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1.
Talanta ; 237: 122896, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736712

RESUMO

Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and food-borne diseases worldwide. Thus, a rapid, accurate, and easy-to-implement detection method for controlling infection and monitoring progression is urgently needed. In this study, we constructed a novel sandwich-type electrochemical biosensor integrated with two specific recognition elements (aptamer and peptide) for human norovirus (HuNoV). The electrochemical biosensor was fabricated using magnetic covalent organic framework/pillararene heterosupramolecular nanocomposites (MB@Apt@WP5A@Au@COF@Fe3O4) as the signal probes. The sensor showed high accuracy and selectivity. The detection method does not need the extraction and amplification of virus nucleic acid and has a short turn-around time. Intriguingly, the proposed biosensor had a limit of detection of 0.84 copy mL-1 for HuNoV, which was the highest sensitivity among published assays. The proposed biosensor showed higher sensitivity and accuracy compared with immunochromatographic assay in the detection of 98 clinical specimens. The biosensor was capable of determining the predominant infection strain of GII.4 and also GII.3 and achieved 74% selectivity for HuNoV GII group. This study provides a potential method for point-of-care testing and highlights the integrated utilization of Apt and peptide in sensor construction.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanocompostos , Norovirus , Humanos , Imunoensaio
2.
Phytomedicine ; 94: 153805, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shikonin is one of the major phytochemical components of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (Purple Cromwell), which is a type of medicinal herb broadly utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. It is well established that shikonin possesses remarkable therapeutic actions on various diseases, with the underlying mechanisms, pharmacokinetics and toxicological effects elusive. Also, the clinical trial and pharmaceutical study of shikonin remain to be comprehensively delineated. PURPOSE: The present review aimed to systematically summarize the updated knowledge regarding the therapeutic actions, pharmacokinetics, toxicological effects, clinical trial and pharmaceutical study of shikonin. METHODS: The information contained in this review article were retrieved from some authoritative databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Google scholar, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database and so on, till August 2021. RESULTS: Shikonin exerts multiple therapeutic efficacies, such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, cardiovascular protection, anti-microbiomes, analgesia, anti-obesity, brain protection, and so on, mainly by regulating the NF-κB, PI3K/Akt/MAPKs, Akt/mTOR, TGF-ß, GSK3ß, TLR4/Akt signaling pathways, NLRP3 inflammasome, reactive oxygen stress, Bax/Bcl-2, etc. In terms of pharmacokinetics, shikonin has an unfavorable oral bioavailability, 64.6% of the binding rate of plasma protein, and enhances some metabolic enzymes, particularly including cytochrome P450. In regard to the toxicological effects, shikonin may potentially cause nephrotoxicity and skin allergy. The above pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of shikonin have been validated by few clinical trials. In addition, pharmaceutical innovation of shikonin with novel drug delivery system such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microemulsions, nanogel, cyclodextrin complexes, micelles and polymers are beneficial to the development of shikonin-based drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Shikonin is a promising phytochemical for drug candidates. Extensive and intensive explorations on shikonin are warranted to expedite the utilization of shikonin-based drugs in the clinical setting.

3.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 48(1): 3-9, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706844

RESUMO

Precise positioning of the left or right main bronchus is a prerequisite for effective lung isolation in thoracic surgeries. This study aimed to clarify the ability of lung ultrasound to detect tracheal and mainstem intubation. Studies that investigated the ability of lung ultrasound to detect tracheal and mainstem intubation were searched from PubMed and ScienceDirect databases from their inception to March 2021. The pooled accuracy of this method and its sensitivity and specificity were computed with a fixed-effects model using Stata 14.0. Nine eligible articles that involved a total of 617 participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Overall, the accuracy of lung ultrasound in detecting tracheal and mainstem intubation was 86.7%, with a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 75.0%. Subgroup analysis revealed that the accuracy remained high regardless of patient age, ultrasonic method, sample size, study design or ultrasonic skills training. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were stable. Deeks' test showed no publication bias. These findings imply that lung ultrasound is an effective method for detecting tracheal and mainstem intubation.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 126917, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464865

