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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127152, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537643

RESUMO

Chlorine disinfection is a key global public health strategy for the prevention and control of diseases, such as COVID-19. However, little is known about effects of low levels of residual chlorine on freshwater microbial communities and antibiotic resistomes. Here, we treated freshwater microcosms with continuous low concentrations of chlorine and quantified the effects on aquatic and zebrafish intestinal microbial communities and antibiotic resistomes, using shotgun metagenome and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although chlorine rapidly degraded, it altered the aquatic microbial community composition over time and disrupted interactions among microbes, leading to decreases in community complexity and stability. However, community diversity was unaffected. The majority of ecological functions, particularly metabolic capacities, recovered after treatment with chlorine for 14 d, due to microbial community redundancy. There were also increased levels of antibiotic-resistance gene dissemination by horizontal and vertical gene transfer under chlorine treatment. Although the zebrafish intestinal microbial community recovered from temporary dysbiosis, growth and behavior of zebrafish adults were negatively affected by chlorine. Overall, our findings demonstrate the negative effects of residual chlorine on freshwater ecosystems and highlight a possible long-term risk to public health.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114677, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562563

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Skin barrier dysfunction can lead to water and electrolyte loss, triggering homeostatic imbalances that can trigger atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with known therapeutic benefits for the treatment of skin diseases, including photodamage repair effects and reduction of pigmentation. However, few reports exist that describe effectiveness of ginseng active components for repair of skin barrier damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ginseng oligosaccharide extract (GSO) was prepared from P. ginseng via water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation and resin and gel purification. GSO composition and structural characteristics were determined using LC-MS, HPLC, FT-IR, and NMR. To evaluate GSO as a skin barrier repair-promoting treatment, skin of UVB-irradiated BALB/c hairless mice was treated with or without GSO then skin samples were evaluated for epidermal thickness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and stratum corneum water content. In addition, UVB-exposed skin samples and HaCaT cells were analyzed to assess GSO treatment effects on levels of epidermal cornified envelope (CE) protein and other skin barrier proteins, such as filaggrin (FLG), involucrin (IVL), and aquaporin-3 (AQP3). Meanwhile, GSO treatment was also evaluated for effects on UVB-irradiated hairless mouse skin and HaCaT cells based on levels of serine protease inhibitor Kazal type-5 (SPINK5), trypsin-like kallikrein-related peptidase 5 (KLK5), chymotrypsin-like KLK7, and desmoglein 1 (DSG1). These proteins are associated with UVB-induced skin barrier damage manifesting as dryness and desquamation. RESULTS: GSO was shown to consist of oligosaccharides comprised of seven distinct types of monosaccharides with molecular weights of approximately 1 kDa that were covalently linked together via ß-glycosidic bonds. In vivo, GSO applied to dorsal skin of BALB/c hairless mice attenuated UVB-induced epidermal thickening and moisture loss. Furthermore, GSO ameliorated UVB-induced reductions of levels of FLG, IVL, and AQP3 proteins. Additionally, GSO treatment led to increased DSG1 protein levels due to decreased expression of KLK7. In vitro, GSO treatment of UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells led to increases of FLG, IVL, and AQP3 mRNA levels and corresponding proteins, while mRNA levels of desquamation-related proteins SPINK5, KLK5, KLK7, and DSG1 and associated protein levels were restored to normal levels. CONCLUSION: A P. ginseng oligosaccharide preparation repaired UVB-induced skin barrier damage by alleviating skin dryness and desquamation symptoms, highlighting its potential as a natural cosmetic additive that can promote skin barrier repair after UVB exposure.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127010, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474368

RESUMO

BTEX and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are the common pollutants found at contaminated sites, and natural attenuation (NA) of CAHs was widely observed where they coexist. In this work, the groundwater in a site co-contaminated with BTEX and CAHs was monitored for 1 year. The compositions and activities of the microfloras, especially dechlorinators and their relationships with the contaminants, geochemical properties, seasons and depth were evaluated. The results are consistent with the well-known NA conceptual model where CAHs are not able to stimulate the enrichment of dechlorinators alone, but BTEX does promote dechlorination. The higher temperature, rather than ORP in the deeper groundwater of the wet season became a key factor to promote the abundance of dechlorinators, but only when BTEX was available, indicating that the substrates from the BTEX biodegradation played an important role in the dechlorinator enrichment. The elevated ORP in the shallower groundwater exceeded the optimum conditions for reductive dechlorination and no significant seasonal variation of dechlorinators was found. The co-occurrence network revealed the cooperative interactions among the functional microfloras in which dechlorinators, BTEX degraders, and fermentative bacteria jointly promoted the dechlorination. These findings provided us a further understanding of the NA processes in a commingled plume.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769748

