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1.
Cell Stem Cell ; 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402250

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most abundant internal modification in mRNA, has been implicated in tumorigenesis. As an m6A demethylase, ALKBH5 has been shown to promote the development of breast cancer and brain tumors. However, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ALKBH5 was reported to be frequently deleted, implying a tumor-suppressor role. Here, we show that ALKBH5 deletion is rare in human AML; instead, ALKBH5 is aberrantly overexpressed in AML. Moreover, its increased expression correlates with poor prognosis in AML patients. We demonstrate that ALKBH5 is required for the development and maintenance of AML and self-renewal of leukemia stem/initiating cells (LSCs/LICs) but not essential for normal hematopoiesis. Mechanistically, ALKBH5 exerts tumor-promoting effects in AML by post-transcriptional regulation of its critical targets such as TACC3, a prognosis-associated oncogene in various cancers. Collectively, our findings reveal crucial functions of ALKBH5 in leukemogenesis and LSC/LIC self-renewal/maintenance and highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting the ALKBH5/m6A axis.

2.
Am J Mens Health ; 14(3): 1557988320916406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375542

RESUMO

The purpose of this analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). A comprehensive search was performed to ascertain from trials about PDE5Is for the treatment of PE and compare the results, including intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IVELT), score of sexual satisfaction scale, and side effects, between the group treated with PDE5Is and that treated with placebo. Seven studies involving a total of 471 patients were included in this meta-analysis. This analysis showed that patients who were treated with PDE5Is had significantly increased IVELT (mean difference [MD] 2.60; 95% CI [1.85, 3.36]; p < .00001) and score of sexual satisfaction scale (MD 2.04; 95% CI [0.78, 3.30]; p = .002) compared with the group on placebo. More patients had side effects while taking PDE5Is, such as headache, dizziness, flushing, and nasal congestion. PDE5Is were significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of PE. Side effects were more common among patients who were treated with PDE5Is.

3.
J Neurosci ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414783

RESUMO

Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are multi-subunit complexes that play a crucial role in neuronal signaling. Auxiliary α2δ subunits of VGCCs modulate trafficking and biophysical properties of the pore-forming α1 subunit and trigger excitatory synaptogenesis. Alterations in the expression level of α2δ subunits were implicated in several syndromes and diseases, including chronic neuropathic pain, autism and epilepsy. However, the contribution of distinct α2δ subunits to excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and aberrant network connectivity characteristic for these pathological conditions remains unclear. Here, we show that α2δ1 overexpression enhances spontaneous neuronal network activity in developing and mature cultures of hippocampal neurons. In contrast, overexpression, but not downregulation, of α2δ3 enhances neuronal firing in immature cultures, whereas later in development it suppresses neuronal activity. We found that α2δ1 overexpression increases excitatory synaptic density and selectively enhances presynaptic glutamate release, which is impaired upon α2δ1 knock-down. Overexpression of α2δ3 increases the excitatory synaptic density as well, but also facilitates spontaneous GABA release and triggers an increase in the density of inhibitory synapses, which is accompanied by enhanced axonal outgrowth in immature interneurons. Together, our findings demonstrate that α2δ1 and α2δ3 subunits play distinct but complementary roles in driving formation of structural and functional network connectivity during early development. An alteration in α2δ surface expression during critical developmental windows can therefore play a causal role and have a profound impact on the excitatory-to-inhibitory balance and network connectivity.Significance statementThe computational capacity of neuronal networks is determined by their connectivity. Chemical synapses are the main interface for transfer of information between individual neurons. The initial formation of network connectivity requires spontaneous electrical activity and the calcium channel-mediated signaling. We found that in early development auxiliary α2δ3 subunits of calcium channels foster presynaptic release of GABA, trigger formation of inhibitory synapses and promote axonal outgrowth in inhibitory interneurons. In contrast, later in development α2δ1 subunits promote the glutamatergic neurotransmission and synaptogenesis, as well as strongly enhance neuronal network activity. We propose that formation of connectivity in neuronal networks is associated with a concerted interplay of α2δ1 and α2δ3 subunits of calcium channels.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1674, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245946

