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1.
Cancer Lett ; 497: 137-153, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080309

RESUMO

Arsenic, a human carcinogen, causes various human cancers, including those of the skin, lung, and liver. Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), which have high mortality, are common malignancies worldwide. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which are considered to be similar to M2-polarized macrophages, promote tumor invasion and progression. Small non-coding RNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression of genes involved in progression of various malignancies. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), as mediators of cell communication, pass specific miRNAs directly from TAMs to tumor cells, promoting tumor pathogenesis and metastasis. In HCCs, large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1), functions as a tumor suppressor. However, the molecular mechanism by which miRNA modulates LATS1 expression in HCCs remains unclear. The results show that exposure to arsenite, increased miR-15b levels and induced M2 polarization of THP-1 cells. Elevated levels of miR-15b were transferred from arsenite-treated-THP-1 (As-THP-1) cells to HCC cells via miR-15b in EVs inhibited activation of the Hippo pathway by targeting LATS1, and was involved in promoting the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells. In conclusion, miR-15b in EVs from As-THP-1 cells is transferred to HCC cells, in which it targets and downregulates LATS1 expression and promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells.

2.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073846

RESUMO

During the transformation of immature aquatic dipteran insects to terrestrial adults, the prothoracic pupal respiratory organ enables pupae to cope with flood-drought alternating environments. Despite its obvious importance, the biology of the organ, including its development, is poorly understood. In this study, the developing gills of several Simulium Latreille (Diptera: Simuliidae) spp. were observed using serial histological sections and compared with data on those of other dipteran families published previously. The formation of some enigmatic features that made the Simulium gill unique is detailed. Through comparisons between taxa, we describe a common developmental pattern in which the prothoracic dorsal disc cells not only morph into the protruding respiratory organ, which is partially or entirely covered with a cuticle layer of plastron, but also invaginate to form a multipart internal chamber that in part gives rise to the anterior spiracle of adult flies. The gill disc resembles wing and leg discs and undergoes cell proliferation, axial outgrowth, and cuticle sheath formation. The overall appendage-like characteristics of the dipteran pupal respiratory organ suggest an ancestral form that gave rise to its current forms, which added more dimensions to the ways that arthropods evolved through appendage adaptation. Our observations provide important background from which further studies into the evolution of the respiratory organ across Diptera can be carried out.

3.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030790

RESUMO

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. is a good candidate for C4 bioenergy crop development in marginal lands. As one of the characteristics in marginal lands, salinization is a major limitation to agricultural production. The present work aimed to investigate the possible factors involved in the tolerance of M. sinensis C4 photosynthesis to salinity stress. Seedlings of two accessions (salt-tolerant 'JM0119' and salt-sensitive 'JM0099') were subjected to 0 mM NaCl (control) or 250 mM NaCl (salt stress treatment) for two weeks. The chlorophyll content, parameters of photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, activities of C4 enzymes, and expression of C4 genes were measured. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, chlorophyll content, PSII operating efficiency, coefficient of photochemical quenching, activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and gene expression of PEPC and PPDK under salinity were higher after long-term salinity exposure in 'JM0119' than they were in 'JM0099', while the activities of NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) together with the expression of NADP-MDH and NADP-ME were found to be much greater in 'JM0099' than in 'JM0119'. In conclusion, the greater photosynthetic capacity under long-term salt stress in salt-tolerant relative to salt-sensitive M. sinensis accession was mainly associated with non-stomatal factors including less chlorophyll loss, higher PSII operating efficiency, enhanced activities of PEPC and PPDK, and relatively lower activity of NADP-ME.

