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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(45): 19128-19136, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730344

RESUMO

Layered two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskites are a class of quantum well (QW) materials, holding dramatic potentials for optical and optoelectronic applications. However, the thermally activated exciton dissociation into free carriers in 2D perovskites, a key property that determines their optoelectronic performance, was predicted to be weak due to large exciton binding energy (Eb, about 100-400 meV). Herein, in contrast to the theoretical prediction, we discover an ultrafast (<1.4 ps) and highly efficient (>80%) internal exciton dissociation in (PEA)2(MA)n-1PbnI3n+1 (PEA = C6H5C2H4NH3+, MA = CH3NH3+, n = 2-4) 2D perovskites despite the large Eb. We demonstrate that the exciton dissociation activity in 2D perovskites is significantly promoted because of the formation of exciton-polarons with considerably reduced exciton binding energy (down to a few tens of millielectronvolts) by the polaronic screening effect. This ultrafast and high-yield exciton dissociation limits the photoluminescence of 2D perovskites but on the other hand well explains their exceptional performance in photovoltaic devices. The finding should represent a common exciton property in the 2D hybrid perovskite family and provide a guideline for their rational applications in light emitting and photovoltaics.

2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 228: 112987, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781129

RESUMO

Increasing evidence shows that human exposure to bisphenols can increase the risk of allergic disease, such as child asthma. However, the mechanism by which exposure to bisphenols causes allergic disease is unclear. In addition, the effects of exposure to bisphenols during pregnancy on infantile eczema have been poorly studied. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of bisphenols (BPA, BPF and BPS) exposure during pregnancy on immune cells in cord blood, and on the occurrence of infantile eczema. 111 mother-child pairs with urine samples from pregnant women and cord blood were recruited from a birth cohort established in February 2019 in Shenyang, China. The levels of urinary bisphenols and Th1-, Th2-, Treg- and Th17-related genes, and cytokines in cord blood, as well as the incidence of infantile eczema at 6 and 12 months follow up were determined. Our results show that BPA, BPF and BPS were detected in 100%, 63.1% and 46.8% of the urine samples, respectively. The median concentration of urine specific gravity adjusted BPA (SG-BPA) was 7.46 ng/mL. High SG-BPA levels during pregnancy was independently associated with increased risk of infantile eczema (adjusted OR = 2.731, 95%CI: 1.064-7.012, P = 0.037). Higher levels of FOXP3 gene in cord blood had a significantly lower risk of developing eczema in infants (adjusted OR=0.430, 95%CI: 0.190-0.972, P = 0.042). However, BPS and BPF levels were not associated with infantile eczema. FOXP3 gene levels in cord blood mediated the relationship between SG-BPA levels during pregnancy and infantile eczema (indirect effect: ß = 0.350 [CI:0.011,1.077]). Our findings indicate that high levels of BPA exposure during pregnancy increase the risk of infantile eczema, which may be associated with down-regulation of FOXP3 gene expression in cord blood.