RESUMO

Neurodevelopment requires precise regulation of gene expression, including post-transcriptional regulatory events such as alternative splicing and mRNA translation. However, translational regulation of specific isoforms during neurodevelopment and the mechanisms behind it remain unknown. Using RNA-seq analysis of mouse neocortical polysomes, here we report translationally repressed and derepressed mRNA isoforms during neocortical neurogenesis whose orthologs include risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders. We demonstrate that the translation of distinct mRNA isoforms of the RNA binding protein (RBP), Elavl4, in radial glia progenitors and early neurons depends on its alternative 5' UTRs. Furthermore, 5' UTR-driven Elavl4 isoform-specific translation depends on upstream control by another RBP, Celf1. Celf1 regulation of Elavl4 translation dictates development of glutamatergic neurons. Our findings reveal a dynamic interplay between distinct RBPs and alternative 5' UTRs in neuronal development and underscore the risk of post-transcriptional dysregulation in co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders.

5.
J BUON ; 25(1): 448-453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277667

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the relationships of pain in pancreatic cancer patients with pathological stage and expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). METHODS: A total of 54 patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled to evaluate the pain before treatment, detect the expressions of NF-κB and COX-2, an inflammatory mediator, in tumor tissues by the immunohistochemical method and analyze their relationships with the pain in these patients. RESULTS: The expressions of NF-κB and COX-2 varied obviously among pancreatic cancer patients with different degrees of pain, and as the pain was aggravated, the patients had raised expressions of NF-κB and COX-2 in tumor tissues (p<0.05). The degree of pain also differed evidently among the patients at different tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages, and the higher the pathological stage, the higher the degree of pain in patients (p<0.05). The pain score of patients was positively correlated with the expressions of NF-κB and COX-2 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The degree of pain in pancreatic cancer is closely related to the pathological stage and expressions of NF-κB and COX-2, and the expressions of NF-κB and COX-2 are raised and the pain is aggravated as well in the patients at a higher pathological stage.

6.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244650

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding but functional RNA molecules of 21-25 nucleotides in length. MiRNAs play significant regulatory roles in diverse plant biological processes. In order to decipher the relationship between nbe-miR1919c-5p and the accumulations of tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) and its betasatellite (TbCSB) DNAs, as well as viral symptom development, we investigated the function of nbe-miR1919c-5p during TbCSV and TbCSB co-infection in plants using a PVX-and a TRV-based short tandem target mimic (STTM) technology. Suppression of nbe-miR1919c-5p expression using these two technologies enhanced TbCSV and TbCSB co-infection-induced leaf curling symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Furthermore, suppression of nbe-miR1919c-5p expression enhanced TbCSV and TbCSB DNA accumulations in the infected plants. Our results can advance our knowledge on the nbe-miR1919c-5p function during TbCSV and TbCSB co-infection.

7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 147: 106802, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217170

RESUMO

The walnut family Juglandaceae was widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere while several extant genera now exhibit intercontinental disjunctions. Recent progress in the systematics of Juglandaceae has greatly broadened our knowledge about its origin and evolution. However, there are still uncertainties about the intergeneric relationships within Juglandaceae, and discrepancies between fossil records and inferred divergence times for certain lineages were observed. In this study, well-resolved phylogenies of the Juglandaceae are reconstructed based on both the nuclear RAD-Seq and the whole chloroplast genome data. Our results support the Juglandoideae topology of (Hicoreae, (Platycaryeae, Juglandeae)) at the tribal level. Within Juglandeae, a discordant position of Pterocarya was detected between nuclear and plastid genome data, and a more likely topology (nuclear), (Juglans, (Pterocarya, Cyclocarya)), was discussed based on evidence from molecular data and fossil records. Based on carefully selected fossil calibrations, the divergence times of extant lineages were estimated and they corroborated well with fossil records (especially concerning Juglans and Pterocarya). Four sections within Juglans were strongly supported by the nuclear data. Within Juglans, the incongruent position of J. hopeiensis was recovered between the nuclear and plastid genomes. Yet the origin and evolutionary history of J. cinerea and J. hopeiensis are supported to be complicated and need further clarification. Integrative evidence from the fossil records, phylogeny and lineage divergence times shows that Juglandoideae originated in North America, and migrated to Eurasia via both the Bering and the North Atlantic land bridges. Our study shows the potential of integrative biogeographic studies for illuminating the evolutionary history of Juglandaceae.

