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1.
JBI Evid Synth ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to evaluate the ease of use, effectiveness of airway management, and incidence of perioperative complications of the Baska mask compared to the i-gel device in adult patients undergoing elective procedures with general anesthesia. INTRODUCTION: Supraglottic airway devices have been widely used for airway management in patients undergoing various surgical procedures under general anesthesia. The Baska mask and the i-gel device are two commonly used second-generation supraglottic airway devices that offer a noninvasive alternative to the endotracheal tube given the ease of insertion, rapidity, low risk of postoperative complications, and reduced autonomic imbalance during insertion. However, there is a dearth of studies comparing the clinical performance of these two devices. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider studies with adults aged 18 years or older who underwent elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia and received ventilation with the Baska mask or i-gel. Only randomized controlled trials comparing the two devices will be considered. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, OpenGrey, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses will be searched to identify both published and unpublished studies. Titles and abstracts will be screened to identify potentially relevant papers. Retrieval of full-text studies, assessment of methodological quality, and data extraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Data will be synthesized using statistical meta-analysis with heterogeneity of data being assessed using the standard chi-squared and I tests, if possible. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020168774.

2.
J Pediatr Orthop B ; 29(5): 452-457, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740201

RESUMO

Multidirectionally unstable supracondylar humeral fractures cause severe instability in both flexion and extension movements. The traditional closed reduction often fails to overcome this lack of stability. The aim of this study is to use a closed reduction technique with a transolecranon pin to achieve temporary stability. From 35 pediatric multidirectionally unstable supracondylar humeral fractures hospitalized between March 2012 and March 2018 at our hospital, 23 fractures (65.7%) were treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) (group 1) and the remaining twelve fractures (34.3%) were treated utilizing a transolecranon pin joystick technique of CRPP (group 2). Both groups were followed over 16 weeks. The outcomes of our analysis included surgical time, times of fluoroscopy, Baumann angle, postoperative range of motion and complications. The surgical time and times of fluoroscopy were significantly shorter for patients in group 2 when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). All cases showed restoration of the normal anterior humeral line-capitellar relationship. However, the quality of reduction on the anteroposterior radiographic view was significantly better for patients in group 2 than that of group 1 (P < 0.05). No immediate postoperative complications were observed. The range of motion was similar in both groups during the last follow-up appointment. A transolecranon pin is a safe and effective method for closed reduction of multidirectionally unstable supracondylar humeral fractures in children. The joystick technique can shorten surgical time and improve quality of reduction with no increasing risk of complications. Level of evidence: level III.

3.
Bull Entomol Res ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741378

RESUMO

For a wide range of insect species, the microbiota has potential roles in determining host developmental programme, immunity and reproductive biology. The tea geometrid moths Ectropis obliqua and E. grisescens are two closely related species that mainly feed on tea leaves. Although they can mate, infertile hybrids are produced. Therefore, these species provide a pair of model species for studying the molecular mechanisms of microbiotal involvement in host reproductive biology. In this study, we first identified and compared the compositions of microbiota between these sibling species, revealing higher microbiotal diversity for E. grisescens. The microbiota of E. obliqua mainly comprised the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, whereas that of E. grisescens was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. At the genus level, the dominant microbiota of E. grisescens included Wolbachia, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas and that of E. obliqua included Melissococcus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacter. Furthermore, we verified the rate of Wolbachia to infect 80 samples from eight different geographical populations, and the results supported that only E. grisescens harboured Wolbachia. Taken together, our findings indicate significantly different microbiotal compositions for E. obliqua and E. grisescens, with Wolbachia possibly being a curial factor influencing the reproductive isolation of these species. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which endosymbiotic bacteria, particularly Wolbachia, interact with sibling species.

4.
Cell Res ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737416

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates an association between the circadian clock and the aging process. However, it remains elusive whether the deregulation of circadian clock proteins underlies stem cell aging and whether they are targetable for the alleviation of aging-associated syndromes. Here, we identified a transcription factor-independent role of CLOCK, a core component of the molecular circadian clock machinery, in counteracting human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) decay. CLOCK expression was decreased during hMSC aging. In addition, CLOCK deficiency accelerated hMSC senescence, whereas the overexpression of CLOCK, even as a transcriptionally inactive form, rejuvenated physiologically and pathologically aged hMSCs. Mechanistic studies revealed that CLOCK formed complexes with nuclear lamina proteins and KAP1, thus maintaining heterochromatin architecture and stabilizing repetitive genomic sequences. Finally, gene therapy with lentiviral vectors encoding CLOCK promoted cartilage regeneration and attenuated age-related articular degeneration in mice. These findings demonstrate a noncanonical role of CLOCK in stabilizing heterochromatin, promoting tissue regeneration, and mitigating aging-associated chronic diseases.