3.
Reprod Biol ; 21(4): 100574, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794034

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a kind of endocrine disruptors, can enter the fetus body cross the placental barrier from prenatal PAHs exposure to cause adverse birth outcomes. However, it is controversial association between prenatal PAHs exposure and low birth weight (LBW) of their infants. So the present study aimed to estimate the effects of prenatal PAHs exposure during the pregnancy on the risk of LBW in a Chinese cohort through modifying the DNA methylation states. A longitudinal prospective study with 407 pregnant women was established from May to October 2019. The prenatal PAHs exposure during the pregnancy was assessed using the internal dose such as the PAHs metabolites and PAH-DNA adducts in the umbilical cord blood. The methylation levels of genomic DNA and growth-related genes (IGF1 and IGF2) were assessed, while the expressions of these genes were both determined by RT-PCR and Elisa methods. The growth outcomes and relevant Z-scores were recorded at birth. The correlations between the DNA methylation status and concentrations of PAHs, expression levels of growth-related genes and body weight/WAZ were investigated as the measures. According to the PAH-DNA adducts, the subjects were divided into two groups: PAHs-exposed group (PAH-DNA adducts>0, n = 55) and non-exposed group (PAH-DNA adducts = 0, n = 352). Compared with the non-exposed group, it displayed marked decreased birth weight, and increased concentrations of PAHs and DNA methylation levels of the global genomic, IGF1 and IGF2 with their lower expressions in the PAHs-exposed group. These hypermethylation (global genomic, CpG14 and CpG15 of IGF1, and CpG14 of IGF2) were positively correlated with the contents of PAHs in the umbilical cord blood, and negatively correlated with the growth outcomes and their expressions. Totally, prenatal PAHs exposures may contribute to an increased risk of LBW of their infants by modulating the DNA methylation states of genomic DNA and growth-related genes (IGF1 and IGF2) in the umbilical cord blood, which could provide the prenatal prevention of PAHs exposure from possible environmental media except from the occupation and tobacco usage to ensure the health of their infants.

4.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 969, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Os acromiale can be potentially missed or misdiagnosed as acromion fracture, and this can affect treatment determination if it is complicated with an ipsilateral shoulder injury. The clavicle hook plate is a widely used technique for distal clavicle injuries, leading to transacromial erosion, particularly when in the presence of os acromiale. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old man and a 78-year-old man who had limited mobility and severe pain in their right shoulders following falls attended the emergency center. Both patients were diagnosed with os acromiale with CT or MRI and acute distal clavicle fracture or acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Following a comprehensive evaluation, os acromiale may limit the application of a clavicle hook plate due to potential transacromial erosion. The distal clavicle fracture with ipsilateral os acromiale received treatment with a volar radius locking T plate, and the acromioclavicular joint dislocation with ipsilateral os acromiale was reconstructed using suture anchors. Both yielded satisfactory outcomes and voided transacromial erosion. CONCLUSIONS: Ipsilateral os acromiale may be a relative contraindication to the clavicle hook plate. An axillary lateral radiograph is recommended to detect potential os acromiale in patients using a hook plate.

5.
J Cancer ; 12(23): 7190-7200, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729120

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the role of plasma microRNA panel (miR-122, miR-192, miR-21, miR-223, miR-26a, miR-27a and miR-801) for prediction and surveillance of early tumor recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who had undergone liver transplantation (LT). Methods: The expression of plasma microRNA panel was assayed in 193 HCC patients (training cohort, n =151; validation cohort, n = 42). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting post-transplant HCC recurrence, and the relationship of microRNA panel expression with clinical characteristics were analyzed accordingly. The prognostic value of microRNA panel was compared with that of AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) and DCP (Des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin). Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate independent prognostic factors. Results: In the training cohort, the rate of positive plasma microRNA panel status at 7-14 days after LT (late phase; 44.2%) decreased than that before (76.2%, P < 0.001) and 1-6 days after LT (early phase; 78.5%, P < 0.001). At late phase, positive microRNA panel status correlated with higher early tumor recurrence rate (one year after LT) than negative status (45.9% vs 10.7%; P < 0.001). Patients with persistent positive microRNA panel status both before and after LT had the highest early tumor recurrence rate in this cohort (54.9%, P < 0.001). The results were consistent in the validation cohort. Cox regression analysis found that positive plasma microRNA panel status at late phase was the only independent risk factor for early recurrence (HR: 4.903, 95% CI = 2.195 - 10.951; P < 0.001). Dynamic monitoring demonstrated plasma microRNA panel status changed from negative to positive earlier than AFP and DCP upon recurrence, and the median time between positivity of plasma microRNA and imaging evidence of recurrence was 2.4 (0.5-10.0) months. Conclusions: Plasma microRNA panel could be a noninvasive biomarker for prediction and surveillance of early tumor recurrence in HCC patients who have undergone LT.

