI1 knockdown. We found that KHSRP decreased ERRFI1 mRNA expression indirectly. By screening KHSRP-regulated miRNAs, we further found that miR-501-5p directly combines with KHSRP in CRC cells. Mechanistically, the results of a luciferase assay suggested that miR-501-5p directly binds to the ERRFI1 3'-untranslated region. Taken together, our data indicated that modification of ERRFI1 by KHSRP occurs through miR-501-5p, an essential mechanism driving CRC proliferation and 5-FU resistance. Insight into this mechanism may provide novel targets for overcoming drug resistance in CRC.

3.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125172, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675584

RESUMO

Thallium (Tl) is an extremely toxic metal with high risk. Sediment samples from a well dated sediment core retrieved from a heavily polluted urban lake were measured to assess the magnitude of Tl pollution and reveal its transfer mechanisms within the lake. The results show that the lake has experienced serious Tl pollution during the past 60 years, owing to a large influx of Tl-bearing wastes mostly from a neighboring copper (Cu) smelter. The Tl contents in the sediment core at different depths generally correlated positively with the production scale of Cu smelting activities in the past. Further mineralogical analysis on the electrostatic precipitator dust from the Cu smelter and highly-polluted samples from the sediment core by electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction suggested that Tl was primarily bound to quartz and aluminosilicates. Large quantities of Tl were also observed in diatom frustules collected from the sediments, suggesting a potentially significant role of biogenic silicates in the uptake and transfer of Tl in the sediment-water system. The findings indicate a new and emerging pollution source of thallium arising from copper metallurgy activities. The results also highlight the necessity of strengthened monitoring and regulations towards Tl pollution in environmental systems impacted by Cu smelting activities in China and other nations.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 291: 27-33, 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been considered as a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population and levels vary in different ethnicities. However, no systemic analysis is currently available regarding the relation of plasma Lp(a) levels to cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). METHODS: Three hundred and ninety-three patients with HeFH undergoing Lp(a) measurement at baseline were consecutively enrolled and followed prospectively for an average of 36.5 months. Lp(a) levels were determined using an immunoturbidimetry assay. Cox regression analysis with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value of Lp(a) on CVEs. RESULTS: Thirty-five events occurred during follow-up. Lp(a) was significantly higher in patients with CVEs (53.3 mg/dL versus 31.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with upper tertile of Lp(a) had a significant lower event-free survival (p = 0.004). After adjusting for confounding risk factors, per log unit increase in baseline Lp(a) was independently associated with CVEs [HR: 2.03(1.28-3.21), p = 0.002]. HRs remained unchanged after accounting for hard endpoints and did not vary too much in several relevant subgroups. Adding Lp(a) to the Cox model led to a significant improvement in C-statistic, net reclassification and integrated discrimination. Moreover, HR for upper versus lower tertile of change in Lp(a) was 2.68 (1.11-6.48) for CVEs after one year. CONCLUSIONS: Both baseline and on-statin treatment Lp(a) levels were associated with an increased risk of CVEs in patients with HeFH, suggesting that Lp(a) measurement might clinically help further risk stratification of FH patients.

5.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676879

RESUMO

The center-periphery hypothesis (CPH) states that the genetic diversity, genetic flow, and population abundance of a species are highest at the center of the species' geographic distribution. However, most CPH studies have focused on the geographic distance and have ignored ecological and historical effects. Studies using niche models to define the center and periphery of a distribution and the interactions among geographical, ecological, and historical gradients have rarely been done in the framework of the CPH, especially in biogeographical studies of animal species. Here, we examined the CPH for a widely distributed arthropod, Tetranychus truncatus (Acari: Tetranychidae), in eastern China using three measurements: geographic distance to the center of the distribution (geography), ecological suitability based on current climate data (ecology), and historical climate data from the last glacial maximum (history). We found that the relative abundances of different populations were more strongly related to ecology than to geography and history. Genetic diversity within populations and genetic differentiation among populations based on mitochondrial marker were only significantly related to history. However, the genetic diversity and population differentiation based on microsatellites were significantly related to all three CPH measurements. Overall, population abundance and genetic pattern cannot be explained very well by geography alone. Our results show that ecological gradients explain the variation in population abundance better than geographic gradients and historical factors, and that current and historical factors strongly influence the spatial patterns of genetic variation. This study highlights the importance of examining more than just geography when assessing the CPH.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17867, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689880

