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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2239: 19-31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226610

RESUMO

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising method to establish genetically modified monkeys with identical genetic background as models in biomedical research. We have recently cloned monkeys by optimization of the SCNT protocols and inclusion of the epigenetic modulator. Here, we describe the protocol for generation of cloned monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

2.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 114: 103790, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784012

RESUMO

Adverse environmental conditions cause serious economic losses in sericulture; Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is the primary biotic stress and high temperature is the major abiotic stress in this industry. B. mori heat shock protein 19.9 (Bmhsp19.9) overexpression was previously demonstrated to protect transgenic silkworm H19.9 against extreme temperature. This study analyzed the role of Bmhsp19.9 in H19.9A and H19.9B silkworm lines and BmE cells infected with BmNPV at regular and high temperatures. qPCR results showed that Bmhsp19.9 expression was upregulated in BmE cells and silkworm after BmNPV challenge. Bmhsp19.9 overexpression significantly inhibited BmNPV proliferation in BmE cells. The viral DNA content was significantly decreased in transgenic H19.9 silkworm compared to the control. These results suggested that Bmhsp19.9 was involved in antiviral immunity against BmNPV. Furthermore, Bmhsp19.9 overexpression protected BmE cells against BmNPV under high temperature shock. This indicates that Bmhsp19.9 is a promising candidate for improving silkworm resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, thereby reducing sericulture losses.

3.
Cell Tissue Bank ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216281

RESUMO

Exosomes exhibit great therapeutic potential in bone tissue engineering. The study aimed to investigate whether the exosomes derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs-Exos) during different time-span of osteogenic differentiation could promote osteogenesis. The appropriate concentrations of hADSCs-Exos to enhance the proliferation, migration and osteogenesis of hADSCs-Exos were also examined. PKH67 labelled hADSCs-Exos was used to detect the internalization ability of hADSCs. The osteogenic differentiation abilities of hADSCs after treatment with hADSCs-Exos was evaluated by Alizarin red staining (ARS). The proliferation and migration of hADSCs was examined by cell counting kit-8 and wound healing assay, respectively. The expression of exosomal surface markers and osteoblast-related protein of hADSCs was assessed by Western blot. PKH67-labelled exosomes were internalized by hADSCs after 4 h incubation. ARS showed that the amount of mineralized nodules in Exo1-14d group was significantly higher than that in Exo15-28d group. hADSCs-Exos could promote the proliferation and migration capacity of hADSCs. Western blot analysis showed that after hADSCs-Exos treatment, ALP and RUNX2 were significantly enhanced. Specially, the Exo1-14d group of 15 µg/mL significantly upregulated the expression of RUNX2 than the other exosomes treated groups. Our findings suggest that exosomes secreted by hADSCs during osteogenic induction for 1-14 days could be efficiently internalized by hADSCs and could induce osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs. Moreover, administration of Exo1-14d at 15 µg/mL promoted the proliferation and migration of hADSCs. In conclusion, our research confirmed that comprised of hADSCs-Exos and hADSCs may provide a new therapeutic paradigm for bone tissue engineering.

4.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216451

RESUMO

Pierce's disease (PD) in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa is limited to the xylem tissue and following infection induces extensive plant-derived xylem blockages, primarily in the form of tyloses. Tylose-mediated vessel occlusions are a hallmark of PD, particularly in susceptible V. vinifera. We temporally monitored tylose development over the course of the disease to link symptom severity to the level of tylose occlusion and the presence/absence of the bacterial pathogen at fine-scale resolution. The majority of vessels containing tyloses were devoid of bacterial cells, indicating that direct, localized perception of X. fastidiosa was not a primary cause of tylose formation. In addition, we used X-ray computed microtomography and machine-learning to determine that X. fastidiosa induces significant starch depletion in xylem ray parenchyma cells. This suggests that a signalling mechanism emanating from the vessels colonized by bacteria enables a systemic response to X. fastidiosa infection. To understand the transcriptional changes underlying these phenotypes, we integrated global transcriptomics into the phenotypes we tracked over the disease spectrum. Differential gene expression analysis revealed that considerable transcriptomic reprogramming occurred during early PD before symptom appearance. Specifically, we determined that many genes associated with tylose formation (ethylene signalling and cell wall biogenesis) and drought stress were up-regulated during both Phase I and Phase II of PD. On the contrary, several genes related to photosynthesis and carbon fixation were down-regulated during both phases. These responses correlate with significant starch depletion observed in ray cells and tylose synthesis in vessels.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19481, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173112