5.
Int Orthop ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666241

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the outcomes of a newly invented reduction device on assisting reduction of intramedullary nailing (IMN) in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. METHODS: From January 2015 to December 2018, data of patients with tibial shaft fractures treated with IMN were reviewed. In total, 42 patients underwent treatment with the new reduction device (group A) and 56 underwent treatment using a traditional reduction technique (group B). Data related to the closed reduction rate, surgical time, blood loss, number of fluoroscopies, number of surgeons, and number of complications were also reviewed. Fracture healing was assessed using radiographs at each follow-up, and the functional outcome (AOFAS score) was evaluated at the final follow-up. RESULTS: The two treatment groups were evenly matched with respect to age, sex, fracture grade, and time to surgery. The average surgical time, blood loss, number of fluoroscopies, and number of surgeons in group A were all lesser than those in group B (P < 0.05). The closed reduction rate in group A was higher than those in group B (P < 0.05). The fracture healing time, AOFAS score, and complication rate were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The new reduction device could effectively achieve and maintain the reduction of tibia shaft fractures in a minimally invasive fashion.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10252, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581228

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and telomere length are biologically associated with healthy aging. However, the association between them and their interaction on frailty remain unclear in humans. Here, a cross-sectional study based on residents from Guangxi longevity county was conducted to investigate the association of serum BCAAs, peripheral leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and frailty. A total of 1,034 subjects aged 20 to 110 years were recruited in the study. The real-time qPCR method and a targeted metabolomics approach based on isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method were used for measurement of LTL and BCAAs, respectively. A frailty score defined as the proportion of accumulated deficits based on 24 aging-related items was used assess the health status of elderly subjects. First, we found that a higher concentration of BCAAs was significantly associated with longer LTL only in middle-aged subjects, independent of age and BMI (P < 0.05). In the oldest-old subjects, we identified a significantly inverse association between BCAAs and frailty score (P < 0.001), even after adjustment for age and BMI (P < 0.05). Additionally, we recognized a statistically significant synergetic interaction between BCAAs and LTL on frailty score in the oldest-old subjects by the general linear model (P = 0.042), although we did not find any significant association between LTL and frailty score. In summary, our findings suggest a potentially protective effect of circulating BCAAs on LTL and frailty based on the subjects from longevity county in East Asia and indicate a potential synergetic interaction between BCAAs and LTL in healthy aging.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 129: 110374, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570114

RESUMO

This study built an OA model in rats by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection to determine the effects and mechanism of the voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 (CACNA2D1)-calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP) pathway in osteoarthritis (OA)-induced ongoing pain. CACNA2D1 expression was measured by qPCR assay, western blotting assay, and immunofluorescence. Pain behaviors in rats were assessed with the measurement of thermal paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (PWT). The expression of CACNA2D1, neuropeptide Y (NPY), activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), CGRP, protein kinase A (PKA), phosphorylated (p)-PKA, adenylyl cyclase (AC), protein kinase C (PKC), p-PKC, phospholipase C (PLC), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway proteins were measured, OA rats had higher CACNA2D1 expression than normal rats. Knockdown of CACNA2D1 led to the elevation of the pain threshold of OA rats, and CACNA2D1 over-expression decreased the pain threshold of normal rats. Moreover, CACNA2D1 over-expression inhibited the expression of CGRP, up-regulated the expressions of NPY, ATF3, p-PKA, AC, p-PKC, PLC, p-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-p38, and had no significant effect on phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) expression in vivo and in vitro. Using this model of MIA-induced OA, we demonstrated that CACNA2D1 might be involved in the process of pain by modulating the CGRP and AC-PKA/PKC/MAPK signaling pathways in the dorsal root ganglion.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593756

RESUMO

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) plays an important role in plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB)-mediated enhancement of plant abiotic stress resistance. In this study, it is found that EPS from Pantoea alhagi NX-11 foliar sprayed at 20, 50, and 100 ppm could significantly enhance drought resistance of rice seedlings. The fresh weight and relative water content of EPS sprayed were increased. In addition, malondialdehyde content reduced while total chlorophyll, proline and soluble sugar content, prominent enhanced. Meanwhile, the antioxidant enzymes, CAT, POD and SOD, were also significantly increased. The drought resistance of rice was most pronounced at the 50 ppm EPS dose. For the sake of commercializing the gram-negative EPS-producing PGPB which were difficult to preserve, it is vital to improve the EPS yield. First, the carbon source, nitrogen source and inorganic salt were optimized. Subsequently, the effect of three oxygen vectors, which could increase the efficiency of oxygen mass transfer, on EPS yield was studied by response surface methodology. The maximum EPS yield (19.27 g/L) was obtained, which is 51.7% higher than the initial yield of 12.7 g/L. Overall, it may provide a new way for the industrialization of PGPB to increase the yield of EPS.