RESUMO

Pesticide adjuvants (PAs) are important components of pesticide. Nonetheless, limited information is available regarding their toxic effects on biota in terrestrial ecosystem. In the present study, the mortality, growth inhibition ratio, and avoidance behavior of Eisenia fetida were examined to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of toluene, xylene, and trichloroethylene and further their mixture. The 24 h median lethal concentration (24 h-LC50) of the three PAs were 300.23, 1190.45, and 5332.36 mg/kg, and the 48 h-LC50 values were 221.62, 962.89, and 4522.41 mg/kg, respectively. The mixture exhibited significant synergistic effect on the E. fetida. There was significant growth inhibition on E. fetida by the tested PAs. The avoidance threshold values of E. fetida for the tested PAs were 1100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 5000 mg/kg, and 25% of the mixture, respectively. The results evaluated the toxic effects of the three PAs and their mixture on E. fetida, provided a basis for ecotoxicological risk assessment of PAs in the soil ecosystem.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Ecossistema , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831142

RESUMO

Corosolic acid (CA), a bioactive compound obtained from Actinidia chinensis, has potential anti-cancer activities. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor and whether CA exerts anti-cancer activity on GBM remains unclear. This study was aimed to explore the anticancer activity and its underlying mechanism of CA in GBM cells. Our findings showed that CA ≤ 20 µM did not affect cell viability and cell proliferative rate of normal astrocyte and four GBM cells. Notably, 10 or 20 µM CA significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion of three GBM cells, decreased the protein level of F-actin and disrupted F-actin polymerization in these GBM cells. Further investigation revealed that CA decreased AXL level by promoting ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and upregulating the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), an inducer of AXL polyubiquitination. CHIP knock-down restored the CA-reduced AXL and invasiveness of GBM cells. Additionally, we observed that CA-reduced Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6) and inhibited JAK2/MEK/ERK activation, and GAS6 pre-treatment restored attenuated JAK2/MEK/ERK activation and invasiveness of GBM cells. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis revealed that CA might bind to GAS6 and AXL. These findings collectively indicate that CA attenuates the invasiveness of GBM cells, attributing to CHIP upregulation and binding to GAS6 and AXL and subsequently promoting AXL degradation and downregulating GAS6-mediated JAK2/MEK/ERK cascade. Conclusively, this suggests that CA has potential anti-metastatic activity on GBM cells by targeting the CHIP/GAS6/AXL axis.

6.
Neoplasma ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704453

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify gene mutations, high frequency mutations, and driver genes in liver cancer, and the marketed approved drugs of these genes, to provide evidence for targeted treatment of liver cancer since it is one of the most common cancers worldwide. 34 patients with liver cancer were included, and their blood samples were collected. The pathway enrichment analysis of the mutation gene was carried out through the KEGG database, and the genes with marketed approved drugs were screened according to the Pharmalaxy database. A total of 6612 mutations in 1241 genes were identified in 34 patients, in which 22 genes mutated in at least 40% of the samples and were thought to be high frequency mutation genes. All the mutations were analyzed using the MutSigCV software, and 30 genes with q < 0.1 and P < 0.05 were selected out as driver genes. Among them, LRP1B, MYC, NF1, and KEAP1 were coincident with high frequency mutation genes, which were considered key driver genes. Afterward, 181 genes with P < 0.05 in MutSigCV software were analyzed for pathway enrichment. These genes were mainly enriched in four pathways, including MAPK mTOR, p53/cell cycle, and JAK-STAT pathways. Finally, there were 15 genes four pathways that had marketed approved target drugs. To conclude, LRP1B, MYC, NF1, and KEAP1 were the candidate key driver genes for liver cancer, which might provide new insights for targeted therapy of liver cancer.