RESUMO

To verify whether omitting radiotherapy from breast cancer treatment for patients ≥ 70 years old following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) without axillary lymph node dissection is safe. Previous studies have shown that omitting breast radiotherapy after BCS and axillary lymph node dissection is safe for elderly breast cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate the safety of BCS without axillary surgery or breast radiotherapy (BCSNR) in elderly patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. We performed a retrospective analysis of 481 patients with breast cancer, aged ≥ 70 years, between 2010 and 2016. Of these, 302 patients underwent BCSNR and 179 underwent other, larger scope operations. Local recurrence rate, ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate, distant metastasis rate, breast-related death, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. After a median follow-up of 60 months, no significant differences in local recurrence, distant metastasis rate, breast-related death, and DFS were noted. The OS was similar (P = 0.56) between the BCSNR group (91.7%) and other operations group (93.0%). The IBTR rate was considered low in both groups, however resulted greater (P = 0.005) in the BCSNR group (5.3%) than in other operations group (1.6%). BCSNR did not affect the survival of elderly patients with breast cancer with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. IBTR was infrequent in both groups; however, there was a significant difference between the two groups. BCSNR is a feasible treatment modality for patients with breast cancer ≥ 70 years old with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes.

6.
iScience ; : 101744, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134888

RESUMO

The cellular targets of SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus causing the COVID-19 pandemic, is still rudimentary. Here, we incorporated the protein information to analyse the expression of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, together with co-factors, TMPRSS2 and Furin, at single cell level in situ, which we called protein-proofed single-cell RNA (pscRNA) profiling. Systemic analysis across 36 tissues revealed a rank list of candidate cells potentially vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. The top targets are lung AT2 cells and macrophages, then cardiomyocytes and adrenal gland stromal cells, followed by stromal cells in testis, ovary and thyroid. Whereas, the kidney proximal tubule cells, cholangiocytes and enterocytes are less likely to be the primary SARS-CoV-2 targets. Actually, the stomach may constitute a physical barrier against SARS-CoV-2 as the acidic environment (pH < 2.0) could completely inactivate SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-viruses. Together, we provide a comprehensive view on the potential SARS-CoV-2 targets by pscRNA profiling.

7.
Ginekol Pol ; 91(10): 600-606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We explored the planned cesarean to vaginal delivery at the risk of fetal or neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity in women with twin pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred and forty-three pregnant women were divided into planned cesarean delivery (PCD) and vaginal delivery (PVD) groups (208 vs 135). In the planned-cesarean-delivery group, the rate of cesarean delivery was 98.82%. Meanwhile, the rate of vaginal delivery was 51.27% in PVD group. RESULTS: Women in the PCD group delivered earlier than that in the PVD group. However, the composite primary outcome of the PCD group was like that of the PVD group. Certainly, the odds ratio of planned cesarean delivery and confidence interval of the PCD group was also like those of the PVD group. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of fetal or neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity of planned-vaginal-delivery was like those of planned-vaginal-delivery in pregnant women with twin pregnancies.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 316, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is an odontogenic malignant tumor which is closely related to benign ameloblastoma. Because of its rarity, diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In this study, we summarized and analyzed the clinical and biological characteristics of AC. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with AC and a median age of 53 years were identified. Among of them, five patients who were tested carried a BRAF-V600E mutation. Two patients presented with cervical lymph nodes and lung metastases. Primary AC was more invasive, and the bone destruction ability of the primary type was more radical than that of the secondary type. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the BRAF-V600E mutation was related to the aggressive behavior of AC, and early radical resection is crucial. Moreover, targeted therapy may be a new direction in the future.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230795