9.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23377, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common neoplasm located in the liver. Accumulating evidence has highlighted that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are correlated with the survival of HCC patients. This study focuses on finding a lncRNA signature to predict the prognostic risk of HCC patients. METHODS: Statistical and machine learning analyses were conducted to analyze the lncRNA expression data and corresponding clinical data of 180 HCC patients collected from the public online Tanric and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. RESULTS: From the training dataset, we obtained the four-lncRNA model comprising RP11-495K9.6, RP11-96O20.2, RP11-359K18.3, and LINC00556 which can divide HCC patients into two different groups with significantly different prognosis (n = 90, median 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50-4.91 vs 8.56 years, 95% CI: 6.96-9.97, log-rank test P < .001). The test dataset confirmed the prognostic ability of the signature (n = 90, median 1.95, 95% CI: 1.14-4.08 vs 5.80 years, 95% CI: 3.11-6.82, log-rank test P = .007). Receiver operating characteristic curve displayed the better prediction efficiency of the four-lncRNA signature than the tumor/node/metastasis stage. Cox analysis showed the four-lncRNA signature was an independent predictor of HCC prognosis. CONCLUSION: The four-lncRNA signature can be used as an independent biomarker for HCC patients to predict the prognostic risk.

10.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(7): 153001, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534709

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the most lethal human malignancies, and exploring novel therapeutic targets for the treatment has been a major focus. The molecular mechanism of invasion and migration of GC cells remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Tensin 4 and the associated molecular signaling pathways in the process of invasion and metastasis of GC. The expression of Tensin 4 protein and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) were evaluated in GC and normal adjacent tissues of 80 patients using immunohistochemistry staining. The expression of Tensin4 mRNA was analyzed in 10 GC tissues and 3 GC cell lines (SGC7901, MKN45, and MKN28) by qPCR. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were assessed using CCK-8 and Transwell assays in the Tensin 4 siRNA transfected SGC7901 cells and Tensin 4 plasmid transfected MKN28 cells. Additionally, protein expressions of Tensin 4, E-cadherin, vimentin, AKT, p-AKT, GSK-3ß, p-GSK-3ß, and Snail were analyzed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that the expression of Tensin 4 was significantly up-regulated in the GC tissues and cell lines, especially in the SGC7901 cells. The expression of Tensin 4 positively correlated with p-AKT in GC tissues and with GC progression, and was an independent risk factor for the prognosis of GC. Tensin 4 promoted the invasion and migration abilities of GC cells, but had no significant effect on GC cell proliferation. Tensin 4 promoted the occurrence of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) through up-regulating the expression of p-AKT, p-GSK-3ß, and snail. Overall, this study suggests that the activation of AKT/GSK-3ß/Snail signaling pathway promoted by Tensin 4 plays an important role in the progression of GC. Therefore, Tensin 4 may serve as a potential target in GC treatment.

11.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564095

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The anthocyanin biosynthesis gene Ca3GT was fine-mapped in a 110.5-kb region through a map-based cloning strategy. Gene expression and promoter analyses confirmed the strong candidate gene Capana10g001978. Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruit can be dark green, green, light green, purple, yellow, or ivory at the juvenile stage. Anthocyanins are responsible for fruit color formation in mature unripe pepper fruit, and transient accumulation of anthocyanins is the main problem in breeding pepper plants with mature purple fruit. Only a few genes controlling this trait have been cloned. The present study aimed to map and identify an anthocyanin biosynthesis gene from pepper using an F2 population derived from a cross between line '17C3808' (purple mature unripe fruit) and line '17C3807' (green mature unripe fruit). The trait was mapped on a 110.5-kb interval between markers SSR18213 and SSR18228 on chromosome 10. There were three open reading frames in this region; Capana10g001978 was predicted in this region as markers CAPS-78-708 and InDel146 co-segregated with it. Capana10g001978 is a structural gene encoding the GTB transcription factor involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Comparing parental sequences, two base mutations were identified in the exon of Capana10g001978, at positions + 528 bp and + 708 bp, which resulted in changes in the 176th and 236th amino acid residues, from glutamine (CAA) to histidine (CAC), causing a nonsense mutation (from CAG to CAA). Additionally, Capana10g001978 was highly expressed in the pericarp of mature, unripe pepper fruit. There were four single nucleotide polymorphisms, three sequence deletions, and one sequence insertion in the promoter region of purple, mature, and unripe pepper fruit, leading to the formation of a W-box and a GT1-motif. Thus, Capana10g001978 is a strong candidate gene of Ca3GT involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in mature unripe pepper fruit. These results provide important information regarding the isolation and characterization of Ca3GT, and they are the starting point for studying the regulatory pathway responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis in pepper.