6.
ACS Cent Sci ; 7(10): 1650-1656, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729408

RESUMO

Mining uranium from seawater is highly desirable for sustaining the increasing demand for nuclear fuel; however, access to this unparalleled reserve has been limited by competitive adsorption of a wide variety of concentrated competitors, especially vanadium. Herein, we report the creation of a series of uranyl-specific "hooks" and the decoration of them into the nanospace of porous organic polymers to afford uranium nanotraps for seawater uranium extraction. Manipulating the relative distances and angles of amidoxime moieties in the ligands enabled the creation of uranyl-specific "hooks" that feature ultrahigh affinity and selective sequestration of uranium with a distribution coefficient threefold higher compared to that of vanadium, overcoming the long-term challenge of the competing adsorption of vanadium for uranium extraction from seawater. The optimized uranium nanotrap (2.5 mg) can extract more than one-third of the uranium in seawater (5 gallons), affording an enrichment index of 3836 and thus presenting a new benchmark for uranium adsorbent. Moreover, with improved selectivity, the uranium nanotraps could be regenerated using a mild base treatment. The synergistic combination of experimental and theoretical analyses in this study provides a mechanistic approach for optimizing the selectivity of chelators toward analytes of interest.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with celiac disease, gluten triggers an immune reaction that damages small intestinal villi and may increase long-term risk of gastrointestinal cancer. However, the health impacts of gluten in the general population are understudied. We aimed to examine the association between gluten intake and risk of digestive system cancers among individuals without celiac disease. METHODS: We leveraged longitudinal data from three prospective cohorts, Nurses' Health Study (1984-2018, 73,166 women aged 65.1±10.8 years), Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2017, 90,423 women aged 49.1±8.2 years), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2016, 42,617 men aged 64.8±10.8 years). Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of digestive system cancers according to quintiles of gluten intake assessed from food frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: During 4,801,513 person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,231 incident digestive system cancer cases among three cohorts. After adjusting for a wide-range of risk factors, including body mass index, physical activity, diet quality, gluten intake was not associated with an increased risk of digestive system cancer, with a HR (95% CI) of 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of gluten intake (p-trend=0.05). Similar null associations were found for individual digestive system cancers: oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, small intestine cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gallbladder cancer, and liver cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Gluten intake was not associated with risk of digestive system cancers in adults without celiac disease. Restricting dietary gluten is unlikely to be beneficial to the prevention of digestive system cancers in the general population.

8.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799774

RESUMO

PURPOSE: L-Carnitine is abundant in animal source foods, particularly red meat, and circulating L-carnitine may be related to the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated whether long-term changes in plasma L-carnitine over 10 years were associated with the CHD incidence and also examined joint associations of carnitine-rich red meat consumption and L-carnitine changes on the subsequent risk of CHD. METHODS: This prospective nested case-control study included 772 healthy women at baseline (386 incident CHD cases and 386 healthy controls). Plasma L-carnitine levels were measured both at the first (1989-90) and second blood collections (2000-02). Incident cases of CHD were prospectively followed from the date of the second blood collection through 2016. RESULTS: Overall, a greater increase in L-carnitine from the first to the second time point was related to a higher risk of CHD, regardless of the initial L-carnitine levels (relative risk: 1.36 (95% CI 0.999, 1.84) per 1-SD increase). The 10-year changes in L-carnitine were positively associated with red meat consumption over time, and women with higher red meat intake (≥ 36 g/day) and with greater increases in L-carnitine had a 1.86 (95% CI 1.13, 3.09) times increased risk of CHD, as compared to those with lower red meat intake and lesser increases in L-carnitine. CONCLUSION: Long-term increases in L-carnitine levels were associated with the subsequent incidence of CHD, especially among women with higher intake of red meat. Our results suggest the importance of atherogenic L-carnitine changes and dietary intakes over time in the prevention of CHD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796441