RESUMO

Malan loess is a common engineering geological material in Northwest China, which is often used in many engineering constructions. In this paper, the electrical properties of loess under high temperature environment are studied, which provides theoretical basis for engineering construction. The remolded loess samples are heated by different temperatures between 25 and 900 °C under laboratory conditions. Then, the surface features and electrical properties are measured and analyzed. The major findings are as follows: (1) The effect of high temperature on different electrical parameters of loess is different. As temperature increases, a series of physicochemical reactions occur in the loess; as a result, the resistance and impedance of loess samples initially increase and then decrease. The temperature of change trend changes between 500 and 600 °C, which fits the normal distribution. The capacitance of loess decreases first and then slowly increases with increased temperature. The temperature of change trend changes between 200 and 300 °C. (2) The experimental results also show that frequency has an important effect on the measurement of electrical parameters. As the frequency increases, the resistance, capacitance, and impedance decrease. In addition, at high frequencies, the electrical properties of loess are basically not affected by temperature. Therefore, using a frequency of 100 Hz is more advantageous to study the variation law of the electrical properties of loess.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147960

RESUMO

Owing to the intrinsically good near-room-temperature thermoelectric performance, ß-Ag2Se has been considered as a promising alternative to n-type Bi2Te3 thermoelectric materials. Herein, we develop an energy- and time-efficient wet mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering method to prepare porous ß-Ag2Se with hierarchical structures including high-density pores, a metastable phase, nanosized grains, semi-coherent grain boundaries, high-density dislocations, and localized strains, leading to an ultralow lattice thermal conductivity of ∼0.35 W m-1 K-1 at 300 K. A relatively high carrier mobility is obtained by adjusting the sintering temperature to obtain pores with an average size of ∼260 nm, therefore resulting in a figure of merit, zT, of ∼0.7 at 300 K and ∼0.9 at 390 K. The single parabolic band model predicts that zT of such porous ß-Ag2Se can reach ∼1.1 at 300 K if the carrier concentration can be tuned to ∼1 × 1018 cm-3, suggesting that ß-Ag2Se can be a competitive candidate for room-temperature thermoelectric applications.

12.
Fitoterapia ; 147: 104735, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010369

RESUMO

Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound existing in various traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, and it possesses diverse pharmacological actions and some undesirable adverse effects, even toxicological activities. Due to UA's low solubility and poor bioavailability, and its interaction with gut microbiota after oral administration, the pharmacokinetics of UA remain elusive, leading to obscurity in the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) profile and relationship for UA. Based on literatures from PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Web of Science and Wiley Online Library, with keywords of "pharmacology", "toxicology", "pharmacokinetics", "PK-PD" and "ursolic acid", herein we systematically review the pharmacology and toxicity of UA, and rethink on its pharmacokinetics on the basis of PK-PD model, and seek to delineate the underlying mechanisms for the characteristics of pharmacology and toxicology of UA, and for the pharmacokinetic features of UA particularly from the organ tropism and the interactions between UA and gut microbiota, and lay a solid foundation for development of UA-derived therapeutic agents in clinical settings.

13.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128400, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007572

RESUMO

Gangue backfilling mining (GBM) can effectively alleviate the gangue accumulation pollution and the overburden aquifer destruction. To efficiently evaluate the reutilization of gangue wastes by GBM and its advantage in overburden aquifer protection, non-Darcy hydraulic properties and deformation behaviors of granular gangues were studied through laboratorial, theoretical, and in-situ aspects. A series of compression and seepage tests on granular gangues under the variable original grain size grade (GSG) and stress rate were conducted. Laboratorial testing results convince that, hydraulic properties (porosity and permeability) of the granular gangue decline with the increasing original GSG and decreasing stress rate. The crushing ratio of the sample increases with the increase of original GSG and the decrease of stress rate. The fractal dimension reveals more obvious increases in the samples with the higher original GSGs and lower stress rates. The Kruger model (a classical theoretical model) was employed to predict the permeability evolution based on the porosity. However, the invalid pores in rocks would result in the model's underestimation. To this end, an improved model was established to predict the permeability evolution by the fractal dimension, and the improved Kruger model has better accuracy than the original one. Finally, according to the laboratorial testing and theoretical predicted results, friendly-environmental strategies for overburden aquifer protection were proposed. The effectiveness of these strategies was successfully verified by an in-situ application. It is concluded that the high filling stress, low gangue original GSG, and low filling stress rate in GBM can effectively reduce the risk of overburden aquifer destruction.