RESUMO

Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IX, characterized by liver enlargement and elevated aminotransferase levels, is the most frequent type of GSD. The global incidence of GSD type IXa is only about 1/100,000 individuals. Case reports of GSD type IX are rare in China. We present the first case report of GSD type IXa in Northeast China caused by mutation of PHKA2.An 11-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of liver enlargement with consistently elevated transaminase levels over 6 months.Histopathological results following an ultrasound-guided liver biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of GSD. Further genetic testing showed that the patient had GSD type IXa caused by the c.133C>T mutation in PHAK2.We placed the patient on a high-protein and high-starch diet and provided hepatoprotective and supportive therapy.The patient's transaminase levels decreased significantly and were nearly normal at 10-month follow-up.This is the first reported case of GSD type IXa in Northeast China. We hope that the detailed and complete report of this case will provide a reference for the diagnosis of liver enlargement of unknown etiology in future clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação Puntual , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
7.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 6): 2024-2032, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721747

RESUMO

Conventional imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography have limited temporospatial resolutions and shortcomings like invasive angiography, potential allergy to contrast agents, and image deformation, that restrict their application in high-resolution visualization of the structure of microvessels. In this study, through comparing synchrotron radiation (SR) absorption-contrast imaging to absorption phase-contrast imaging, it was found that SR-based phase-contrast imaging could provide more detailed ultra-high-pixel images of microvascular networks than absorption phase-contrast imaging. Simultaneously, SR-based phase-contrast imaging was used to perform high-quality, multi-dimensional and multi-scale imaging of rat brain angioarchitecture. With the aid of image post-processing, high-pixel-size two-dimensional virtual slices can be obtained without sectioning. The distribution of blood supply is in accordance with the results of traditional tissue staining. Three-dimensional anatomical maps of cerebral angioarchitecture can also be acquired. Functional partitions of regions of interest are reproduced in the reconstructed rat cerebral vascular networks. Imaging analysis of the same sample can also be displayed simultaneously in two- and three-dimensional views, which provides abundant anatomical information together with parenchyma and vessels. In conclusion, SR-based phase-contrast imaging holds great promise for visualizing microstructure of microvascular networks in two- and three-dimensional perspectives during the development of neurovascular diseases.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining aminoglycosides with ß-lactam antibiotics for treating serious infections has not been associated with reduced mortality in previous meta-analyses. However, the multiple-daily aminoglycoside dosing regimen principally used in most included studies is inconsistent with current practice. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a combination of an aminoglycoside administered as a single-daily dose and a ß-lactam antibiotic reduces all-cause mortality in patients compared with ß-lactam antibiotic monotherapy. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies was performed (Prospero registration number #68506). Studies were included if they compared ß-lactam antibiotic monotherapy with combined ß-lactam and single daily dose aminoglycoside therapy for treating serious infections. Studies investigating multiple daily dosing aminoglycoside regimens were excluded as were studies investigating infective endocarditis or febrile neutropaenia. Study quality was assessed using the PEDro and Newcastle-Ottawa scoring systems. The end points for outcome analyses were 30-day all-cause mortality, clinical cure and nephrotoxicity. RESULTS: Four randomised controlled trials and five retrospective cohort studies were analysed. Compared to ß-lactam antibiotic monotherapy, single-daily aminoglycoside dosing in combination with ß-lactam antibiotics was not associated with reduced mortality compared with ß-lactam antibiotic monotherapy (n=3686, OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.63-1.08, p=0.10, I2 42%). A subgroup analysis of cohort studies suggested a reduced mortality with combination therapy (n=3563, OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.99, p=0.04, I2 32%). No increased risk of nephrotoxicity was identified (n=1110, OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.83-2.09, p=0.40, I2 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Existing evidence suggests no added survival benefit from a single daily dosing regimen of an aminoglycoside when combined with ß-lactam antibiotics.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(21): 9500-9529, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708494