4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 263, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complement system plays a critical role as the pathogenic factor in the models of acute lung injury due to various causes. Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a commonly used complement research tool. The CVF can cause acute inflammation in the lung by producing complement activation components. Atorvastatin (ATR) is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitor approved for control of plasma cholesterol levels. This inhibitor can reduce the acute pulmonary inflammatory response. However, the ability of ATR in treating acute lung inflammation caused by complement activation is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ATR on lung inflammation in mice induced by activation of the complement alternative pathway in this study. METHODS: ATR (10 mg/kg/day via oral gavage) was administered for 7 days before tail vein injection of CVF (25 µg/kg). On the seventh day, all mice were sacrificed 1 h after injection. The lung lobe, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and blood samples were collected. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of the lung homogenate, the leukocyte cell count, and the protein content of BALF were measured. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), P-selectin, and Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in BALF and serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pathological change of the lung tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The deposition of C5b-9 in the lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in the lung tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. RESULTS: The lung inflammation levels were determined by measuring the leukocyte cell numbers and protein content of BALF, the lung MPO activity, and expression and staining of the inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and TNF-α), and adhesion molecules (P-selectin and ICAM-1) for lung lesion. A significant reduction in the lung inflammation levels was observed after 7 days in ATR pre-treated mice with a CVF-induced lung disease. Deposition of C5b-9 was significantly alleviated by ATR pretreatment. Early intervention with ATR significantly reduced the development of acute lung inflammation on the basis of phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in the lung. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the identification of ATR treatment for the lung inflammation induced by activating the complement system on the basis of its anti-inflammatory response. Together with the model replicating the complement activating characteristics of acute lung injury, the results may be translatable to the overactivated complement relevant diseases.

5.
Neurosci Bull ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909219

RESUMO

Chronic visceral pain is one of the primary symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which affects up to 15% of the population world-wide. The detailed mechanisms of visceral pain remain largely unclear. Our previous studies have shown that neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) followed by adult multiple stress (AMS) advances the occurrence of visceral pain, likely due to enhanced norepinephrine (NE)-ß2 adrenergic signaling. This study was designed to explore the roles of P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) in the chronic visceral pain induced by combined stress. Here, we showed that P2X3Rs were co-expressed in ß2 adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR)-positive dorsal root ganglion neurons and that NE significantly enhanced ATP-induced Ca2+ signals. NMD and AMS not only significantly increased the protein expression of P2X3Rs, but also greatly enhanced the ATP-evoked current density, number of action potentials, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration of colon-related DRG neurons. Intrathecal injection of the P2X3R inhibitor A317491 greatly attenuated the visceral pain and the ATP-induced Ca2+ signals in NMD and AMS rats. Furthermore, the ß2-AR antagonist butoxamine significantly reversed the expression of P2X3Rs, the ATP-induced current density, and the number of action potentials of DRG neurons. Overall, our data demonstrate that NMD followed by AMS leads to P2X3R activation, which is most likely mediated by upregulation of ß2 adrenergic signaling in primary sensory neurons, thus contributing to visceral hypersensitivity.

6.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 174, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibition of p38 MAPK signalling leads to glioblastoma multiform (GBM) tumourigenesis. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism that induces p38 MAPK signalling pathway silencing during GBM genesis has yet to be determined. Identifying new factors that can regulate p38 MAPK signalling is important for tumour treatment. METHODS: Flow cytometry, TUNEL assays, immunofluorescence, JC-1 assays, and western blot analyses were used to detect the apoptosis of GBM cells. The specific methods used to detect autophagy levels in GBM cells were western blot analysis, LC3B protein immunofluorescence, LC3B puncta assays and transmission electron microscopy. The functions of these critical molecules were further confirmed in vivo by intracranial xenografts in nude mice. Tumour tissue samples and clinical information were used to identify the correlation between RND2 and p62 and LC3B expression, survival time of patients, and tumour volumes in clinical patients. RESULTS: By summarizing data from the TCGA database, we found that expression of the small GTPase RND2 was significantly increased in human glioblastomas. Our study demonstrated that RND2 functions as an endogenous repressor of the p38 MAPK phosphorylation complex. RND2 physically interacted with p38 and decreased p38 phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting p38 MAPK signalling activities. The forced expression of RND2 repressed p38 MAPK signalling, which inhibited glioblastoma cell autophagy and apoptosis in vitro and induced tumour growth in the xenografted mice in vivo. By contrast, the downregulation of RND2 enhanced p38 MAPK signalling activities and promoted glioma cell autophagy and apoptosis. The inhibition of p38 phosphorylation abolished RND2 deficiency-mediated GBM cell autophagy and apoptosis. Most importantly, our study found that RND2 expression was inversely correlated with patient survival time and was positively correlated with tumour size. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed a new function for RND2 in GBM cell death and offered mechanistic insights into the inhibitory effects of RND2 with regard to the regulation of p38 MAPK activation.