14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e24291, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, frequent interregional contacts and the high rate of infection spread have catalyzed the formation of an epidemic network. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify influential nodes and highlight the hidden structural properties of the COVID-19 epidemic network, which we believe is central to prevention and control of the epidemic. METHODS: We first constructed a network of the COVID-19 epidemic among 31 provinces in mainland China; after some basic characteristics were revealed by the degree distribution, the k-core decomposition method was employed to provide static and dynamic evidence to determine the influential nodes and hierarchical structure. We then exhibited the influence power of the above nodes and the evolution of this power. RESULTS: Only a small fraction of the provinces studied showed relatively strong outward or inward epidemic transmission effects. The three provinces of Hubei, Beijing, and Guangzhou showed the highest out-degrees, and the three highest in-degrees were observed for the provinces of Beijing, Henan, and Liaoning. In terms of the hierarchical structure of the COVID-19 epidemic network over the whole period, more than half of the 31 provinces were located in the innermost core. Considering the correlation of the characteristics and coreness of each province, we identified some significant negative and positive factors. Specific to the dynamic transmission process of the COVID-19 epidemic, three provinces of Anhui, Beijing, and Guangdong always showed the highest coreness from the third to the sixth week; meanwhile, Hubei Province maintained the highest coreness until the fifth week and then suddenly dropped to the lowest in the sixth week. We also found that the out-strengths of the innermost nodes were greater than their in-strengths before January 27, 2020, at which point a reversal occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing our understanding of how epidemic networks form and function may help reduce the damaging effects of COVID-19 in China as well as in other countries and territories worldwide.

15.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 48(5): 2307-2316, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084885

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel virus of the ß-coronavirus genus (SARS-CoV-2), has been spreading globally. As of July 2020, there have been more than 17 million cases worldwide. Determining multiple transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is critical to improving safety practices for the public and stemming the spread of SARS-CoV-2 effectively. This article mainly focuses on published studies on the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 including contact transmission, droplet transmission, aerosol transmission and fecal-oral transmission, as well as related research approaches, such as epidemiological investigations, environmental sampling in hospitals and laboratories and animal models. We also provide four specific recommendations for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 that may help reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection under different environmental conditions. First, social distancing, rational use of face masks and respirators, eye protection, and hand disinfection for medical staff and the general public deserve further attention and promotion. Second, aerodynamic characteristics, such as size distribution, release regularity, aerosol diffusion, survival and decline, infectious dose and spread distance, still require further investigation in order to identify the transmissibility of COVID-19. Third, background monitoring of the distribution of pathogenic microorganisms and environmental disinfection in crowded public places, such as railway stations, schools, hospitals and other densely populated areas, can give early warning of outbreaks and curb the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 in those high-risk areas. Forth, establishing novel predictive models can help us to not only assess transmission and impacts in communities, but also better implement corresponding emergency response measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4971, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009408

RESUMO

Assembly of different metal-organic framework (MOF) building blocks into hybrid MOF-on-MOF heterostructures is promising in chemistry and materials science, however the development of ternary MOF-on-MOF heterostructures with controllable architectural and compositional complexity is challenging. Here we report the synthesis of three types of ternary MOF-on-MOF heterostructures via a multiple selective assembly strategy. This strategy relies on the choice of one host MOF with more than one facet that can arrange the growth of a guest MOF, where the arrangement is site-selective without homogenous growth of guest MOF or homogenous coating of guest on host MOF. The growth of guest MOF on a selected site of host MOF in each step provides the opportunity to further vary the combinations of arrangements in multiple steps, leading to ternary MOF-on-MOF heterostructures with tunable complexity. The developed strategy paves the way towards the rational design of intricate and unprecedented MOF-based superstructures for various applications.