RESUMO

The ubiquitous present antibiotics in aquatic environment is attracting increasing concern due to the dual problems of bioaccumulation toxicity and antibiotic resistance. In this study, a low-cost chitin-biocalcium (CC) composite was developed by a facile alkali activation process from shell waste for typical antibiotics ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize synthesis methodology. The optimized CC products featured superior CIP removal capacity of 2432 mg/g at 25 °C (adsorption combined with flocculation), rapid adsorption kinetics, high removal efficiency (95.58%) and wide pH adaptability (under pH range 4.0-10.0). The functional groups in chitin and high content of biocalcium (Ca2+) endowed CC abundant active sites. The kinetic experimental data was fitted well by pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model at different concentrations, revealing the removal was controlled by chemisorption and mass transport step. From the macroscopic aspect, flocs were produced with the increase of CIP concentration during the reaction, adsorption combined with flocculation were related to the CIP removal. From the microcosmic aspect, the superior removal performance was attributed to cation bridging, cation complexation among biocalcium-CIP and hydrogen bond between functional groups of chitin and CIP.

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 53-60, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492353

RESUMO

Mixed electronic and ionic conductivity (MIEC) perovskite oxides hold promise as cathode with high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at reduced temperatures. However, these MIEC cathodes usually contain lanthanide or alkaline-earth elements at A-site. These elements tend to interact with yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte (YSZ) to form unwanted phases such as La2Zr2O7 and SrZrO3 at conventional electrode fabrication conditions (>800 °C). Such unwanted interfacial reaction severely degrades the cell performance. We present a new method to assemble SrCo0.4Fe0.5W0.1O3-δ (SCFW) directly onto YSZ by a highly efficient microwave plasma technique. Intimate contact between SCFW and YSZ phases can be achieved by ten-minute microwave-plasma treatment with no new phase formation. Consequently, the microwave-plasma fabricated interface exhibits a notably high ORR performance, showing an area-specific resistances of 0.11 Ω cm2 at 600 °C, about two orders of magnitude better than the equivalent prepared via the conventional method. Our method is also effective in assembling other MIEC perovskite cathodes such as SrCo0.5Fe0.5O3-δ and SrCo0.8Nb0.1Ta0.1O3-δ on YSZ electrolyte, achieving notable enhancement of the cathode performance. This study thus provides an effective and convenient method for synthesizing reactive and robust interfaces between two incompatible phases with minimized interphase interactions.

6.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been demonstrated to play important roles in acute pancreatitis (AP). Herein, this study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of circRNAs utrophin (circ_UTRN) in AP. METHODS: In vitro cultured rat pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J was exposed to caerulein (10 nmol/L) to mimic an AP cell model. The levels of circ_UTRN and microRNA (miR)-320-3p and protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry and Western blot assays. ELISA was employed to detect the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1ß and IL-6. The binding interaction between miR-320-3p and circ_UTRN or PTK2 was verified using dual-luciferase reporter assay. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of circ_UTRN was decreased by caerulein in pancreatic acinar cells, ectopic overexpression of circ_UTRN reduced inflammation and promoted apoptosis in caerulein-mediated pancreatic acinar cells. In a mechanical study, circ_UTRN served as a sponge of miR-320-3p, and miR-320-3p directly targeted PTK2. Rescue assay suggested that the promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of inflammation induced by circ_UTRN re-expression in caerulein-mediated pancreatic acinar cells were partially abolished by miR-320-3p overexpression or PTK2 knockdown. Besides that, miR-320-3p inhibition impaired caerulein-induced cell apoptosis arrest and inflammation via targeting PTK2. CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulation of circ_UTRN in pancreatic acinar cells attenuates caerulein-evoked cell apoptosis arrest and inflammation enhancement via miR-320-3p/PTK2, suggesting that circ_UTRN/miR-320-3p/PTK2 axis might be engaged in caerulein-induced AP.