7.
Int J Psychol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876335

RESUMO

Cooperation is vital for modern society. Previous studies showed that procedural fairness promotes cooperation; however, they mainly focused on cooperation intention, which may fail to reveal actual cooperative behaviour. Moreover, little is known regarding the personality boundary of the effect of procedural fairness on cooperation. Guided by previous findings that self-esteem increases sensitivity to procedural unfairness, we attempted to explore the moderating effect of self-esteem on the association between procedural fairness and cooperative behaviour. In Experiment 1, 160 participants' self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; procedural fairness was manipulated in two conditions, depending on whether money was allocated in an economic game by rolling the dice twice or an allocator's arbitrary choice. Cooperative behaviour was assessed using the chicken game paradigm. Experiment 2 (148 participants) aimed to replicate and extend the results of Experiment 1 using a more rigorous experimental design, in which the possible effect of outcome favourability was excluded. The results of both experiments consistently showed that procedural fairness positively predicted cooperative behaviour, and this association was significant in high-self-esteem individuals, but not in low-self-esteem individuals. These findings shed light on the vital role of self-esteem in understanding the relationship between procedural fairness and cooperative behaviour.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992609

RESUMO

To counteract host antiviral RNA silencing, plant viruses encode numerous viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). P0 proteins have been identified as VSRs in many poleroviruses. However, their suppressor function has not been fully characterized. Here, we investigated the function of P0 from pea mild chlorosis virus (PMCV) in the suppression of local and systemic RNA silencing via green fluorescent protein (GFP) co-infiltration assays in wild-type and GFP-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (line 16c). Amino acid deletion analysis showed that N-terminal residues Asn 2 and Val 3, but not the C-terminus residues from 230-270 aa, were necessary for PMCV P0 (P0PM) VSR activity. P0PM acted as an F-box protein, and triple LPP mutation (62LPxx79P) at the F-box-like motif abolished its VSR activity. In addition, P0PM failed to interact with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1), which was consistent with previous findings of P0 from potato leafroll virus. These data further support the notion that VSR activity of P0 is independent of P0-SKP1 interaction. Furthermore, we examined the effect of P0PM on ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein stability, and co-expression analysis showed that P0PM triggered AGO1 degradation. Taken together, our findings suggest that P0PM promotes degradation of AGO1 to suppress RNA silencing independent of SKP1 interaction.

9.
Toxicon ; 187: 223-231, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971099

RESUMO

Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are an important component in viperid and crotalid venoms, and these SVMPs play important and versatile roles in the pathogenesis of snakebite envenoming. The SVMPs from elapid venoms are not well elucidated compared with those from viperid and crotalid venoms. Atrase B is a nonhemorrhagic P-III SVMP purified from the Naja atra venom, which possesses a weak fibrinogenolytic activity. In this paper, the activity and mechanism of atrase B against platelet aggregation and blood coagulation were investigated. The in vitro assay showed that atrase B remarkably inhibited ristocetin- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation by cleavage of the platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib, and the coagulation of normal human plasma, which may be caused by inhibiting coagulation factor VIII predominantly. When atrase B was intravenously injected into rats at doses of 0.05 and 0.30 mg/kg, the activated partial thromboplastin and the thrombin times were significantly prolonged in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the fibrinogen level decreased, but only a high dose of atrase B showed remarkable activity against platelet aggregation. Results suggested that anticoagulation was a more important function of atrase B compared with its activity against platelet aggregation. These results indicated that atrase B may play an important role in the anticoagulant properties of Naja atra venom. In addition, atrase B may be a potent anticoagulant agent because its effectiveness in vivo against platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.

10.
Dent Mater ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The inorganic fillers in dental resin composites can enhance their mechanical properties and reduce polymerization shrinkage. When the usage amount of inorganic fillers is closed to maximum filler loading (MFL), the composites will usually achieve optimal performances. This study aims to develop a method that can predict the MFL of dental resin composites for the optimization of filler formulations. METHODS: A method based on discrete element method (DEM) simulations and experiments was firstly developed to predict the MFL of spherical silica particles for single-level and multi-level filling. RESULTS: The results indicate that the presence of modifier can increase the MFL, and the MFL increment can be exponentially changed with the content of the modifier. Compared with the single-level filling, the addition of secondary fillers is beneficial to increase the MFL, and the increment can be affected by the particle size and size ratio. The prediction results show a good agreement with the experiment results. SIGNIFICANCE: The accuracy of prediction results indicates a great potential of DEM simulations as a numerical experimental method in studying the MFL, and provides an effective method for the optimization of filler formulations.