RESUMO

Researchers have long assumed that systematic estrogen fading might contribute to the sustained progression of menopausal degenerate syndromes, although definitive evidence has not been presented. Whether such findings represent a causal contribution or are the result of opportunistic messengers sent from the reproductive system to the brain is also a vital question. We constructed a multiscale network of the ovariectomy (OVX) induced estrogen receptors depletion (ER-depletion) model and integrated targeted proteomic, targeted lipidomic, cytochemical, and histopathological data across three tissues from the ovariectomy rodent model. We found that compared to control rats, OVX rats showed increased renal and uterine prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds) expression and decreased hypothalamic Ptgds expression, abnormal Ptgds metabolites, the degenerate renal function profiles and decreased cognitive ability (learning and memory) in Morris water maze test. Importantly, we observed a regulatory relationship among ER (particularly ERß), the degree of the pathological phenotype, learning behavior test and the 'hypothalamus-uterus-kidney (HUK) axis functions. Collectively, this study elucidates that ER depletion promoted HUK aging is mostly attributed to a renal ERß/Ptgds signalling imbalance.

10.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 367, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) has been proposed as a novel target for coronary artery disease (CAD). Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by high prevalence of CAD and major cardiovascular events (MACEs). However, no data is available on the association between PCSK9 levels and MACEs in FH patients with standard lipid lowering therapy. METHODS: A total of 338 consecutive heterozygous FH (Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score ≥ 6) was enrolled and followed up for the occurrence of MACEs. Multidetector CT and coronary angiography were performed to determine coronary artery calcification score (CACS) and Gensini score (GS). Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: PCSK9 was independently and positively associated CACS and GS at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 3 years, 33 (9.8%) events occurred. Patients with MACEs had higher median PCSK9 compared with those without (332.47 vs. 311.89 ng/mL, p = 0.038). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher PCSK9 presented lower event-free survival (p = 0.0017). PCSK9 was statistically correlated with MACEs after adjusting for confounding factors, with the HR per SD being 1.86 (1.31-2.65) and 3.70 (1.16-11.82) for the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile. Adding PCSK9 to Cox prediction model led to a statistical improvement in net reclassification and integrated discrimination. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of PCSK9 were positively associated with the development of CAD and future cardiovascular events, suggesting that measurement of PCSK9 concentration might be useful for cardiovascular risk stratification. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 49: 213-222, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allo-HSCT is a devastating complication with limited therapeutic options. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in BOS after allo-HSCT. METHODS: This multicenter prospective cohort study enrolled 81 allo-HSCT recipients whose BOS were diagnosed within 6 months. The choice of prednisone and azithromycin combined with or without MSCs was based on patient preferences (MSC n = 49, non-MSC n = 32). The primary endpoint was response rate at 3 months, defined as the proportion of patients achieving FEV1 improvement or steroid sparing. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02543073). FINDINGS: Response rate was 35/49 patients (71%, 95% CI 59 to 84%) and 14/32 (44%, 27 to 61%) in MSC and non-MSC group, respectively (p = 0.013). The addition of MSCs was associated with a better difference for change in FEV1 rate of decline, compared to non-MSC group (53 mL/months, 2 to 103; p = 0.040). The 3-year overall survival post-diagnosis was 70.6% (55.9 to 85.3%) and 58.2% (36.1 to 78.5%) in MSC and non-MSC group, respectively (p = 0.21). Clinical improvement was accompanied by a significant increase of interleukin (IL)-10-producing CD5+B cells. There was no statistical difference in the rates of infections and leukemia relapse between the two groups. MSCs were well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. INTERPRETATION: MSCs offer an effective and safe therapeutic option for BOS after allo-HSCT. Our study strengthens evidence for clinical use of MSC therapy in BOS. These data also provide novel insight into potential biological mechanisms of MSC treatment and support further investigation in larger randomized controlled trials. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Health Collaborative Innovation Major Projects of Guangzhou City, Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; : 134899, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757536