18.
Cell Death Differ ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110215

RESUMO

Entosis was proposed to promote aneuploidy and genome instability by cell-in-cell mediated engulfment in tumor cells. We reported here, in epithelial cells, that entosis coupled with mitotic arrest functions to counteract genome instability by targeting aneuploid mitotic progenies for engulfment and elimination. We found that the formation of cell-in-cell structures associated with prolonged mitosis, which was sufficient to induce entosis. This process was controlled by the tumor suppressor p53 (wild-type) that upregulates Rnd3 expression in response to DNA damages associated with prolonged metaphase. Rnd3-compartmentalized RhoA activities accumulated during prolonged metaphase to drive cell-in-cell formation. Remarkably, this prolonged mitosis-induced entosis selectively targets non-diploid progenies for internalization, blockade of which increased aneuploidy. Thus, our work uncovered a heretofore unrecognized mechanism of mitotic surveillance for entosis, which eliminates newly born abnormal daughter cells in a p53-dependent way, implicating in the maintenance of genome integrity.

19.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(9): 1118-1120, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical significance of bilateral asymmetric signs of lungs of bedside ultrasound in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases and protocol of pulmonary ultrasound. METHODS: The ultrasound imaging data of patients admitted to the department of critical care medicine of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from September 2017 to May 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical data of patients were collected, and the lung ultrasound image data and clinical diagnosis were sorted and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 535 critical patients ultrasound imaging data were reviewed, and 469 patients who were unable to obtain clear lung ultrasound images and lung symmetry signs were excluded. Finally, a total of 66 patients with ultrasound bilateral lung asymmetry signs during hospitalization were enrolled in the analysis. Seventeen patients (25.76%) had pneumothorax with unilateral pleural slide or lung spot, 12 (18.18%) had pneumonia with unilateral focal B line, fragment sign and tissue like sign, 21 (31.82%) had unilateral pleural effusion with unilateral liquid dark area, 8 (12.12%) had sputum obstruction with unilateral local lung consolidation and bronchial filling sign with atelectasis, and 5 (7.58%) had deep tracheal intubation. The above ultrasonic diagnoses were confirmed by chest X-ray, chest CT, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and laboratory examination. One patient with unilateral focal B-line was transferred to another hospital for treatment, and 2 patients died of sudden death due to disappearance of unilateral pleural sliding sign or unilateral pulmonary pulsation sign. The clinical diagnosis was not clear (4.54%). CONCLUSIONS: The asymmetric signs of pulmonary ultrasound clearly indicate the existence of pulmonary diseases that need to be treated in a timely manner, and the pulmonary ultrasound examination protocol of bilateral contrast is helpful for clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Humanos , Pneumotórax , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e036985, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of social support on treatment success promotion or lost to follow-up (LTFU) reduction for patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). DESIGN: We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and Medline databases until 18 June 2020 for interventional or mixed-method studies which reported social support and treatment outcomes of DR-TB patients. Two independent reviewers extracted data and disagreements were resolved by consensus with a third reviewer. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate the OR and 95% CI for the effects of social support on the improvement of treatment outcomes and the heterogeneity and risk of bias were assessed. SETTING: Low-income and middle-income countries. PARTICIPANTS: DR-TB patients. OUTCOMES: Treatment success is defined as the combination of the cured and treatment completion, and LTFU is measured as treatment being interrupted for two consecutive months or more. RESULTS: Among 173 articles selected for full-text review, 162 were excluded through independent review (kappa=0.87) and 10 studies enrolling 1621 DR-TB patients in eight countries were included for qualitative analysis. In these studies, the most frequently introduced social support was material support (10 studies), followed by informational (eight studies), emotional (seven studies) and companionship support (four studies). Seven studies that reported treatment outcomes in both intervention arm and control arm are qualified for meta-analysis. An encouraging improvement on treatment success rate (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.80 to 3.69) was found when material support was integrated into social support packages and no heterogeneity was observed (I1 of 0%, Q test p=0.72). Reduction on LTFU rate (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.55) was also noted when material support was available but substantial heterogeneity was found (I2 of 80%, Q test p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Material support appeared feasible and effective to improve treatment success for DR-TB patients combined with other social support interventions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019140824.

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