11.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; PP2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946388

RESUMO

This paper presents a simple yet effective algorithm for automatically transferring face colors in portrait videos. We extract the facial features and vectorize the faces in the input video using Poisson vector graphics, which encodes the low-frequency colors as the boundary colors of diffusion curves. Then we transfer the face color of a reference image/video to the first frame of the input video by applying optimal mass transport between the boundary colors of diffusion curves. Next the boundary color of the first frame is transferred to the subsequent frames by matching the curves. Finally, we render the video using an efficient random-access Poisson solver. Thanks to our efficient diffusion curve matching algorithm, transferring colors for the vectorized video takes less than 1 millisecond per frame. Our method is particularly desired for frequent transfer from multiple references due to its information reuse nature. Since our method does not require correspondence between the reference image/video and the input video, it is flexible and robust to handle faces with significantly different geometries and postures, which often pose challenges to the existing methods. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on image-to-video transfer and color swap in video.

12.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 540-545, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the rural sanitary conditions in different geographical areas of Shaanxi Province. METHODS: According to the stratified random sampling method, 30 agriculture-related counties were selected(The central area includes 13 counties in Xi'an, Tongchuan, Weinan, Xianyang and Baoji cities. The southern area includes 10 counties in Hanzhong, Ankang, Shangluo cities. The northern area includes 7 counties in Yulin, Yan'an cities. ). Five townships were selected randomly in each county(excluding Chengguan Town), and 4 administrative villages were selected randomly in each township as survey villages, which were collected the soil samples for testing lead, cadmium and chromium in each subject village, and 5 households were randomly selected in each villages as survey households. The data was obtained through data reading, interviews, on-site observations, and laboratory testing, etc. The detection of soil lead and cadmium was carried out according to the Measurement of Soil Quality Lead and Cadmium by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry(GB/T 17141-1997), and the detection of chromium was carried out according to the Determination of Total Chromium in Soil by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry(HJ 491). The data was statistically analyzed and evaluated according to the central, southern and northern regions. RESULTS: The population coverage of rural centralized water supply in the three regions(central、southern and northern area) was 92. 86%, 75. 49% and 70. 41%, respectively. The penetration rate of sanitary toilets was 28. 18%, 45. 38% and 9. 90%, respectively. The proportion of villages where domestic garbage was randomly stacked was 0. 38%, 4. 00% and 32. 86%, respectively. The proportion of villages where domestic sewage was randomly discharged was 30. 38%, 40. 00% and 60. 00%, respectively. The heavy metals exceeding the standard in the soil were mainly cadmium. The over-standard rates were 4. 62%, 21. 50% and 0. 71%, respectively. The three regional differences of the above result were statistically significant(χ~2=57 676. 74, 18 143. 94, 124. 86, 33. 15 and 54. 12, P<0. 01). CONCLUSION: There was still some decentralized water supply population in the province. The coverage rate of the centralized water supply population and the proportion of drinking water after complete treatment projects were both higher in the central area than in the southern area and northern area. Sanitation toilets have a low penetration rate in the province, which was higher in the southern area than in the central area and the northern area. The domestic garbage was randomly discarded, and domestic sewage was randomly discharged, which was more in the northern area than in the central area and the southern area. Soil cadmium pollution was relatively heavy, mainly in the southern area.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Metais Pesados , Cidades , Humanos , Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899562

RESUMO

This research investigates the interaction effect between corruption and foreign direct investment (FDI) on environmental pollution by applying the spatial econometric model to the panel data of China's 29 provinces from 1994 to 2015 and analyzes the differences between China's eastern, central and western regions. Results show that (a) FDI inflow deteriorates the environmental quality, validating the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH); (b) by weakening the environmental standards, corruption enables the inflow of low-quality FDI, weakens the spillover effect of FDI and indirectly causes further environmental pollution; (c) the interaction effect between corruption and FDI on environmental pollution is less significant in the eastern region than in the central and western regions.