7.
Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil ; 12: 21514593211044912, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595048

RESUMO

Background: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) due to severe and refractory back pain or neurological complications require surgical treatment. In this study, patients with radiculopathy due to foraminal stenosis following OVCF were surgically managed by performing transforaminal full-endoscopic lumbar foraminoplasty and/or discectomy (FELFD). Methods: From May 2015 to November 2019, fifteen patients underwent transforaminal FELFD. Patient data, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score were collected. Clinical outcomes, including pre- and postoperative Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and MacNab criteria of response to surgical treatment, were evaluated. Results: Mean of age, bone mineral density (T-score), CCI, ASA, and follow-up duration were 69.5 ± 6.6 years, -2.6 ± 0.8, 5.2 ± 2.3, 2.4 ± 0.5, and 24.5 ± 8.8 months, respectively. Mean VAS for leg pain significantly decreased from 6.9 ± 0.8 preoperatively to 2.9 ± 1.1 (P < .05). Mean ODI decreased from 39.9 ± 3.2 preoperatively to 19.3 ± 4.6 postoperatively (P < .05). The satisfaction rate is 86.7% (based on Macnab criteria), showed six patients had excellent outcomes and seven had good outcomes. Conclusions: Transforaminal FELFD is an effective treatment option for patients with radiculopathy due to lumbar OVCF, including those with severe osteoporosis and elderly patients.

8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 736352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621802

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to identify the clinical features of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) in children. Methods: The case-control studies of KDSS and KD children up until April 30, 2021 were searched in multiple databases. The qualified research were retrieved by manually reviewing the references. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of male and female in children with KDSS. Children with KDSS compared with non-shocked KD, there were significant difference in age, duration of fever, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage of neutrophils (NEUT%), platelet count (PLT), c-reactive protein level (CRP), alanine transaminase concentration (ALT), aspartate transaminase concentration (AST), albumin concentration (ALB), sodium concentration (Na), ejection fraction, and length of hospitalization as well as the incidence of coronary artery dilation, coronary artery aneurysm, left ventricular dysfunction, mitral regurgitation, pericardial effusion, initial diagnosis of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and receiving second dose of IVIG, vasoactive drugs, hormones, and albumin. In contrast, there was no difference in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the incidence of conjunctival injection, oropharyngeal change, polymorphous rash, extremity change, and incomplete KD. Conclusion: Current evidence suggested that the children with KDSS had more severe indicators of inflammation and more cardiac abnormalities. These patients were resistant to immunoglobulin treatment and required extra anti-inflammatory treatment. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021241207.

9.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(11): 6895-6906, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658124

RESUMO

Plant physiological and metabolic processes are modulated by rhythmic gene expression in a large part. Meanwhile, plants are also regulated by rhizosphere microorganisms, which are fed by root exudates and provide beneficial functions to their plant host. Whether the biorhythms in plants would transfer to the rhizosphere microbial community is still uncertain and their intricate connection remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis circadian clock in shaping the rhizosphere microbial community using wild-type plants and clock mutants (cca1-1 and toc1-101) with transcriptomic, metabolomic and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis throughout a 24-h period. Deficiencies of the central circadian clock led to abnormal diurnal rhythms for thousands of expressed genes and dozens of root exudates. The bacterial community failed to follow obvious patterns in the 24-h period, and there was lack of coordination with plant growth in the clock mutants. Our results suggest that the robust rhythmicity of genes and root exudation due to circadian clock in plants is an important driving force for the positive succession of rhizosphere communities, which will feedback on plant development.

10.
Stem Cells Int ; 2021: 9922597, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497651

RESUMO

The salivary gland is composed of an elegant epithelial network that secrets saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. While cell lines and animal models furthered our understanding of salivary gland biology, they cannot replicate key aspects of the human salivary gland tissue, particularly the complex architecture and microenvironmental features that dictate salivary gland function. Organoid cultures provide an alternative system to recapitulate salivary gland tissue in vitro, and salivary gland organoids have been generated from pluripotent stem cells and adult stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we describe salivary gland organoids, the advances and limitations, and the promising potential for regenerative medicine.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126194, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492958