7.
Breast Cancer ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutated breast cancer accounts for 3 to 12% of all women with breast cancer and significantly increases the lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, the optimal local treatment for breast cancer with BRCA germline mutation remains controversial. Here we present a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) on the prognosis of breast cancer with BRCA mutation. METHODS: Two independent reviewers searched Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for relevant studies on BCT and BRCA mutated breast cancer. Fixed or random effect models were used for meta-analyses based on whether significant heterogeneity existed among included studies. Funnel plot and Begg's test were employed for the evaluation of publication bias. RESULTS: Totally, four studies with five cohorts and a totally 1254 patients were included for meta-analyses. The BCT group involved more T0/T1 (BCT 63.7% Vs. M 48.9%, p < 0.001), N0 (BCT 70.5% Vs. M 56.2%, p < 0.001) and ER negative (BCT 58.8% Vs. M 49.3% p < 0.01) tumors than M group. Patients who received M tended to have prophylactic contralateral mastectomy (BCT 16.5% Vs. M 35.8%, p < 0.001). BCT had a significant higher risk for local recurrence than M (HR 3.838, 95% CI = 2.376-6.201, p < 0.001). The pooled results revealed no significant impact of BCT on disease-free survival (DFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS). CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggested that BCT had increasing local recurrence risk, but did not significantly impact patient survival in terms of DFS, MFS, BCSS and OS. BCT may serve as a safe alternative to mastectomy for breast cancer with BRCA mutation. Further high-quality randomized control trials are warranted to explore the optimal surgical management for BRCA mutation carriers.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797971

RESUMO

Expansion of material is one of the major impediments in the high precision instrument and engineering field. Low/zero thermal expansion compounds have drawn great attention because of their important scientific significance and enormous application value. However, the realization of low thermal expansion over a wide temperature range is still scarce. In this study, a low thermal expansion over a wide temperature range has been observed in the Ta2WO8 oxide semiconductor. It is a balance effect of the negative thermal expansion of the a axis and the positive thermal expansion of the b axis and the c axis to achieve low thermal expansion behavior. The results of the means of variable temperature X-ray diffraction and variable pressure Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated that the transverse vibration of bridging oxygen atoms is the driving force, which is corresponding to the low-frequency lattice modes with a negative Grüneisen parameter. The present study provides one wide band gap semiconductor Ta2WO8 with anomalous thermal expansion behavior.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6935, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836960

RESUMO

Across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (MPB; 5.3 million years ago, Ma), late Miocene cooling gave way to the early-to-middle Pliocene Warm Period. This transition, across which atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased to levels similar to present, holds potential for deciphering regional climate responses in Asia-currently home to more than half of the world's population- to global climate change. Here we find that CO2-induced MPB warming both increased summer monsoon moisture transport over East Asia, and enhanced aridification over large parts of Central Asia by increasing evaporation, based on integration of our ~1-2-thousand-year (kyr) resolution summer monsoon records from the Chinese Loess Plateau aeolian red clay with existing terrestrial records, land-sea correlations, and climate model simulations. Our results offer palaeoclimate-based support for 'wet-gets-wetter and dry-gets-drier' projections of future regional hydroclimate responses to sustained anthropogenic forcing. Moreover, our high-resolution monsoon records reveal a dynamic response to eccentricity modulation of solar insolation, with predominant 405-kyr and ~100-kyr periodicities between 8.1 and 3.4 Ma.

10.
Nanoscale ; 13(44): 18734-18740, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739537

RESUMO

A hierarchical microstructure constructed with graphitic-carbon-coated Ni3S2 nanoparticles anchored on N-doped mesoporous carbon nanoflakes was fabricated using a nickel-based micro-nano structure as a precursor and polydopamine as a carbon source. By optimizing the microstructure, the obtained Ni3S2/carbon composite compounded with the thickest carbon nanoflakes delivers ultrafast and stable Na-ion storage performance, and can maintain a reversible charge capacity of 372 mA h g-1 at a current density of 5 A g-1 over 250 cycles, and 316 mA h g-1 even at a current density of 20 A g-1 for 2000 cycles. These remarkable electrochemical properties can be attributed to its hierarchical microstructure of graphitic-carbon-coated Ni3S2 particles and N-doped mesoporous carbon nanoflakes, which provide easy accessibility to the electrolyte, fast electron transport and Na+ diffusion, and even relieve the strain caused by the volume expansion upon cycling.