12.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 17(4): 324-328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442084

RESUMO

Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder with high incidence and mortality, is leading its way to the top of the list of the deadliest diseases without an effective disease-modifying drug. Ca2+ dysregulation, specifically abnormal release of Ca2+ via over activated ryanodine receptor (RyR), has been increasingly considered as an alternative upstream mechanism in AD pathology. Consequently, dantrolene, a RyR antagonist and FDA approved drug to treat malignant hyperthermia and chronic muscle spasms, has been shown to ameliorate memory loss in AD transgenic mice. However, the inefficiency of dantrolene to pass the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and penetrate the Central Nervous System needs to be resolved, considering its dose-dependent neuroprotection in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this mini-review, we will discuss the current status of dantrolene neuroprotection in AD treatment and a strategy to maximize its beneficial effects, such as intranasal administration of dantrolene.

13.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(4): 327-31, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and feasibility of closed reduction and internal fixation with PFNA in the treatment of intertrochanteric fracture of femur in the supine position without traction bed. METHODS: From June 2014 to March 2018, 45 patients with intertrochanteric fracture of femur who were treated and followed up were analyzed retrospectively. There were 21 males and 24 females, with an average age of 67.4 years (43 to 92 years);18 cases on the left side and 27 on the right side. According to Evans Jensen classification, there were 7 patients of type Ⅱ, 17 patients of type Ⅲ, 16 patients of type Ⅳ and 5 patients of type Ⅴ. The time from injury to operationwas 2 to 6 days. The operation time, blood loss and fracture healing, closing time, postoperative complications and Harris score of hip joint were recorded. RESULTS: The operation time of 45 patients was 35 to 80 min, with an average of 52.6 min;the intraoperative bleeding volume was 40 to 110 ml, with an average of 68.7 ml;the hospitalization time was 6 to 11 days, with an average of 8.4 days;the follow up time was 12 to 18 months, with an average of 14.7 months;the internal fixation of 2 patients failed, and 43 patients achieved bony healing;the deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity in the perioperative period was 1 case, and the inferior vena cava filter was inserted;the internal fixation of 2 patients was cut out, and the hip was renovated. The incidence of complications was 8.9%(4 / 45). At the final follow up, Harris score of hip joint was 56 to 95 (81.30±8.40), including excellent 15 cases, good 26 cases, fair 2 cases and poor 2 cases. CONCLUSION: It is safe and feasible to treat intertrochanteric fracture of femur with closed reduction and anti rotation intramedullary nailing under the bed without traction in a supine position. It has the advantages of small trauma and low complications, and the clinical effect is satisfactory. It is worth popularizing and using in basic hospitals.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pinos Ortopédicos , Feminino , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Decúbito Dorsal , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Int Med Res ; 48(4): 300060520920407, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of bone transport involving circular external fixation and locking plate application for the treatment of segmental tibial defects. METHODS: A retrospective review of 12 patients with segmental tibial defects who underwent bone transport with circular external fixation and locking plate application. We evaluated external fixation time, external fixation index, time to achieve union, and complications. Clinical results were assessed using the Association for the Study and Application of the Methods of Ilizarov (ASAMI) score. Generic health-related outcome was assessed using the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36). RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 25.8 months, and the mean defect size was 6.7 cm. All of the patients achieved union at the distraction callus and docking site. The average external fixation time was 299.5 days. The mean external fixation index was 16.5 days/cm, and the mean healing index was 44.9 days/cm. The functional outcomes were excellent in eight cases and good in four. The average SF-36 score was 92. CONCLUSION: Bone transport with external fixation and locking plate application may be a promising method for the treatment of segmental tibial defects.

