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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127753, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777566

RESUMO

The effects of treatment with melatonin on ripening of 'Fuji' apples during storage at 1 °C for 56 d were investigated. The apples were harvested at the commercial ripening stage and treated with 1 mmol L-1 melatonin. Compared with the control, melatonin treated apples had significant reduced ethylene production (28 d-56 d) and weight loss (14 d-56 d) during storage (p < 0.05). Also, the melatonin treatment maintained better apple skin structure throughout storage. The reduced ethylene production was regulated by the decreased expressions of MdACO1, MdACS1, MdAP2.4 and MdERF109, based on RNA-Seq analysis, which was validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the activity of 3 enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were significantly increased in melatonin treated fruit (p < 0.05). Taken together, this study highlights the inhibitory effects of melatonin in ethylene biosynthesis and factors influencing postharvest quality in apple.

2.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(16): 2454-2467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029088

RESUMO

Aims: Dexmedetomidine (Dex) as a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, was widely used anesthetic in perioperative settings, whether Dex induces cardiac hypertrophy during perioperative administration is unknown. Methods: The effects of Dex on cardiac hypertrophy were explored using the transverse aortic constriction model and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Results: We reported that Dex induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with activated ERK, AKT, PKC and inactivated AMPK in both wild-type mice and primary cultured rat cardiomyocytes. Additionally, pre-administration of Dex protects against transverse aortic constriction induced-heart failure in mice. We found that Dex up-regulates the activation of ERK, AKT, and PKC via suppression of AMPK activation in rat cardiomyocytes. However, suppression of mitochondrial coupling efficiency and membrane potential by FCCP blocks Dex induced AMPK inactivation as well as ERK, AKT, and PKC activation. All of these effects are blocked by the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates Dex preconditioning induces cardiac hypertrophy that protects against heart failure through mitochondria-AMPK pathway in perioperative settings.

3.
Biomaterials ; 264: 120453, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069138

RESUMO

Thiol capped gold nanoparticles with small size, high dispersity, and broad light absorption covering ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) region have been developed for catalysis, fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT). The constitution of the metal core in such nanoparticles can strongly influence the luminescence, catalysis, and stability properties. However, to date, a corresponding investigation of the influence of the metallic core on the generation of reaction oxygen species (ROS) and its therapeutic efficiency towards tumor cells remains to be lacking. Herein, we fabricated bimetallic nanoparticles by introducing bismuth into captopril capped gold nanoparticles. Surprisingly, the introduction of the Bi was found enhance the photothermal effect of the nanoparticles to a great extent, and the variation trends for the thermal effect, ROS generation rate, and tumor cell inhibition effect were found to disparate with the changes in the Au and Bi composition. The origin of the photothermal effect was deduced through density functional theory calculations based on microscopic construction. Combined with the intrinsic photodynamic effect, the bimetallic nanoparticles showed an outstanding tumor cell inhibition effect. Furthermore, due to the excellent CT imaging property, our designed nanoparticles provide the exciting possibility to realize CT imaging guided and light-mediated tumor therapy.

4.
Small ; : e2001343, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107221

RESUMO

Multimodal synergistic therapy based on photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), and chemodynamic therapy (CDT) has attracted increasing attention in cancer therapy. However, the scant therapeutic efficiency is always a barrier for further application. Herein, a smart tumor microenvironment (TME) responsive nanocatalysts are developed by adopting Fe-Mn layered double hydroxides (FeMn-LDH) as an effective photothermal nanocarrier to load mesoporous silica and chlorin e6 (Ce6)-covalently coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCSP) for multimodal imaging for directed therapy. Under acidic TME, FeMn-LDH degrades into Fe3+ and Mn2+ ions to initiate a Fenton-like reaction inducing CDT and enhancing magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, Fe3+ can decompose H2 O2 to oxygen (O2 ), enhancing PDT guided by UCSP. As a representative noninvasive imaging probe, the upconversion luminescence will recover after decomposition of FeMn-LDH, and provide high-resolution upconversion luminescent imaging guidance for pinpointed PDT. Moreover, the photothermal properties of FeMn-LDH can further enhance CDT effects. The synergistic therapy and multifunctional imaging can realize the integration of diagnosis and treatment.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(41): 45772-45788, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969221