RESUMO

The improvement of stability is a crucial and challenging issue for industrial catalyst, which affects not only the service time but also the cost of catalyst. This is especially prominent for that applied in harsh environment atmospheres, such as the exhaust of diesel vehicles. Herein, we reported a new strategy to improve the high-temperature hydrothermal stability of Cu-SSZ-13, which is a promising catalyst for the treatment of exhaust emitted from diesel vehicles through the NH3-SCR NOx route. Different from that reported in literature, we managed to improve the high-temperature hydrothermal stability of Cu-SSZ-13 by coating the surface with a nanolayer of stable SiO2 material using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The coating of SiO2 layers effectively suppressed the leaching of alumina from the SSZ-13 molecular sieve even after the hydrothermal aging at 800 °C for 16 h with 12.5% water in air. Meanwhile, the ultra-thin SiO2 nanolayer does not block the pores of zeolites and affect the catalytic activity of Cu-SSZ-13 contribute to the superiority of the ALD technology.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255504, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473729

RESUMO

Benzophenone (BPs) and 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor are used as ultraviolet (UV) filters to protect the skin and hair in personal care products. The discharging of the three chemicals may endanger the receiving water ecosystem. In the present study, the mutagenicity of BP-6, BP-8, and 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test (Ames test) in the system with and without rat liver microsomal preparations (S9). Four S.typhimurium strains, TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 were employed in the Ames tests. The mutagenicity was detected from all three chemicals. The addition of S9 increased the mutation ratios of three chemicals to four strains, except BP-6 to TA100 strain and 4-MBC to TA97 and TA98 strain. In the mixed experiment, all positive effects were detected in the absence of S9. However, the results all became negative in the presence of S9. For the mixture of BP-6 and 4-MBC, positive results were detected on four tester strains except for the TA100 strain. For the mixture of BP-6, BP-8, and 4-MBC, positive results were detected on four strains. The mixture test results showed antagonism in mutagenicity for the mixture of BP-6 and 4-MBC to TA98 and TA100 strains and the mixture of BP-6, BP-8, and 4-MBC to TA100 and TA102 strains.

13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 910: 174458, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480884

RESUMO

Abnormal melanogenesis and melanosome transport can cause skin pigmentation disorders that are often treated using ginseng-based formulation. We previously found that phenolic acid compounds in ginseng root could inhibit melanin production and as a skin-whitening agents. However, mechanisms of action underlying effects of ginseng phenolic acid monomers on melanogenesis remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate effects of salicylic acid, a main ginseng root phenolic acid component, on melanogenesis and melanosome functions in melanocytes of zebrafish and other species. Salicylic acid exhibited no cytotoxicity and reduced melanin levels and tyrosinase activity in B16F10 murine melanoma cells and normal human epidermal melanocytes regardless of prior cell stimulation with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Additionally, salicylic acid treatment reduced expression of melanogenic enzymes tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and tyrosinase-related protein 2, while reducing expression of their master transcriptional regulator, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Moreover, reduced phosphorylation of cAMP response-element binding protein was observed due to reduced cAMP levels resulting from salicylic acid inhibition of upstream signal regulators (adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A). Furthermore, salicylic acid treatment suppressed expression of transport complex-associated proteins melanophilin and myosin Va in two UVB-treated melanocytic cell lines, suppressed phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres by UVB-stimulated human keratinocytes (HaCaT), inhibited protease-activated receptor 2 activation by reducing both Ca2+ release and activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinases and induced anti-melanogenic effects in zebrafish. Collectively, these results indicate that salicylic acid within ginseng root can inhibit melanocyte melanogenesis and melanin transport, while also suppressing keratinocyte phagocytic function.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 734394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566655

RESUMO

Panax ginseng C.A. Mey (ginseng) is a classic medicinal plant which is well known for enhancing immune capacity. Polysaccharides are one of the main active components of ginseng. We isolated water-soluble ginseng polysaccharides (WGP) and analyzed the physicochemical properties of WGP including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and structural characteristics. WGP had minimal effect on the growth of hepatocytes. Interestingly, WGP significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of complement component 4 (C4), one of the core components of the complement system. Promoter reporter gene assays revealed that WGP significantly enhanced activity of the C4 gene promoter. Deletion analyses determined that the E-box1 and Sp1 regions play key roles in WGP-induced C4 transcription. Taken together, our results suggest that WGP promotes C4 biosynthesis through upregulation of transcription. These results provide new explanation for the intrinsic mechanism by which ginseng boosts human immune capacity.