RESUMO

The macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin is widely detected in varying aquatic environments, especially in the wastewater systems, as an emerging contaminant and leads to significant impacts on the microorganisms involved. In this study, the impact of a shock load of roxithromycin on waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion was comprehensively investigated. The biochemical methane potential tests showed that the methane production from WAS anaerobic digestion was significantly inhibited by roxithromycin. With the dosage of roxithromycin increasing from 0 to 1000 µg/L, the maximum cumulative methane production decreased from 163.5 ±â€¯2.6 mL/g VS to 150.9 ±â€¯4.5 mL/g VS. In particular, roxithromycin inhibited the acidogenesis and methanogenesis in WAS anaerobic digestion, leading to the decreased methane production. The methanogenic archaea in the studied system mainly belonged to the genera of Methanoseata, Candidatus Methanofastidiosum and Methanolinea and their relative abundances also decreased with roxithromycin addition. The analysis of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the digested sludge indicated that the abundances of most ARGs detected in this study were increased with roxithromycin exposure, suggesting the potential of growing antibiotic resistance, which was probably caused by enhancing the effect of esterases, methylases and phosphorylases. This work reveals how roxithromycin affects the WAS anaerobic digestion and the change of ARGs in the anaerobic digestion with roxithromycin exposure, and provides useful information for practical operation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study analyzed the clinical consumption, estimated the needs of pain treatment, and evaluated the adequacy of opioid analgesics consumption in mainland China and its seven regions. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the national and regional consumption of opioid analgesics in mainland China during 2006-2016 was conducted. The Adequacy of Consumption Measure was used to gauge the overall adequacy of opioid analgesics consumption in morphine equivalents for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in mainland China and compared with international data. Annual per capita consumption was adopted to measure the clinical consumption of opioid analgesics in morphine equivalents at a national level and across seven regions of mainland China. Needs of morphine for cancer pain treatment in mainland China and in its seven regions were estimated and compared with the clinical consumption of opioid analgesics in morphine equivalents. RESULTS: The Adequacy of Consumption Measure of mainland China ranged from 0.0041 to 0.0088 during 2006-2016, which was less than 1% of that in the reference countries. The poor North East region had only 10.85% of the cancer pain morphine needs fulfilled. The highest fulfillment rate was 36.02% in rich Southern China, which was 25.9% at the national level. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical consumption of opioid analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in mainland China was far below the international level. The Annual per capita of clinical consumption was lower, and the adequacy of cancer pain treatment was poorer in less developed areas. All these findings call for actions to strengthen pain management.

14.
J Control Release ; 316: 317-330, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733293

RESUMO

Although microRNAs (miRNAs) function as the important tumor gene regulators, they still confront with many challenges in systemic delivery. Here, the amphiphilic gemcitabine-oleic acid prodrugs (GOA) binding miRNAs with hydrogen bond are assembled into nanoparticles (GOA/miR NPs) through hydrophobic interaction via denaturation-annealing processes and nano-precipitation technique. The non-cationic GOA/miR NPs with an average size of ~150 nm and a zeta potential of ~ - 15 mV exhibit a stable encapsulation of miRNAs with non-sequence selectivity. Either miR-122 or miR-34a encapsulated in the GOA/miR NPs is efficiently delivered into HepG2 cells and significantly downregulate the expression levels of target gene after lysosome escape and pH-responsive disassembly. Moreover, in vivo experiments demonstrate that the GOA/miR-122 NPs exhibit higher tumor accumulation. Compared to GOA micelles, GOA/miR-122 NPs displayed stronger tumor inhibition (73% regression) after intravenous injection in nude mice xenografted with HCC, along with rapid clearance in normal liver tissues. Furthermore, there is no significant influence on biochemical indicators and immune factors during the systematic administration of GOA/miR-122 NPs. The non-cationic GOA/miR NPs engineered by hydrogen bond interaction and hydrophobic forces show the enhanced synergistic antitumor efficacy and good biosafety, which will provide a potential nanomedcine for HCC treatment.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765131