RESUMO

The endogenous tumor microenvironment (TME) can signally influence the therapeutic effects of cancer, so it is necessary to explore effective synergistic therapeutic strategies based on changing of the TME. Here, a catalytic cascade nanoplatform based on manganese (Mn)-etched dendritic mesoporous silicon nanoparticles (designated as DMMnSiO3 NPs) loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) and natural glucose oxidase (GOD) is established (designated as DIG nanocomposites). As the Mn-O bonds in DMMnSiO3 NPs are susceptive to mildly acidic and reducing environments, the DIG nanocomposites can be rapidly decomposed because of the biodegradation of DMMnSiO3 NPs once internalized into the tumor by the consumption of glutathione (GSH) in TME to weaken the antioxidant capability of the tumors. The released Mn2+ could catalyze endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to generate oxygen (O2) to relieve the hypoxia in TME. The generation of O2 may promote the catalyzed oxidation of glucose by GOD, which will cut off nutrient supplies, accompanied by the regeneration of H2O2. The regenerated H2O2 could be sequentially catalyzed by Mn2+ to compensate for the consumed O2, and thus, the catalytic cascade process between Mn2+ and GOD was set up. As a result, a synergistic therapeutic strategy based on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Mn2+, starvation therapy by O2-compensation enhanced catalyzing glucose, dual-model (GSH consumption and O2 compensation) enhanced photodynamic therapy, and effective photothermal therapy of ICG (η = 23.8%) under 808 nm laser irradiation has been successfully established.

6.
Nanoscale ; 12(37): 19203-19212, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926059

RESUMO

An important strategy to improve the performance of catalysts is loading nanoparticle co-catalysts of better dispersion and conductivity. In this work, the ZIF-67-derived CoP quantum dot (QD) anchored graphitized carbon skeleton as a co-catalyst is loaded on CdS nanorods (NRs), while the CoP QDs derived from ZIF-67 are anchored to the carbon skeleton under phosphation and carbonization simultaneously. The porous, graphitized carbon skeleton can not only disperse CoP QDs, increasing active sites for the hydrogen reduction reaction, but also provide electron transfer channels, promoting electron transfer and increasing conductivity. In addition, the metallicity of CoP QDs makes it possible to form Schottky junctions, which is beneficial to the electron transfer at the interface. The results show that the composite photocatalyst can extensively improve the photocatalytic activity and stability, the H2 production rate is 104 947 µmol h-1 g-1 under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm), up to 55.2 times that of bare CdS NRs, the apparent quantum yield (AQY) reaches a high value of 32.16% at 420 nm, and the structure of the photocatalyst did not change after the reaction. This work provides an innovative method for the preparation of highly efficient noble metal-free photocatalysts for the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen energy, which has bright prospects in industrial application.

7.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939520

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) are well-developed light therapy methods for cancer; however, both have a few areas that need improvement. A sustained PDT effect depends on the sustained generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); therefore, adjusting the type of photosensitizer or the reaction mechanism to prolong the duration of the oxidation-reduction reaction is a possible solution for the continuation of the PDT effect. Further, if PTT could be combined with other treatments, it would bring about a more satisfactory therapeutic effect. To increase the treatment effect of the above two therapeutic methods, a collaborative treatment model of photo/chemodynamic therapy (PCDT) and PTT is needed and is the focus of this study. On the one hand, PCDT is a therapy that integrates PDT with Fenton-like reactions, and Fenton-like reactions can help PDT to produce more ROS by making better use of H2O2 in the tumor microenvironment. On the other hand, the PTT effect can also promote PCDT effects to some extent because rising temperature can elevate the redox reaction rate. Therefore, a copper oxide semiconductor photosensitizer was selected in this research to realize the abovementioned therapeutic purposes and experimental concepts. A porous silica carrier can facilitate the uniform attachment of the copper oxide photosensitizer to the SiO2 surface to form a relatively uniform nanostructure, and the nanoporous structure can increase the performance of the whole material to a certain extent. Based on these perspectives, SiO2@CuO nanotube (NT), an agent of both Fenton-like photosensitization and photothermal reagent, is synthesized by the hydrothermal co-precipitation template approach to shrink the tumor through the combined effect of PCDT and PTT. In this system, copper ions can participate in the Fenton-like reactions and make better use of H2O2 to generate more ROS. Herein, 808 nm light was chosen for irradiation because of its suitable excitation ability, applicable penetration and low intrinsic damage. The experimental results show that SiO2@CuO NT is a promising agent that combines PCDT and PTT for cancer treatment. This work provides guidance for the synthesis of Fenton-like photosensitizers for the PCDT effect.