8.
Virus Res ; 281: 197939, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198077

RESUMO

Geminiviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause devastating diseases in many crops worldwide. The replication enhancer proteins (REn), encoded by the C3 (AC3, and AL3) ORFs of geminiviruses, have critical roles in viral DNA accumulation and symptom development in infected plants. In the current study, we have constructed an infectious clone of the Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) C3 mutant, TbCSVΔC3, that contains two start codon mutations that abrogated C3 ORF expression, but did not alter the amino acid sequence of the C2 ORF. As predicted, the absence of the C3 protein reduced TbCSV DNA accumulation, and over-expression of the C3 protein enhanced TbCSV DNA accumulation in infected leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. The C3 mutation reduced the expression levels of both virion- and complementary-sense TbCSV genes whereas over-expression of the C3 protein increased TbCSV gene expression. Furthermore, the expression of the wild-type and site-directed mutants of C3 proteins using the potato virus X (PVX) system showed that Y93A mutation reduced the replication enhancement activity of the C3 protein in N. benthamiana. All the available evidence demonstrates that the C3 protein is tightly coupled with TbCSV DNA accumulation. However, the TbCSVΔC3 mutant was nearly as infectious in N. benthamiana as TbCSVWT and only had slightly delayed and attenuated symptom expression. Our findings demonstrate that TbCSV C3 protein enhances viral replication and gene expression, but has only moderate effects on symptom development in N. benthamiana.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 814, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041959

RESUMO

Dimensions and surface properties are the predominant factors for the applications of nanofluidic devices. Here we use a thin liquid film as a nanochannel by inserting a gas bubble in a glass capillary, a technique we name bubble-based film nanofluidics. The height of the film nanochannel can be regulated by the Debye length and wettability, while the length independently changed by applied pressure. The film nanochannel behaves functionally identically to classical solid state nanochannels, as ion concentration polarizations. Furthermore, the film nanochannels can be used for label-free immunosensing, by principle of wettability change at the solid interface. The optimal sensitivity for the biotin-streptavidin reaction is two orders of magnitude higher than for the solid state nanochannel, suitable for a full range of electrolyte concentrations. We believe that the film nanochannel represents a class of nanofluidic devices that is of interest for fundamental studies and also can be widely applied, due to its reconfigurable dimensions, low cost, ease of fabrication and multiphase interfaces.

11.
J Virol ; 94(6)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896600

RESUMO

Differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategies have been central enabling techniques in several successful viral disease elimination programs. However, owing to their long and uncertain development process, no DIVA-compatible vaccines are available for many important diseases. We report herein a new DIVA strategy based on hybrid protein-peptide microarrays which can theoretically work with any vaccine. Leading from our findings from peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus, we found 4 epitope-containing short peptides (ECSPs) which have distinct IgG serodynamics: anti-ECSP IgGs only exist for 10 to 60 days postvaccination (dpv), while anti-protein IgGs remained at high levels for >1,000 dpv. These data enabled the design of a DIVA diagnostic microarray containing 4 ECSPs and 3 proteins, which, unlike competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and virus neutralization tests (VNTs), enables ongoing monitoring of serological differences between vaccinated individuals and individuals exposed to the pathogen. For 25 goats after 60 dpv, 13 were detected with positive anti-ECSP IgGs, indicating recent infections in vaccinated goat herds. These DIVA diagnostic microarrays will almost certainly facilitate eradication programs for (re)emerging pathogens and zoonoses.IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as pseudorabies (PR), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and PPR viruses, led to economic losses reaching billions of dollars. Both PR and FMD were eliminated in several countries via large-scale vaccination programs using DIVA-compatible vaccines, which lack the gE protein and nonstructural proteins, respectively. However, there are still extensive challenges facing the development and deployment of DIVA-compatible vaccines because they are time-consuming and full of uncertainty. Further, the negative marker strategy used for DIVA-compatible vaccines is no longer functional for live-attenuated vaccines. To avoid these disadvantageous scenarios, a new strategy is desired. Here, we made the exciting discovery that different IgG serodynamics can be monitored when using protein-based assays versus arrays comprising ECSPs. This DIVA microarray strategy should, in theory, work for any vaccine.