15.
Appl Opt ; 59(10): 3262-3269, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400611

RESUMO

This paper proposes a stereo camera trap to expand field of view (FOV) of the traditional camera trap and to measure wildlife sizes with a centimeter-scaled accuracy within the detection distance of 10 m. In the method, FOVs of the two cameras are partly overlapped with a 30-cm-long baseline and a posture angle of 100°. Typically only targets in the public FOV can be measured; in contrast, when only parts of targets appear in the public FOV they are difficult to measure. To solve the problem, a part-matching algorithm is provided. In the proposed camera trap, a central process unit is realized by a micro control unit, an advanced reduced-instruction-set-computing machine, and a field-programmable gate array, and then motion sensors trigger the cameras to capture stereo images when animals pass by. In addition, the camera trap has daytime mode and nighttime mode switched by a photosensitive sensor by perceiving ambient lights. Finally, the stereo camera trap data is transmitted by a long-term-evolution module at a scheduled time. Experimental results show that the proposed stereo camera trap can broaden the FOV of a monocular camera by up to 77% at 5 m and estimate feature sizes of targets with centimeter-scaled accuracy.

16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104542, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359552

RESUMO

The tea geometrid moth Ectropis obliqua Prout is one of the most serious moth pests in tea plants, and its sex pheromones have been identified as typical Type-II polyunsaturated hydrocarbons and epoxide derivatives. Therefore, the E. obliqua male olfactory system provides a good model to study the molecular basis of Type-II sex pheromone recognition as well as functional gene evolution towards structurally different types of moth sex pheromones. In this study, we identified the full-length sequence of a pheromone-binding protein, EoblPBP2 and revealed that it clustered together with the lepidopteran PBP2 subfamily, which binds Type I acetate pheromones. These findings suggest that the EoblPBP2 sequence and physiological function are conserved, although E. obliqua evolved Type II hydrocarbon and epoxide sex pheromones structurally different from Type I acetates. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the expression patterns and in vitro functions of EoblPBP2 in detail. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that EoblPBP2 was predominantly expressed in male E. obliqua antennae. Fluorescence in situ hybridization further demonstrated that the EoblPBP2 gene was abundantly expressed in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea Str-I in male E. obliqua. The physiological function of recombinant EoblPBP2 was then examined using a competitive binding assay. The results showed that EoblPBP2 had high affinities for three E. obliqua Type II sex pheromone components and Type I acetate pheromones in comparison to some plant volatiles. These results indicate that PBP2 is involved in the detection of Type II pheromones in E. obliqua and it still retains high binding affinities to acetate pheromones and some green leaf ester volatiles.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Atrativos Sexuais , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Proteínas de Insetos , Masculino , Feromônios , Chá
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 731: 139093, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416350

RESUMO

Relative to the open Northwest Pacific, the basin-scale South China Sea (SCS) is smaller and semi-enclosed, and the impacts of frequent super typhoons on the entire SCS basin have yet to be fully understood. Using multi-satellite observations and reanalysis data, this study explored biophysical responses of the upper ocean of the SCS induced by a typical super typhoon, Mangkhut (2018), and their regional differences with potential mechanisms. There were three different significant-response regions in the whole SCS, as follows: (1) In the ocean area around the typhoon path, strong vertical mixing, upwelling and cooling were induced, resulting in the surface chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration enhancing markedly (three-fold). Particularly, asymmetric distribution of typhoon rainfall induced asymmetric sea surface salinity change over along the path the nearshore. Diurnal peak of chl-a concentration increased obviously, and the daily growth rate of chl-a sped up considerably in non-shore areas after Mangkhut's passage. (2) In the Beibu Gulf (BBG), the peripheral winds of Mangkhut caused a change in direction of the sea surface flow field, transporting the high-temperature and high-salinity surface seawater from the southeastern area to the BBG. This induced dramatic increases in sea surface temperature, salinity and height, and a decrease in chl-a, in most areas of BBG. (3) In the southwest SCS, the southwest monsoon-induced eastward offshore upwelling jet was weakened by the opposite large-scale peripheral wind vector of Mangkhut and gradually disappeared, resulting in accumulation and enhancement of chl-a in the nearshore. In addition, Mangkhut peripheral winds also intensified (weakened), shifting the cold (warm) eddy to the north (south) and blocking the horizontal eastward transport belt of the high-concentration chl-a. In general, our present work sheds light on the new evidence that a supper typhoon can cause basin-wide anomalies in the SCS, which has broad implications for marine biophysical environment.