14.
J Neurophysiol ; 124(4): 1270-1284, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937083

RESUMO

Area CA3 in the hippocampus is traditionally thought to act as a homogeneous neural circuit that is vital for spatial navigation and episodic memories. However, recent studies have revealed that CA3 pyramidal neurons in dorsal hippocampus display marked anatomic and functional heterogeneity along the proximodistal (transverse) axis. The hippocampus is also known to be functionally segregated along the dorsoventral (longitudinal) axis, with dorsal hippocampus strongly involved in spatial navigation and ventral hippocampus associated with emotion and anxiety. Surprisingly, however, relatively little is known about CA3 functional heterogeneity along the dorsoventral axis. Here, we carried out mouse-brain-slice patch-clamp recordings and morphological analyses to examine the heterogeneity of CA3 cellular properties along both proximodistal and dorsoventral axes. We find that CA3 pyramidal neurons exhibit considerable heterogeneity of somatodendritic morphology and intrinsic membrane properties, with ventral CA3 (vCA3) displaying more elaborate somatodendritic morphology, lower intrinsic excitability, smaller input resistance, greater cell capacitance, and more prominent hyperpolarization-activated current than dorsal CA3 (dCA3). Furthermore, although both dCA3 and vCA3 exhibit proximal-to-distal gradients in intrinsic properties and neuronal morphology, these proximal-to-distal gradients in vCA3 are more moderate than those in dCA3. Taken together, our results extend previous findings on the proximodistal heterogeneity of dCA3 function and uncover a complex, yet orderly, pattern of topographic organization of CA3 neuronal features that extends to multiple anatomic dimensions and may contribute to its in vivo functional diversity.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Area CA3 is a major hippocampal region that is classically thought to act as a homogeneous neural network vital for spatial navigation and episodic memories. Here, we report that CA3 pyramidal neurons exhibit marked heterogeneity of somatodendritic morphology and cellular electrical properties along both proximodistal and dorsoventral axes. These new results uncover a complex, yet orderly, pattern of topographic organization of CA3 neuronal features that may contribute to its in vivo functional diversity.

15.
Genes Genomics ; 42(11): 1327-1338, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 possesses many excellent probiotic characteristics in piglets. miRNA plays important role in host-microbiota interactions, but the mechanism by which L. reuteri I5007 regulates intestinal function through its influence on miRNA expression is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the miRNA expression patterns in the ileum mucosa tissue of piglets by L. reuteri I5007 treatment, aim to clarify its molecular mechanism for regulating intestinal function through miRNA. METHODS: Neonatal piglets were orally administered L. reuteri I5007 or a placebo daily starting on day 1, and differential expression of ileal miRNAs was analyzed at 10 and 20 days of age by small RNA sequencing. RESULTS: 361 known porcine miRNAs were identified, and ten miRNAs were highly expressed in the ileum mucosa in both treatments. Nineteen differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were identified in response to L. reuteri treatment, and four DE miRNAs (ssc-miR-196a, -196b-5p, -1285 and -10386) were differentially expressed at both time points. The KEGG pathway analyses showed the targets of 19 DE miRNAs were involved in 63 significantly enriched pathways, including the PI3K-Akt and MAPK pathways, which were confirmed to play important roles in probiotic-host communication. L. reuteri I5007 exerted anti-inflammatory effects by influencing the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Suppressor of cytokine signalling 4 gene was the target gene of ssc-miR-196a/-196b-5p, overexpression of ssc-miR-196a/-196b-5p downregulated the mRNA expression of IL-1ß and TNFα in IPEC-J2 cells. CONCLUSION: Our study provides new insight into the role of miRNAs in the intestinal function of piglets after L. reuteri I5007 treatment.