12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 122: 109388, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919041

RESUMO

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is commonly used for the treatment of cartilage defects. Since the cell number for transplantation is limited, the expand culture of chondrocytes in vitro is needed. However, the phenotype of chondrocytes is easy to lose in monolayer cultured in vitro. Traditional growth factors such as transformation growth factor -ß1 (TGF-ß1) have been used for promoting the proliferation and maintained the phenotype of chondrocytes, but the high cost and functional heterogeneity limit their clinical application. It is of significant to develop substitutes that can accelerate proliferation and prevent dedifferentiation of chondrocytes for further study. In our present study, the effect of salidroside on proliferation and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes and cartilage repair was investigated by performing the cell viability, morphology, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, cartilage relative genes expression, macroscopic and histological analyzsis. The TGF-ß/smad3 signal which may involve in the protective effect of salidroside on chondrocytes was also detected by ELISA and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicated that salidroside could promote chondrocytes proliferation and enhance synthesis of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). Expression of collagen type I was significantly down-regulated which suggesting that salidroside could prevent chondrocytes from dedifferentiation. The in vivo experiments for cartilage repair also indicated that in the treatment of salidroside, chondrocytes used for ACI significantly accelerated the hyaline cartilage repair. While in the absence of salidroside, the repaired cartilage is mainly the fibrous cartilage. Additional experiments demonstrated that salidroside promotes the proliferation and maintain the phenotype of chondrocytes by activate the TGF-ß/smad3 signal. Salidroside may be a potential agent for ACI to promote the proliferation and maintain the phenotype of chondrocytes expansion in vitro.

13.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(5): 3192-3202, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975557

RESUMO

As a common complication of pregnancy, gestational hypoxia has been shown to predispose offspring to vascular dysfunction. Propionate, one of short-chain fatty acids, exerts cardioprotective effects via reducing blood pressure. This study examined whether prenatal hypoxia impaired propionate-stimulated large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (BK) channel activities in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to hypoxia (10.5% oxygen) and normoxia (21% oxygen) from gestational day 7-21. At 6 weeks of age, VSMCs in mesenteric arteries of offspring were analysed for BK channel functions and gene expressions. It was shown firstly that propionate could open significantly BK single channel in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Antagonists of G protein ßγ subunits and inositol trisphosphate receptor could completely suppress the activation of BK by propionate, respectively. Gαi/o and ryanodine receptor were found to participate in the stimulation on BK. Compared to the control, vasodilation and increments of BK NPo (the open probability) evoked by propionate were weakened in the offspring by prenatal hypoxia with down-regulated Gßγ and PLCß. It was indicated that prenatal hypoxia inhibited propionate-stimulated BK activities in mesenteric VSMCs of offspring via reducing expressions of Gßγ and PLCß, in which endoplasmic reticulum calcium release might be involved.

14.
Haematologica ; 105(1): 148-160, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975912

RESUMO

Homoharringtonine, a plant alkaloid, has been reported to suppress protein synthesis and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Here we show that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), homoharringtonine potently inhibits cell growth/viability and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, significantly inhibits disease progression in vivo, and substantially prolongs survival of mice bearing murine or human AML. Strikingly, homoharringtonine treatment dramatically decreases global DNA 5-hydroxymethylcytosine abundance through targeting the SP1/TET1 axis, and TET1 depletion mimics homoharringtonine's therapeutic effects in AML. Our further 5hmC-seq and RNA-seq analyses, followed by a series of validation and functional studies, suggest that FLT3 is a critical down-stream target of homoharringtonine/SP1/TET1/5hmC signaling, and suppression of FLT3 and its downstream targets (e.g. MYC) contributes to the high sensitivity of FLT3-mutated AML cells to homoharringtonine. Collectively, our studies uncover a previously unappreciated DNA epigenome-related mechanism underlying the potent antileukemic effect of homoharringtonine, which involves suppression of the SP1/TET1/5hmC/FLT3/MYC signaling pathways in AML. Our work also highlights the particular promise of clinical application of homoharringtonine to treat human AML with FLT3 mutations, which accounts for more than 30% of total cases of AML.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 708: 135111, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810704