RESUMO

The superior photocatalytic activity of semiconductor-based photocatalytic materials has attracted great attention. In this work, a series of novel Ag3PO4/g-C3N4-x (APO/CNx) composites with the Z-scheme structure were fabricated through a facile precipitation method. B naphthol, a typical phenolic compound, was selected to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of all as-prepared photocatalysts. The obtained APO/CNx composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for degradation of B naphthol under visible-light irradiation. Experimental results showed that the degradation rate toward B naphthol could reach to 90.5% for 180 min, which was almost 3.66 times higher than pure g-C3N4, indicating that the presence of nitrogen vacancies and Z-scheme structure could efficiently improve the photocatalytic performance of pure g-C3N4. Furthermore, the results of trapping experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy manifest that •O2- and •OH radicals were the predominant active substances for B naphthol degradation, and the possible mechanism of improved photocatalytic performance was elucidated. This work will provide an innovative perspective for constructing Z-scheme photocatalysts for the application of photocatalytic in the field of wastewater treatment.

11.
ACS Omega ; 6(45): 30627-30643, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805691

RESUMO

The requirement of improving efficiency and performance leads to the continuous development of furnaces and burners. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a model suitable for industrial production and adjust it according to industrial demand. In this paper, a comprehensive numerical model is developed to characterize the combustion, heat transfer, and slab heating in an indirect reheating furnace with pulse combustion. To realize the pulse combustion process, a pulse control approach based on a user-defined function (UDF) was proposed to control the radiant tube burner state. Indirect heat transfer in the furnace was realized by coupling the radiant tubes and the furnace as a whole. In a simulation with the eddy dissipation concept (EDC) model, results from the four-step mechanism were in close accordance with those of the GRI 3.0 mechanism, and both mechanisms could describe the combustion process in detail. However, the calculation time of the EDC model with the four-step mechanism was reduced significantly. Thus, the EDC model with the four-step mechanism was selected as the ideal combustion model used for further simulation research. Through experimental validation, the simulation results of the developed model using the EDC model with the four-step mechanism showed a good agreement with the experimental results. Additionally, with this model, the effects of oxygen-enriched combustion with 74 vol % N2 and 26 vol % O2 in the oxidizer and inlet-change case with a fuel inlet and a primary air inlet on the performance of an indirect reheating furnace with pulse combustion were specially studied. The maximum flame temperature and the average temperature of the furnace atmosphere increased from 2046 to 2175 K and from 1241 to 1279 K for increased oxygen concentration, respectively. Compared with air-fuel combustion, the discharging slab temperature reached a growth of 2.9% in oxygen-enriched combustion. After changing the inlet boundary of the radiant tube burners, since the excessive combustion in the burner's combustion chamber was avoided and the full combustion of fuel in the radiant tubes was promoted, the flame intensity in the radiant tubes was enhanced and the maximum flame temperature reached 2196 K. At the same time, the mole fraction of CO at the outlet became smaller and the slab temperature in all zones of the furnace increased by more than 3.5%. This study showed that higher efficiency of an indirect reheating furnace with pulse combustion can be achieved by oxygen-enriched combustion and changing the inlet boundary of the burners.

12.
MycoKeys ; 84: 103-139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790027

RESUMO

Three new species of Russulasection Ingratae, found in Guizhou and Jiangsu Provinces, southern China, are proposed: R.straminella, R.subpectinatoides and R.succinea. Photographs, line drawings and detailed morphological descriptions for these species are provided with comparisons against closely-related taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region supported the recognition of these specimens as new species. Additionally, R.indocatillus is reported for the first time from China and morphological and phylogenetic data are provided for the Chinese specimens.