16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 3742542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733634

RESUMO

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) plays an important role in fat deposition, skeletal muscle, central nervous system development, and mitochondria biogenesis. Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanisms of SOCS2 on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) remain unclear. Leptin could inhibit food intake and increase thermogenesis through leptin receptor (LepR), which was present in the hypothalamus and certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. With strong interest, we focused on the connection between leptin and SOCS2 and their effect on FAO in adipocytes. In our study, we found that the mRNA level of SOCS2 and the protein levels of PGC-1α, CPT-1b, FAT, and p-ACC were elevated by leptin in the inguinal adipose tissue of mice. On the contrary, the protein levels of FABP4, FATP1, and FAS were declined. The genes related to fatty acid oxidation such as PGC-1α, NRF-1, TFAM, CPT-1b, AOX1, COX2, and UCP2 were attenuated by SOCS2, but elevated by leptin. Moreover, fatty acid oxidation enzyme MCAD, LCAD, and Cyt C levels were reduced in response to SOCS2. These reductions correspond well with the reduced release of free fatty acid and the reduction of mitochondrial complexes I and III by SOCS2. Furthermore, JAK2/AMPK pathway-specific inhibitors could block the mitochondrial FAO; hence, this pathway was implied to have a potential impact on FAO. Together, these studies suggested that SOCS2 had a negative effect on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and the LepR/JAK2/AMPK pathway played a crucial role in this process.

17.
Nanoscale ; 12(32): 16987-16994, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780062

RESUMO

MXenes, a rapidly developing family of two-dimensional materials possessing tunable electronic properties and abundant surface functional groups, are promising gas-sensing materials. Ti2CTx, with a thinner unit cell thickness compared to its compositional analogue Ti3C2Tx and thus more profound surface-dependent properties, has been less explored over the past years. Herein, by etching the precursor Ti2AlC with a concentrated HF or LiF/HCl mixture, semiconducting Ti2CTx (HF) nanosheets and metallic Ti2CTx (LiF/HCl) nanosheets were obtained, respectively, arising from their treatment-dependent surface functionalization. In addition, the resulting metallic nanosheets were partially oxidized into TiO2/Ti2CTx (LiF/HCl) hybrid, which exhibited superior sensitivity toward NH3 gas as compared with Ti2CTx (HF) and Ti2CTx (LiF/HCl). Detailed analysis suggests that a high concentration of surface oxygen containing species, such as -Ox, -(OH)x and Ti-O-Ti, is generally beneficial for NH3 sensing, and a relatively higher -Ox concentration allows rapid gas desorption and sensor recovery.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746506

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the relationship between body measures and the presence of two frailty-related phenotypes, and the moderating effect of age on this relationship. This is a secondary data analysis of the baseline data of an interventional study. The participants were residents of seven districts in Hong Kong, aged 55 or older, able to ambulate independently and to function well cognitively. Pre-frailty refers to the presence of two frailty-related phenotypes: low physical activity or poor handgrip strength or both. Included in the study were 199 individuals with a mean age of 73.43 (SD 7.54). Regression models showed that body weight (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p < .05) was significantly associated with pre-frailty, as was body height (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94, p < .001). Age is a significant moderator of the relationship between pre-frailty and body weight and body height. The effect of body weight (beta = -0.044, p < .05) and height (beta = -0.16, p < .001) on pre-frailty was significant and negative in the younger age groups. The findings indicate that raw body measures (i.e. body weight, body height) are more predictive of pre-frailty than BMI in older Chinese people. However, in the old-old group, these measures are not significant predictors of pre-frailty in Chinese community-dwelling adults. Practitioners should consider adopting body measures as predictors of pre-frailty in the younger-old population.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(71): 10285-10288, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756720

RESUMO

Hierarchical superstructures of laterally or vertically oriented CoOOH nanoplates were prepared by topochemical conversion of CoAl-LDH microplates intercalated with CO32- or SO42- anions, respectively. The superstructure of vertically oriented nanoplates exhibited better electrocatalytic performance as compared to the lateral counterpart, attributable to the enlarged accessible surface area and promoted reaction kinetics.

20.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827074

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness and safety of ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser systems (CO2 AFL) combined with autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of acne scars through the retrieval and collection of related literature to further guide the treatment of acne scars. We searched Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP Database. All randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials on CO2 AFL combined with PRP in the treatment of acne scars were included, and Revman5.3 systematic review software was used in the meta-analysis. Nine studies were included in this meta-analysis. The data analysis results showed that the CO2 AFL combined with PRP treatment group showed significantly better results than the pure CO2 AFL control group in terms of clinical improvement score, clinical improvement rate, patient satisfaction, and crusting period. The results of this meta-analysis showed that CO2 AFL combined with PRP in the treatment of acne scars is more effective and safer than CO2 AFL alone.

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