RESUMO

Due to the joint impact of climate change and human activities, vegetation cover area in Loess Plateau has been tremendously improved. However, vegetation restoration will lead to high water use, which might pose a great threat to the water sustainability of regional ecosystems. In order to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of water consumption, this study estimated the actual evapotranspiration (AET) based on the SEBAL model. The study found that precipitation and AET increased significantly (5% confidence level) with the rising of vegetation coverage in the period of 1990-2015. The increase rate of precipitation was 1.91 mm/a, higher than that of AET (1.68 mm/a). From a spatial perspective, the AET of Loess Plateau is increasing from northwest to southeast. The high-AET area (AET > 400 mm) was also extremely enlarged from 39% (1990) to 73% (2015) with the vegetation recovery. In terms of the intra-annual variability, the AET from March to April is usually much higher than the precipitation in different hydrological years, which suggests that the spring drought is a potential threat for vegetation growth in Loess Plateau. At last, this study introduced an index of rainwater utilization potential indicator (IRUP) to analyze the water supply and demand in Loess Plateau. It found that IRUP values are positively correlated with NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), indicating that the available water for vegetation growth is seemingly increasing with the vegetation cover area enlarged in the whole region.

16.
Parasitol Int ; 75: 102001, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678435

RESUMO

Cooperia spp. are parasitic nematodes parasitizing in small intestine of ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Infection of ruminants with Cooperia species can cause severe enteritis, causing significant socio-economic losses to the livestock industry. However, it is yet to know whether there is genetic diversity in mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences of Cooperia nematodes from different geographic regions. The objective of the present study was to examine sequence difference in mt genomes between Cooperia sp. from China and other Cooperia species. We determined the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 11 Cooperia specimens collected from the small intestine of a Tianzhu White yak in Gansu Province, northwestern China, which had 99% similarity with that of C. oncophora from Brazil (GenBank accession Number: AJ544290) in ITS-1, and 99% similarity with those from Denmark (AB245040), Scotland and Australia (AJ000032) in ITS-2, indicating that specimens used in the present study should at least represent parasites in Cooperia. We then determined the complete mt genome sequences of one representative specimen of Cooperia sp. from China (CspC), compared the mt DNA sequences with that of C. oncophora from Australia (COA, GQ888713), and conducted phylogenetic analysis with selected nematodes using both maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods based on both concatenated 12 PCGs, rrnL and rrnS sequences and partial cox2 sequences. The complete mt genome sequence of CspC (KY769271) is 13, 583 bp in length, which is 91 bp shorter than that from COA. The sequence difference over the entire mt genome between CspC and COA was 12.2% in nucleotide and 6.3% in inferred amino acids, with nad4L and nad1 being the most variable and the most conserved PCGs, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CspC and COA were closely-related but distinct taxa. The determination of mt genome sequences for Cooperia sp. from China also provides novel resources for further studies of taxonomy, systematics and population genetics of Cooperia from different geographical locations.