RESUMO

Composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for all-solid-state lithium metal batteries (ASSLMBs), due to inherited desirable features from both ceramic and polymer materials. However, poor interfacial contact/compatibility between the electrodes and solid electrolytes remains a critical challenge. In this work, we prepare a flexible CSE composed of PEO-perovskite composite with a layer of PEO on either side. This PEO|PEO-perovskite|PEO structure prevents direct contact between perovskite and lithium metal at the anode side, avoiding the undesired reaction between the two materials (Ti4+ + Li → Ti3+ + Li+). Moreover, the design incorporating the PEO surface on either side enables superb contact between the electrolyte and the electrodes, and buffers the change in electrolyte volume from the cathode and lithium metal during repeated cycling, resulting in low interfacial resistances and excellent cycling stability. Meanwhile, perovskite inorganic electrolyte Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) 3D nanofiber networks formed by electrospinning enable the CSE to achieve enhanced mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity of 0.16 mS cm-1 at 24 ℃. As a result, a Li|PEO-LiTFSI-LLTO|Li symmetric cell remains stable after 400 h of operation without short-circuiting. Most notably, a Li|PEO-LiTFSI-LLTO|LiFePO4 full battery is capable of delivering a high capacity of 135.0 mAh g-1 even at 2 C with a retention rate of 79.0% after 300 cycles at 60 ℃. These results demonstrate that the integrated sandwich structure proposed in this work is effective in developing high-performance composite solid electrolytes for ASSLMBs.

16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 316, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Icariin (ICA) is the major active ingredient extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Epimedium, which has the effects of improving cardiovascular function, inducing tumor cell differentiation and increasing bone formation. It is still rarely reported that ICA can exert its therapeutic potential in asthma via anti-airway remodeling. The point of the study was to estimate the role of ICA in anti-. airway remodeling and its possible mechanism of action in a mouse ovalbumin. (OVA)-induced asthma model. METHODS: Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining were performed for measuring airway remodeling related indicators. ELISA, Western blot and Immunohistochemistr-. y (IHC) were used for analyzing the level of protein. RT-PCR was used for analyzing the level of mRNA. RESULTS: On days 1 and 8, mice were sensitized to OVA by intraperitoneal injection. From day 16 to day 43, previously sensitized mice were exposed to OVA once daily by nebulizer. Interventions were performed orally with ICA (ICA low, medium and high dose groups) or dexamethasone 1 h prior to each OVA exposure. ICA improves pulmonary function, attenuates pulmonary inflammation and airway remodeling in mice exposed to OVA. Histological and Western blot analysis of the lungs show that ICA suppressed transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Increase in interleukin 13 and endothelin-1 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in OVA-induced asthmatic mice are also decreased by ICA. ICA attenuates airway smooth muscle cell proliferation, as well as key factors in the MAPK/Erk pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that ICA can alleviate OVA-induced asthma at least partly through inhibition of ASMC proliferation via MAPK/Erk pathway provides a solid theoretical basis for ICA as a replacement therapy for asthma. These data reveal the underlying reasons of the use of ICA-rich herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine to achieve good results in treating asthma.

17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 227: 117675, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670047

RESUMO

By modifying the 10-butyl-2-methoxy-10H-phenothiazine-3-carbaldehyde with malonontrile group, a new fluorescent sensor PBM for selective detection of hydrazine in ratiometric mode has been developed. Probe PBM owned the advantages of quick response (10 min), remarkable Stokes shift (168 nm for PBM, 161 nm for PBM-NH2), excellent selectivity, high sensitivity (detection limit of 63.2 nM was obtained from in vitro experiment), profound ratiometric change (82-fold) and low cytotoxicity in response to hydrazine. Additionally, it could be utilized to monitor hydrazine in gas state with various concentrations through vivid color changes and imaged hydrazine in living MCF-7 cells with excellent performance.