13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 749129, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790665

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in human cancers including gastric cancer (GC). Dysregulation of lncRNAs is involved in a variety of pathological activities associated with gastric cancer progression and chemo-resistance. However, the role and molecular mechanisms of FEZF1-AS1 in chemoresistance of GC remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of FEZF1-AS1 in chemoresistance of GC. The level of FEZF1-AS1 in GC tissues and GC cell lines was assessed by qRT-PCR. Our results showed that the expression of FEZF1-AS1 was higher in gastric cancer tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. Multivariate analysis identified that high level of FEZF1-AS1 is an independent predictor for poor overall survival. Increased FEZF1-AS1 expression promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Additionally, FEZF1-AS1 was upregulated in chemo-resistant GC tissues. The regulatory effect of FEZF1-AS1 on multi-drug resistance (MDR) in GC cells and the underlying mechanism was investigated. It was found that increased FEZF1-AS1 expression promoted chemo-resistance of GC cells. Molecular interactions were determined by RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and the results showed that FEZF1-AS1 regulated chemo-resistance of GC cells through modulating autophagy by directly targeting ATG5. The proliferation and autophagy of GC cells promoted by overexpression of LncFEZF1-AS1 was suppressed when ATG5 was knocked down. Moreover, knockdown of FEZF1-AS1 inhibited tumor growth and increased 5-FU sensitivity in GC cells in vivo. Taken together, this study revealed that the FEZF1-AS1/ATG5 axis regulates MDR of GC cells via modulating autophagy.

14.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(11): 1044-52, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy of Yishen Huoxue Tongluo() decoction containing serum on the apoptosis of human disc nucleus pulposus cells under the overload static pressure stress and its related mechanism. METHODS: Human nucleus pulposus cells were divided into three groups. The blank group had no intervention. The model group and traditional Chinese medicine serum intervention group were treated with 3 MPa compressive stress in vitro for 2, 4 and 6 hours. The changes and differences of morphology, growth status and ultrastructure of intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells were observed. The apoptosis rate of nucleus pulposus cells and nuclear factor kappa-B p65 (NF-κB p65), SRY-related high mobility group box 9 (SOX9), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), matrix metalloprotein-13 (MMP-13) and corresponding gene expression were detected. RESULTS: At the same time, compared with the blank group, the nucleus pulposus cells in the model group were smaller in volume, less in cytoplasm and worse in growth; the nucleus pulposus cells in the traditional Chinese medicine serum intervention group were slightly larger in volume, more complete in morphology, richer in cytoplasm and better in growth. Under the same action time, the ultrastructure of nucleus pulposus cells in blank group was complete, and the structures of primary and secondary processes were not broken;and the ultrastructure of model group and traditional Chinese medicine serum intervention group were damaged, the main and secondary processes were broken to varying degrees, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. At the same time, the apoptosis rate of nucleus pulposus cells in model group was higher than that in blank group, while the apoptosis rate of nucleus pulposus cells in the traditional Chinese medicine serum intervention group was lower than that inmodel group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); with the increase of action time, there was no significant difference in the apoptosis rate of nucleus pulposus cells between blank group and traditional Chinese medicine serum intervention group, and the apoptosis rate of nucleus pulposus cells in model group was increased. Compared with model group, the expression of NF-κB p65, CHOP, MMP-13 were decreased and SOX9 was increased in traditional Chinese medicine serum intervention group at the same time (P<0.05);with the increase of action time, the expression of NF-κB p65, CHOP and MMP-13 were increased, and the expression of SOX9 was decreased in blank group and model group(P<0.05), and the expression level of model group was higher than that of blank group(P<0.05). Overall observation by gene expression, under the same action time, the relative quantifications of NF-κB p65, CHOP and MMP-13 in traditional Chinese medicine serum intervention group were lower than that in model group, while SOX9 was increased (P<0.05);compared with model group, the relative quantifications of NF-κB p65, CHOP and MMP-13 in blank group were decreased(P<0.05), and the relative quantification of SOX9 was increased(P<0.05);with the increase of action time, the relative quantifications of NF-κB p65, CHOP and MMP-13 of nucleus pulposus cells in blank group and model group were increased and SOX9 was decreased(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Yishen Huoxue Tongluo() decoction can reduce the apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells under overload and static pressure, and has the effect of delaying the degeneration of nucleus pulposus cells. Its mechanism may be related to the decrease of CHOP, MMP-13 expression and the increase of SOX9 expression by inhibiting NF-κB p65 signal pathway of nucleus pulposus cells.