17.
Andrologia ; 52(2): e13470, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701550

RESUMO

The purpose of our analysis is to identify the effect of l-carnitine (LC) and l-acetyl carnitine (LAC) on the semen parameters of men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (iOAT). We performed a comprehensive search to ascertain all the trials about LC and LAC in the treatment of iOAT and compared the results, including percentage of total sperm motility, sperm concentration, percentage of forward sperm motility, semen volume, percentage of atypical forms, total motile spermatozoa, forward motile spermatozoa and the number of pregnancies between the two groups that treated with LC + LAC or placebo respectively. Seven randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 693 patients were included in our analysis. We found that patients who treated with LC and LAC had significantly increased the percentage of forward sperm motility (MD 6.98; 95% CI 1.06-12.90; p = .02), total motile spermatozoa (MD 16.45; 95% CI 8.10-24.79; p = .0001), forward motile spermatozoa (MD 13.01; 95% CI 11.08-14.94; p < .00001) and the number of pregnancies (OR 3.76; 95% CI 1.66-8.50; p = .002). However, no significant differences were found in other semen indicators between the two groups. LC and LAC can significantly increase part of the semen parameters. The combination therapy of LC and LAC is effective in the men with iOAT.

18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 150: 111886, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784313

RESUMO

Photo-corrosion is a common phenomenon observed in the photocatalytic semiconductor materials, which can seriously harm the photoelectric properties and performances in the energy applications. However, in this paper, we demonstrated that the photo-corrosion effects can be used for the microfabrication of conductive structures on a photocatalytic film like zinc oxide (ZnO), named as "photoetching". Our results demonstrated that microstructures can be prepared within seconds with a precision at an order of tens of micrometers using our current devices. Different from the previous work, the etching process was achieved free of conducting layer under the ZnO film, avoiding the short-circuit of the conductive micro-patterns and enabling the use for the impedance sensing. We demonstrated the fabricated ZnO microelectrode pairs can work for the electrochemical impedance measurements like assessment of hemostasis integrated with a microfluidic chip. Compared to the noble metal microelectrodes, the ZnO conductive microelectrodes can be fabricated within seconds and the low costs make it possible as a disposable diagnostic device. Besides, the photoetching technique can be performed without a cleanroom reducing the technical barriers, possibly helpful for the low resources areas. We believe the simplicity of device, low costs and fast fabrication can be useful in the relevant fields such as biomedical and energy harvesting, especially for low resources areas.

19.
Virus Res ; 277: 197844, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866422

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a highly contagious disease that affects sheep and goats. To better understand PPRV replication and virulence, cyclophilin A (CypA), a multifunctional goat host protein, was selected for further studies. CypA has been reported to inhibit or facilitate viral replication. However, the precise roles of CypA during PPRV infection remain unclear. Our data show for the first time that CypA suppressed PPRV replication by its PPIase activity, and PPRV infection decreased CypA protein levels. Detailed analysis revealed that PPRV H protein was responsible for the reduction of CypA, which was dependent on the lysosome pathway. No interaction was identified between H and CypA. Furthermore, the 35-58 region of H was essential for the reduction of CypA. In conclusion, our findings identify the antiviral role of CypA against PPRV and provide key insights into how PPRV H protein antagonizes host antiviral response.

20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(3): 849-865, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884474

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative process characterized by loss of neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, leading to progressive cognitive decline. Pathologically, the hallmark of AD is accumulation of "senile" plaques composed of amyloid-ß (Aß) protein surrounding neurons in affected regions. Despite extensive research into AD pathogenesis and therapeutic targets, there remains no breakthroughs in its management. In recent years, there has been a spark of interest in the connection between the brain and gastrointestinal tract, referred to as the brain-gut axis, and its potential implications for both metabolic and neurologic disease. Moreover, the gastrointestinal flora, referred to as the microbiome, appears to exert significant influence over the brain-gut axis. With the need for expanded horizons in understanding and treating AD, many have turned to the brain-gut-microbiome axis for answers. Here we provide a review of the brain-gut-microbiome axis and discuss the evidence supporting alterations of the axis in the pathogenesis of AD. Specifically, we highlight the role for the microbiome in disruption of Aß metabolism/clearance, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier and modulation of the neuroinflammatory response, and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis. The majority of the above described findings are the result of excellent, albeit basic and pre-clinical studies. Therefore, we conclude with a brief description of documented clinical support for brain-gut-microbiome axis alteration in AD, including potential microbiome-based therapeutics for AD. Collectively, these findings suggest that the brain-gut-microbiome axis may be a "lost link" in understanding and treating AD and call for future work.

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