18.
Water Res ; 169: 115208, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670088

RESUMO

For the control of sulfide and methane in sewers, it is favorable to reduce their production rather than to remove them after generation. In this study, we revealed rapid and strong biocidal effect of ferrate (Fe(VI)) on sulfidogenic and methanogenic sewer biofilms, leading to control of sulfide and methane production in sewer. The inactivation of the microorganisms in sewer biofilms by Fe(VI) could be accomplished within 15 min for a single dosing event and the biocidal effect could be enhanced by applying pulse dosing strategy. The microbiological analysis showed that the key functional genes involved in sulfide and methane production, i.e. dsrA and mcrA, in the viable cells after Fe(VI) dosing were decreased substantially by 84.2% and 86.6%, respectively. Significant drops were also observed in the relative abundances of viable sulfide reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA). The direct dosing of Fe(VI) into a sewer reactor led to instant and complete suppression of sulfidogenic and methanogenic activities, and the recovery of the activities resembled the regrowth of residual SRB and MA. The results of this study suggested the feasibility for developing an efficient and cost-effective sulfide and methane control strategy using Fe(VI).

19.
Water Res ; 169: 115218, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677435

RESUMO

Effective sludge treatment with bioenergy production is attracting increasing interests as large quantities of waste activated sludge (WAS) are produced during the wastewater treatment. In this study, a new biotechnical process for converting the WAS alkaline fermentation liquor (WASAFL) into valuable, easy-separated medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) through chain elongation (CE) was investigated, which may provide a new insight into sludge treatment. In the process, ethanol was served as the electron donor (EDs) and WASAFL were main electron acceptors (EAs). The MCFAs productions were investigated under three different ED to EA ratios (i.e., 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1). The result showed that MCFAs production was increased from 2.88 ±â€¯0.01 to 5.28 ±â€¯0.18 g COD/L with the increase of ED to EA ratio. However, the highest MCFA selectivity was achieved at 72.9% when the ED to EA ratio was 1:1. The decrease in the selectivity at high ED:EA ratio is mainly due to the production of higher alcohol (i.e., n-butanol and n-hexanol). The thermodynamic analysis confirmed all CE processes for MCFAs production from WASAFL were exothermic reactions, with the spontaneity and energy release of the reactions increased with the ethanol level. The microbial community analysis showed that the relative abundances of Clostridium, Oscillibacter, Leptolinea and Exilispira were positively correlated with the MCFAs production. The metagenomic analysis suggested that both the reverse ß-oxidization pathway and fatty acid biosynthesis pathway contributed to the CE process in the studied system. The functional enzymes were mainly associated within Clostridium, with Clostridium Kluyveri, Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium magnum being likely the key species responsible for the CE process.

20.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020702, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673344

RESUMO

Methods: Using an interrupted time series design, we conducted segmented regression analyses of utilization changes of targeted anti-cancer medicines covered by the provincial government health insurance program during 2013 to 2016 in 69 hospitals with more than 100 beds in Hangzhou, the capital city of Zhejiang province of China. The WHO/Health Action International Project on Medicine Prices and Availability methodology was used to measure patient affordability of the study medicines. Results: In March 2015, the utilization of all study medicines increased by 15.58 (95% CI = 3.86, 27.30, P = 0.01) to 439.14 standard units (95% CI = 311.79, 566.49, P < 0.001). Before covered by government health insurance, the estimated out-of-pocket payment by patient ranged from 3.0 to 13.1 times of the provincial average disposable annual income per capita for urban residents, and 6.2 to 27.3 times for rural residents. Such payments were reduced to 0.6 to 2.1 times for urban residents and 1.8 to 4.4 times for rural population after government health insurance coverage inclusion. During 2015 to 2016, the per capita contribution to Hangzhou catastrophic health insurance program was CNY15 (US$ 2.3), and the reimbursement rate was 70% in Hangzhou city. The cumulative total insurance expenses on six study targeted anticancer medicines accounted for an estimated 53% of the total amount of premiums of the government catastrophic health insurance fund. Sensitivity analyses indicated that this proportion would have changed to 46%, 61% and 69% when changing the per capita contribution to CNY25 (US$ 3.8) and CNY40 (US$ 6.2), and changing the insurance reimbursement rate to 60%, 80 and 90%. Conclusion: Government health insurance coverage inclusion significantly increased utilization of the expensive targeted anti-cancer medicines, and improved patient affordability. However, the financial burden of patients is still high, especially for the rural low-income population. Rising utilization and expenditures call for careful monitoring of anti-cancer medicines use, and for strategies to decrease prices to facilitate medicines access and keep the insurance system sustainable.

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