15.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102669, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739188

RESUMO

Lipid metabolism is essential for stemness maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation of stem cells, however, the regulatory function of cholesterol metabolism in erythroid differentiation is poorly studied. In the present study, a critical role for cholesterol homeostasis in terminal erythropoiesis is uncovered. The master transcriptional factor GATA1 binds to Sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) to downregulate cholesterol biosynthesis, leading to a gradual reduction in intracellular cholesterol levels. It is further shown that reduced cholesterol functions to block erythroid proliferation via the cholesterol/mTORC1/ribosome biogenesis axis, which coordinates cell cycle exit in the late stages of erythroid differentiation. The interaction of GATA1 and SREBP2 also provides a feedback loop for regulating globin expression through the transcriptional control of NFE2 by SREBP2. Importantly, it is shown that disrupting intracellular cholesterol hemostasis resulted in defect of terminal erythroid differentiation in vivo. These findings demonstrate that fine-tuning of cholesterol homeostasis emerges as a key mechanism for regulating erythropoiesis.

16.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease remains controversial, owing in part to inaccurate assessment of sodium intake. Assessing 24-hour urinary excretion over a period of multiple days is considered to be an accurate method. METHODS: We included individual-participant data from six prospective cohorts of generally healthy adults; sodium and potassium excretion was assessed with the use of at least two 24-hour urine samples per participant. The primary outcome was a cardiovascular event (coronary revascularization or fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke). We analyzed each cohort using consistent methods and combined the results using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Among 10,709 participants, who had a mean (±SD) age of 51.5±12.6 years and of whom 54.2% were women, 571 cardiovascular events were ascertained during a median study follow-up of 8.8 years (incidence rate, 5.9 per 1000 person-years). The median 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was 3270 mg (10th to 90th percentile, 2099 to 4899). Higher sodium excretion, lower potassium excretion, and a higher sodium-to-potassium ratio were all associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in analyses that were controlled for confounding factors (P≤0.005 for all comparisons). In analyses that compared quartile 4 of the urinary biomarker (highest) with quartile 1 (lowest), the hazard ratios were 1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 2.14) for sodium excretion, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.91) for potassium excretion, and 1.62 (95% CI, 1.25 to 2.10) for the sodium-to-potassium ratio. Each daily increment of 1000 mg in sodium excretion was associated with an 18% increase in cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.29), and each daily increment of 1000 mg in potassium excretion was associated with an 18% decrease in risk (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Higher sodium and lower potassium intakes, as measured in multiple 24-hour urine samples, were associated in a dose-response manner with a higher cardiovascular risk. These findings may support reducing sodium intake and increasing potassium intake from current levels. (Funded by the American Heart Association and the National Institutes of Health.).

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between weight change and mortality among participants with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) and evaluate the impact of adopting a healthy lifestyle on this association. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective analysis included 11,262 incident T2D patients from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We assessed weight change bracketing T2D diagnosis in relation to mortality. We also examined potential effect modification by a healthy lifestyle consisting of high-quality diet, regular physical activity, non-smoking status and moderate alcohol consumption. RESULTS: On average, T2D patients lost 2.3 kg during a two-year time-window spanning the T2D diagnosis, and body weight increased afterwards following a trajectory similar to that of non-diabetics. Compared with patients with a stable weight, T2D patients who lost ≥10% body weight had a 21% (95% CI: 9%, 35%) increased all-cause mortality. Lifestyle significantly modified these associations: the hazard ratios (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality comparing ≥10% weight loss with stable weight were 1.63 (1.26, 2.09) among participants with a deteriorated lifestyle, 1.27 (1.11, 1.46) for a stable lifestyle, and 1.02 (0.81, 1.27) for an improved lifestyle (Pinteraction <0.001). Major weight loss was associated with increased cause-specific mortality and similar effect modifications by lifestyle were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Significant weight loss upon T2D incidence was associated with increased mortality, although improved lifestyle quality abolished these associations. These results highlight the role of adopting a healthy lifestyle for newly diagnosed T2D patients, especially among those who might lose weight unintentionally, and improving long-term survival.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757435