18.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(1): e28-e37, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312571

RESUMO

Tracheal intubation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients creates a risk to physiologically compromised patients and to attending healthcare providers. Clinical information on airway management and expert recommendations in these patients are urgently needed. By analysing a two-centre retrospective observational case series from Wuhan, China, a panel of international airway management experts discussed the results and formulated consensus recommendations for the management of tracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients. Of 202 COVID-19 patients undergoing emergency tracheal intubation, most were males (n=136; 67.3%) and aged 65 yr or more (n=128; 63.4%). Most patients (n=152; 75.2%) were hypoxaemic (Sao2 <90%) before intubation. Personal protective equipment was worn by all intubating healthcare workers. Rapid sequence induction (RSI) or modified RSI was used with an intubation success rate of 89.1% on the first attempt and 100% overall. Hypoxaemia (Sao2 <90%) was common during intubation (n=148; 73.3%). Hypotension (arterial pressure <90/60 mm Hg) occurred in 36 (17.8%) patients during and 45 (22.3%) after intubation with cardiac arrest in four (2.0%). Pneumothorax occurred in 12 (5.9%) patients and death within 24 h in 21 (10.4%). Up to 14 days post-procedure, there was no evidence of cross infection in the anaesthesiologists who intubated the COVID-19 patients. Based on clinical information and expert recommendation, we propose detailed planning, strategy, and methods for tracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240043

RESUMO

3- And 2-monochloropropanediol fatty acid esters (3- and 2-MCPD esters) are contaminants of processed vegetable oils. In this study, vegetable oils and related products available 486 food samples from Zhejiang market were collected and analysed for 3- and 2-MCPD esters during 2016-2018. Food consumption data were taken from a food consumption survey of urban and rural residents in Zhejiang province performed in 2008 using data from 9646 subjects. Levels of 3-MCPD esters in foods ranged from not detected to 8.3 mg/kg, and the highest mean levels were found in vegetable oils with levels of 0.76 mg/kg. Esters of 2-MCPD levels ranged from not detected to 4.0 mg/kg, and the highest mean levels were found in instant noodles containing 0.40 mg/kg. The dietary intake of 3-MCPD was 0.62 µg/kg bw per day (mean) and 2.29 µg/kg bw per day (P97.5), and 2-MCPD esters intakes were 0.26 µg/kg bw per day (mean) and 0.87 µg/kg bw per day (P97.5). Vegetable oils were the main food source of dietary 3- and 2-MCPD esters intake. These findings suggested that the dietary exposure levels of 3-MCPD esters may pose a potential risk to the health for high consumers (P97.5) aged 4-17 when compared to the tolerable daily intake.

20.
Oncol Rep ; 43(4): 1169-1186, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323781

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone affecting children and adolescents. Chemotherapy is now considered as a standard component of OS treatment, not only for children, but also for adults. However, chemoresistance continues to pose a challenge to therapy. Inhibition of autophagy has been demonstrated to decrease chemoresistance in OS. Moreover, microRNA­22 (miR­22) inhibits autophagy, leading to an improvement in the sensitivity of cisplatin (CDDP) in OS. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether miR­22 could mediate the CDDP resistance of OS cells by inhibiting autophagy via the phosphoinositide 3­kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Cell proliferation assay, LC3 flow cytometry assay and monodansylcadaverine staining in MG63 cells and CDDP resistance cells (MG63/CDDP) were performed to explore to role of miR­22 and CDDP in OS chemoresistance. Inoculation of tumor cells in an in vivo model, reverse transcription­quantitative PCR (RT­qPCR) assay, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to investigate the role of miR­22 and CDDP in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway as it is affected by autophagy. The results revealed that miR­22 inhibited the proliferation of MG63 and MG63/CDDP cells, and enhanced the anti­proliferative ability of CDDP in vivo and in vitro. miR­22 mediated the CDDP resistance of OS cells by inhibiting autophagy and decreasing CDDP­induced autophagy via downregulation of the expression of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR at the mRNA level, and the expression of PI3K, phosphorylated (p)­Akt, and p­mTOR at the protein level. It was also convincingly demonstrated that miR­22 mediates the CDDP resistance of OS by inhibiting autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, in the MG63 cells that were affected by CDDP, the role of miR­22 was shown to be similar to that of the investigated inhibitor of PI3K (wortmannin) in terms of regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and wortmannin could also promote the effect of miR­22. Interestingly, CDDP was demonstrated to induce autophagy by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, whereas the pathway was upregulated in the state of chemoresistance. In conclusion, downregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was shown to assist in the process of preventing chemoresistance.

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