15.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(8): 775-778, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical feature, diagnosis and phenotype of Majeed syndrome. METHODS: Clinical manifestation, diagnostic process, imaging feature and genetic testing of an ethnic Han Chinese patient with Majeed syndrome were reviewed. RESULTS: The patient, a 3-year-9-month-old boy, had featured psychomotor retardation and developed bone pain from 8 month on. The child had tenderness of the lower limbs and presented with repeatedly joint swelling and pain accompanied by fever. Physical signs included limb muscle weakening, slightly decreased muscle tone, reduced muscle volume and positive Gower sign. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the child has carried compound heterozygous variants of the LPIN2 gene, including c.1966A>G and c.2534delG. MRI showed multiple lesions in bilateral knee joints and distal middle tibia presenting as patchy SPAIR high signals with unclear edge, in addition with edema of soft tissue surrounding the right distal femur. CONCLUSION: Majeed syndrome is characterized by chronic and recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, and growth retardation. Surrounding muscle tissue of osteomyelitis may also be involved. The syndrome may also affect the central nervous system, resulting in delayed language and motor development. Discovery of multiple pathological variants of the LPIN2 gene suggested that the clinical phenotype of this syndrome may vary between patients to some extent.


Assuntos
Anemia Diseritropoética Congênita , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Osteomielite , Anemia Diseritropoética Congênita/genética , Criança , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Lactente , Masculino , Osteomielite/genética
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394397

RESUMO

Here, we evaluated the in vivo skin-protective effects of topical applications of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer extract (PG2) and its phenolic acid- (PA-) based components against UVB-induced skin photoaging. PG2 or PA applied to skin of hairless mice after UVB-irradiation alleviated UVB-induced effects observed in untreated skin, such as increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), increased epidermal thickness, and decreased stratum corneum water content without affecting body weight. Moreover, PG2 and PA treatments countered reduced mRNA-level expression of genes encoding filaggrin (FLG), transglutaminase-1 (TGM1), and hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) caused by UVB exposure and reduced UVB-induced collagen fiber degradation by inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes encoding MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Meanwhile, topical treatments reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA-level expression in photodamaged skin, leading to the inhibition of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA-level expression. Thus, ginseng phenolic acid-based preparations have potential value as topical treatments to protect skin against UVB-induced photoaging.

17.
Front Genet ; 12: 712275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386043

RESUMO

Background: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human beta papillomavirus infections and a particular propensity to develop non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). The majority of EV cases are caused by biallelic null variants in TMC6, TMC8, and CIB1. This study aimed to identify disease-causing variants in three Chinese families with EV and to elucidate their molecular pathogenesis. Methods: Genomic DNA from the probands of three EV families was analyzed by whole-exome sequencing (WES). cDNA sequencing was performed to investigate abnormal splicing of the variants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to quantify the mRNA expression of mutant TMC6 and TMC8. Results: Whole-exome sequencing identified two novel homozygous variants (c.2278-2A > G in TMC6 and c.559G > A in TMC8) in families 1 and 2, respectively. In family 3, WES revealed a recurrent and a novel compound heterozygous variant, c.559G > A and c.1389G > A, in TMC8. The c.2278-2A > G TMC6 variant led to the skipping of exon 19 and resulted in premature termination at codon 776. Subsequent qRT-PCR revealed that the aberrantly spliced transcript was partly degraded. Notably, the TMC8 c.559G > A variant created a novel acceptor splice site at c.561 and yielded three different aberrant transcripts. qRT-PCR revealed that most of the mutant transcripts were degraded via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Conclusion: We identified three novel disease-causing variants in TMC6 or TMC8 in three Chinese families with EV. The EV phenotypes of the three patients were due to a reduction in TMC6 or TMC8. Our findings expand the genetic causes of EV in the Chinese population.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360388