RESUMO

Flooding and straw returning are effective agricultural practices in promoting phosphorus (P) availability in paddy soils. However, little is known about the effects of these practices and their interaction on the soil P pools and functional microbes responsible for soil P mobilization. Our 4-year paddy field experiment aimed to analyze the responses of soil P fractions and phoD-harboring bacterial communities in a double-rice cropping system to intermittent flooding (IF) and continuous flooding (CF), in plots with (+ S) and without (-S) straw return. Compared to IF, CF significantly increased soil citrate-P and marginally decreased the HCl-P fractions, suggesting that the stable inorganic P pools are transferred to labile inorganic P at lower redox potentials. Compared to the -S treatments, + S treatments significantly increased the labile organic fractions (enzyme-P). Correspondingly, a decreased soil total organic P concentration was observed in + S treatment. Additionally, + S treatment significantly increased the activity of acid phosphomonoesterase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and the abundance of phoD-harboring bacteria. These results indicated that straw promoted organic P minimization to release orthophosphate. The diversity of the phoD-harboring bacteria and complexity of the co-occurrence network decreased under the CF + S treatment; however, all keystone species of the phoD-harboring bacteria were retained in this oxygen-deficient environment. This study highlights that irrigation regimes mediate the processes of inorganic P mobilization, while straw returns regulate the processes of organic P mineralization. Additionally, flooding could be a more effective agricultural practice than straw returning to promote soil P availability in paddy soils. KEY POINTS: •Soil P pools and phoD-harboring bacteria communities were assessed. •Straw return mainly affects the mineralization of organic P. •Continuous flooding mainly affects the mobilization of inorganic P.

19.
Metabolites ; 11(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677424

RESUMO

Traditionally, nutritional epidemiology is the study of the relationship between diet and health and disease in humans at the population level. Commonly, the exposure of interest is food intake. In recent years, nutritional epidemiology has moved from a "black box" approach to a systems approach where genomics, metabolomics and proteomics are providing novel insights into the interplay between diet and health. In this context, metabolomics is emerging as a key tool in nutritional epidemiology. The present review explores the use of metabolomics in nutritional epidemiology. In particular, it examines the role that food-intake biomarkers play in addressing the limitations of self-reported dietary intake data and the potential of using metabolite measurements in assessing the impact of diet on metabolic pathways and physiological processes. However, for full realisation of the potential of metabolomics in nutritional epidemiology, key challenges such as robust biomarker validation and novel methods for new metabolite identification need to be addressed. The synergy between traditional epidemiologic approaches and metabolomics will facilitate the translation of nutritional epidemiologic evidence to effective precision nutrition.

20.
Environ Res ; : 112222, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic compounds used in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications. An association between PFAS exposure and risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been reported in a highly exposed population. However, data are limited on risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among individuals with background population levels of PFAS exposure. OBJECTIVES: We set out to examine the association between plasma PFAS concentrations and risk of IBD among women in two population-based, prospective cohort studies in which pre-diagnostic blood specimens were available. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts. We identified 73 participants with incident Crohn's disease (CD) and 80 participants with incident UC who had provided blood samples before diagnosis. Cases were matched 1:2 to IBD-free controls. Plasma concentrations of five major PFASs were measured by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. We used conditional logistic models to estimated odds ratios for risk of IBD according to log10-transformed PFAS concentrations, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable models, we observed inverse associations between plasma concentrations of three PFASs and risk of CD (all P ≤ 0.012 for a standard deviation increase in log10PFAS). The inverse association with CD was strongest for perfluorodecanoate, where, compared to the lowest tertile, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest tertile was 0.39 (95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.92). No associations were observed between PFAS concentrations and UC risk. DISCUSSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that elevated PFAS exposure is associated with higher risk of UC. Contrary to expectation, our data suggest that circulating concentrations of some PFASs may be inversely associated with CD development.

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