11.
J Surg Res ; 271: 59-66, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate retrospectively an association between the number of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) per total number of SLNs per patient (i.e., the SLN positive rate, or SLN-PR) and non-SLN metastasis in breast cancer. METHODS: A large population (n = 2250) underwent SLN dissection from January 1, 2014 to January 1, 2020; 627 (27.87%) had at least one positive SLN (SLN+). Among these, 283 underwent axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection, and formed the test group. Four external validation groups comprised 43 patients treated in 2019. SLN mappings were examined using methylene blue and indocyanine green. Lymph node ultrasound, SLN-PR, and pathological characteristics were compared between patients with and without non-SLN metastasis. An SLN-PR cutoff value was calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Associations between clinicopathological variables and SLN-PR with non-SLN metastasis were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: The median age was 47 years (IQR: 42-56 y). The median number of resected SLNs was 4. Patients with positive non-SLNs (126/283, 44.52%) had a median of 2 positive node. SLN-PR > 0.333 was a risk factor for non-SLN positivity (area under the ROC curve, 0.726); and carried significantly higher risk of non-SLN metastasis (P < 0.001). This was validated in the external group. CONCLUSIONS: SLN-PR > 0.333 was associated with greater risk of non-SLN metastasis. This provides a reference to non-SLN metastasis in patients with SLN metastasis, an indication for ALN dissection and choice of adjuvant treatment.

12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827294

RESUMO

China has great potential for engaging in global actions on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) control. This study aims to summarize the process of global AMR governance and provide relevant policy recommendations on how China could take more initiative in the global AMR governance. We searched for academic articles and official document published or issued before December 2020 in e-journal databases, official websites of major organizations, and the relevant national ministries. This review revealed that global action on AMR control has experienced three stages: (1) The beginning stage (1980s and 1990s) when actions were mainly sponsored by high-income countries and AMR surveillance was focused on hospitals; (2) The rapid development stage (2000-2010) when global AMR governance began to concentrate on joint actions in multi-sectors, and developing countries were gradually involved in global actions; (3) The comprehensive stage (2011 to present) when global actions on AMR have covered various fields in different countries. China's AMR governance has fallen behind at the beginning but recently began to catch up with the global trend. The central government should take a far-fetched view, act decisively and positively towards the global efforts of addressing AMR to play a more active and greater role on the international stage.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664169

RESUMO

Saline loess is an important cause of environmental geo-issues in northwest China. In this research, electrical resistivity of loess with different moisture contents and NaCl concentrations was measured at three test frequencies. Results indicates the plastic limit (16%) and around 2% NaCl concentration are the critical content affecting the variation of loess electrical resistivity. The variation and conductivity for conductive paths are affected by moisture content and NaCl concentration respectively. Combined with three-phase composition and diffuse double-layer structure, new models that consider the effect of moisture content and NaCl concentration indicate good applicability in the validation datasets from different types of soil. A new model was verified by comparison between previous studies and experimental results. This research provides (i) theoretical support for the calibration of large-scale electrical field surveys and the observation of saline loess and (ii) a valuable reference for the prevention of environmental geo-crisis and the utilization of soil resources in northwestern China.

14.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 322, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654430

RESUMO

Ginsenosides, the main components isolated from Panax ginseng, can play a therapeutic role by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and reducing proliferation, invasion, metastasis; by enhancing immune regulation; and by reversing tumor cell multidrug resistance. However, clinical applications have been limited because of ginsenosides' physical and chemical properties such as low solubility and poor stability, as well as their short half-life, easy elimination, degradation, and other pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. In recent years, developing a ginsenoside delivery system for bifunctional drugs or carriers has attracted much attention from researchers. To create a precise treatment strategy for cancer, a variety of nano delivery systems and preparation technologies based on ginsenosides have been conducted (e.g., polymer nanoparticles [NPs], liposomes, micelles, microemulsions, protein NPs, metals and inorganic NPs, biomimetic NPs). It is desirable to design a targeted delivery system to achieve antitumor efficacy that can not only cross various barriers but also can enhance immune regulation, eventually converting to a clinical application. Therefore, this review focused on the latest research about delivery systems encapsulated or modified with ginsenosides, and unification of medicines and excipients based on ginsenosides for improving drug bioavailability and targeting ability. In addition, challenges and new treatment methods were discussed to support the development of these new tumor therapeutic agents for use in clinical treatment.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(42): 49907-49915, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637278