RESUMO

Pesticide adjuvants (PAs) denote the general term for auxiliaries in pesticide preparations except for the active components. Toluene, chloroform, and trichloroethylene are the three most commonly used PAs as organic solvents. The residues of the three chemicals in the process of production and application of pesticides may endanger the ecosystem. In the present study, the mutagenicity of toluene, chloroform, and trichloroethylene as well the mixture of the three chemicals was tested by the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test (Ames test) with TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 strains in the system with and without rat liver microsomal preparations (S9). The four tester strains have been used for more than 40 years to detect mutagenic compounds in chemicals, cosmetics, and environmental samples. The mutagenicity was detected on tester strains in the separated experiment from the three chemicals. The addition of S9 decreased the mutation ratios of toluene to four strains, except for the TA100 strain, but increased the mutation ratios of chloroform to four strains except for the TA98 strain. Trichloroethylene caused positive mutagenicity to become negative on the TA102 strain. In the mixed experiment, positive effects were detected only on the TA102 strain in the absence of S9. The addition of S9 increased the mutagenicity except for the TA102 strain. The mixture of toluene, chloroform, and trichloroethylene showed antagonism in mutagenicity to tester strains, except for the TA102 strain without S9. However, the mixture showed a synergistic effect to tester strains after adding S9 except for the TA98 strain.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Tricloroetileno , Animais , Clorofórmio/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos , Ratos , Tolueno/toxicidade , Tricloroetileno/toxicidade
19.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3451-3461, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408399

RESUMO

Purpose: Erianin is a small chemical compound extracted from Dendrobium chrysotoxum and has excellent antineoplastic effects against a variety of cancers. Combretastatin A-4 (CA4) is the most effective member of natural phenolic stilbene compounds isolated from the African willow tree Combretum caffrum. Ecust004 (Chemical Formula: C18H21NO7S) is a drug candidate optimized from structure-activity relationship studies of the sulfamate derivatives of Erianin and CA4, which has better bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles than Erianin and CA4. Methods: To investigate the antitumor activity of Ecust004 in different types of breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells were treated with Ecust004. MTT and CCK8 were used to determine the effects of Ecust004 on cell proliferation. Wound-healing and Transwell assays were used to evaluate the migration and invasion level of cells treated with Ecust004. The expression of genes and proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. In vivo studies further clarified the functional effects of Ecust004. Results: Ecust004 treatment decreased the growth and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells at a lower dosage than Erianin. In addition, compared to Erianin and CA4, Ecust004 can better inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. Accordingly, the expression of genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, such as E-cadherin and vinculin, was increased. Finally, compared with Erianin and CA4, Ecust004 exhibited a better anti-tumor activity in vivo. Conclusion: Ecust004 inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and migration of breast cancer cells, and therefore represents a potential agent for development as an antitumor drug.

20.
Wound Repair Regen ; 29(6): 1006-1016, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448508

RESUMO

Prolonged skin exposure to ultraviolet radiation can lead to development of several acute and chronic diseases, with UVA exposure considered a primary cause of dermal photodamage. We prepared a wild ginseng adventitious root extract (ARE) that could alleviate UVA irradiation-induced NIH-3T3 cell viability decline. After employing a series of purification methods to isolate main active components of ARE, adventitious root protein mixture (ARP) was identified then tested for protective effects against UVA irradiation-induced NIH-3T3 cell damage. The results showed that ARP treatment significantly reduced UVA-induced cell viability decline and confirmed that the active constituent of ARP was the protein, since proteolytic hydrolysis and heat treatment each eliminated ARP protective activity. Moreover, ARP treatment markedly inhibited UVA-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation, while also significantly reversing UVA effects (elevated Bax levels, reduced Bcl-2 expression) by reducing Bax levels and increasing Bcl-2 expression. Mechanistically, ARP promoted Akt phosphorylation regardless of UVA exposure, thus confirming ARP resistance to inactivation by UVA light. Notably, in the presence of Akt inhibitor SC0227, ARP could no longer counteract UVA-induced cell viability decline and DNA fragmentation. Additionally, our results demonstrated that ARP treatment protected UVA-irradiated NIH-3T3 cells by preventing UVA-induced reduction of collagen-I expression. Taken together, these results suggest that ARP treatment of NIH-3T3 cells effectively mitigated UVA-induced cell viability decline by activating intracellular Akt to reduce UVA-induced DNA damage, leading to reduced rates of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest after UVA exposure and restoring collagen expression to normal levels.

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