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) tin halide perovskites have recently emerged as very promising materials for eco-friendly lead-free photovoltaic devices. However, the fine control of the bulky organic cations orderly embedding into the perovskite structure with a narrow quantum-well width distribution and favorable orientation is rather complicated. In this study, we proposed to introduce the F-substituted phenylethlammonium (PEA) cation (i.e., 4-fluorophenethylammonium FPEA) in 2D tin halide perovskite, which may mitigate phase polydispersity and crystal orientation, thus potentially increasing attainable charge-carrier mobility. A strong interlayer electrostatic attraction between electron-deficient F atoms and its adjacent phenyl rings aligns the crystal structure, working together with the validated dipole interaction. Therefore, the fluorination of organic cation leads to orderly self-assembly of solvated intermediates and promotes vertical crystal orientation. Furthermore, the interlayer electrostatic interaction serves as a supramolecular anchor to stabilize the 2D tin halide perovskite structure. Our work uncovers the effect of interlayer molecular interaction on efficiency and stability, which contributes to the development of stable and efficient low-toxicity perovskite solar cells.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(42): 50057-50064, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648270

RESUMO

Interface engineering has been regarded as an effective strategy to improve thermoelectric (TE) performance by modulating electrical transport and enhancing phonon scattering. Herein, we develop a new interface engineering strategy in SnTe-based TE materials. We first use a one-step solvothermal method to synthesize SnTe powders decorated by Sb2Te3 nanoplates. After subsequent spark plasma sintering, we found that an ion-exchange reaction between the Sb2Te3 and SnTe matrixes happens to result in Sb doping and the formation of SnSb nanoparticles and the recrystallization of the nanograined SnTe at the grain boundaries of the SnTe matrix. Benefitting from this unique engineering, a significantly reduced lattice thermal conductivity of ∼0.64 W m-1 K-1 and a high zT of ∼1.08 (∼100% enhanced) at 873 K are achieved in SnTe-Sb0.06. Such improved TE properties are attributed to the optimized carrier concentration and valence band convergence due to the Sb doping and enhanced phonon scattering by interface engineering at the grain boundaries. This work has demonstrated a facile and effective method to realize high-TE-performance SnTe via interface engineering.

18.
Chem Sci ; 12(38): 12806-12811, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703567

RESUMO

The design of organometallic complexes is at the heart of modern organic chemistry and catalysis. Recently, on-surface synthesis has emerged as a disruptive paradigm to design previously precluded compounds and nanomaterials. Despite these advances, the field of organometallic chemistry on surfaces is still at its infancy. Here, we introduce a protocol to activate the inner diacetylene moieties of a molecular precursor by copper surface adatoms affording the formation of unprecedented organocopper metallacycles on Cu(111). The chemical structure of the resulting complexes is characterized by scanning probe microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, being complemented by density functional theory calculations and scanning probe microscopy simulations. Our results pave avenues to the engineering of organometallic compounds and steer the development of polyyne chemistry on surfaces.

19.
Opt Express ; 29(20): 31508-31519, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615242

RESUMO

A scalable distributed microwave photonic multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radar is proposed based on a bidirectional ring network. The network is constructed with a fiber ring on which a local node and several remote nodes are distributed. In the local node, radar signals are generated over different optical wavelengths based on external modulation. Employing wavelength-division multiplexing, the radar signals are sent to remote nodes through the fiber ring. In different remote nodes, radar signals modulated on corresponding wavelength are utilized for transmitting or photonic de-chirp processing. Benefiting from the bidirectional ring network, the proposed radar is suitable for large-scale distribution. Together with the pluggable remote nodes, the scalability of the radar is enhanced. A proof-of-concept experiment is demonstrated to verify the feasibility of the system. Measurements of two-dimensional position and velocity of targets are realized. The position error and velocity error are better than 8 cm and 0.20 m/s respectively.

20.
Adv Mater ; : e2104481, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613643

RESUMO

The production of enantiopure materials and molecules is of uttermost relevance in research and industry in numerous contexts, ranging from nonlinear optics to asymmetric synthesis. In the context of the latter, dehalogenation, which is an essential reaction step for a broad class of chemical reactions, is investigated; specifically, dehalogenation of prochiral 5-bromo-7-methylbenz(a)anthracene (BMA) on prototypical, chiral, intermetallic PdGa{111} surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Asymmetric halogen elimination is demonstrated by combining temperature-programmed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and density functional theory. On the PdGa{111} surfaces, the difference in debromination temperatures for the two BMA surface enantiomers amounts up to an unprecedented 46 K. The significant dependence of the dehalogenation temperature of the BMA surface enantiomers on the atomic termination of the PdGa{111} surfaces implies that the ensemble effect is pronounced in this reaction step. These findings evidence enantiospecific control and hence promote intrinsically chiral crystals for asymmetric on-surface synthesis.

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