8.
FASEB J ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780898

RESUMO

Potential underlying molecular mechanisms for uric acid-induced lipid metabolic disturbances had not been elucidated clearly. This study investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of uric acid on the development of lipid metabolic disorders. We collected blood samples from 100 healthy people and 100 patients with hyperuricemia for whom serum lipid analysis was performed. Meanwhile, a mouse model of hyperuricemia was generated, and lipidomics was performed on liver tissues, comparing control and hyperuricemia groups, to analyze lipid profiles and key metabolic enzymes. Uric acid directly induced serum lipid metabolic disorders in both humans and mice based on triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Through lipidomic analysis, 46 lipids were differentially expressed in hyperuricemic mouse livers, and the phosphatidylcholine composition was altered, which was mediated by LPCAT3 upregulation. High-uric acid levels-induced p-STAT3 inhibition and SREBP-1c activation in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, LPCAT3-knockdown significantly attenuated uric acid-induced p-STAT3 inhibition, SREBP-1c activation, and lipid metabolic disorders in L02 cells. In conclusion, uric acid induces lipid metabolic disturbances through LPCAT3-mediated p-STAT3 inhibition and SREBP-1c activation. LPCAT3 could be a key regulatory factor linking hyperuricemia and lipid metabolic disorders. These results might provide novel insights into the clinical treatment of hyperuricemia.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4184, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826889

RESUMO

Oncogenic processes exert their greatest effect by targeting regulators of cell proliferation. Studying the mechanism underlying growth augmentation is expected to improve clinical therapies. The ovarian tumor (OTU) subfamily deubiquitinases have been implicated in the regulation of critical cell-signaling cascades, but most OTUs functions remain to be investigated. Through an unbiased RNAi screen, knockdown of OTUD5 is shown to significantly accelerate cell growth. Further investigation reveals that OTUD5 depletion leads to the enhanced transcriptional activity of TRIM25 and the inhibited expression of PML by altering the ubiquitination level of TRIM25. Importantly, OTUD5 knockdown accelerates tumor growth in a nude mouse model. OTUD5 expression is markedly downregulated in tumor tissues. The reduced OTUD5 level is associated with an aggressive phenotype and a poor clinical outcome for cancers patients. Our findings reveal a mechanism whereby OTUD5 regulates gene transcription and suppresses tumorigenesis by deubiquitinating TRIM25, providing a potential target for oncotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Células HEK293 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Ubiquitinação
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771141

RESUMO

In tomato, red color is a key commercial trait and arises from the accumulation of carotenoids. Previous studies have revealed that melatonin promotes lycopene accumulation and ethylene production. However, it is unclear if melatonin similarly increases other carotenoids, and whether any increase of carotenoids in tomato fruit is directly related to ethylene production. In this study, changes in carotenoid profiles during fruit ripening were investigated in control (CK) and in fruits treated with melatonin (M50). The α, ß-carotene, and lycopene levels were significantly increased in M50, and there was increased carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression. We also observed up-regulated transcript levels of SlRIN, SlCNR, and SlNOR in M50 compared to CK. To better understand the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis by melatonin and its potential response to endogenous ethylene, we tested an ethylene-insensitive mutant, Never ripe (Nr). Melatonin-treated Nr failed to accumulate more carotenoids compared to CK, although there was significantly changed ethylene production. Additionally, there was no general upregulation of expression of ripening-related genes in this mutant under melatonin treatment. These results suggest melatonin function might require ethylene to promote carotenoid synthesis in tomato.

11.
Analyst ; 145(16): 5664-5669, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643716

RESUMO

Polydopamine nanospheres (PDA) were designed to serve as a new substrate for surface-enhanced desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS). Compared with conventional organic matrices, the PDA substrate showed superior LDI performance for analyzing a wide variety of environmental pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bisphenols, benzophenones, sulfonamides, perfluorinated compounds and estrogens. Benzoapyrene was used to evaluate the ability of quantitative analysis and its corresponding limit of detection (LOD) of as low as 0.1 ng was achieved. High sensitivity and good reproducibility of PDA-based SELDI-MS allowed us to determine ultratrace PAHs in airborne particulate matters (PM2.5), and the corresponding concentration of BaP in different PM2.5 were 5.32, 8.97 and 9.79 ng m-3. Significantly, PDA exhibits the characteristics of simple synthesis, low cost, non-toxicity and less matrix interference, which provides the possibility for the sensitive analysis of organic small molecule pollutants at low concentrations in complex environmental samples.

12.
Nature ; 585(7823): 135-140, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610344

RESUMO

Chemokines and their receptors mediate cell migration, which influences multiple fundamental biological processes and disease conditions such as inflammation and cancer1. Although ample effort has been invested into the structural investigation of the chemokine receptors and receptor-chemokine recognition2-4, less is known about endogenous chemokine-induced receptor activation and G-protein coupling. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structures of interleukin-8 (IL-8, also known as CXCL8)-activated human CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) in complex with Gi protein, along with a crystal structure of CXCR2 bound to a designed allosteric antagonist. Our results reveal a unique shallow mode of binding between CXCL8 and CXCR2, and also show the interactions between CXCR2 and Gi protein. Further structural analysis of the inactive and active states of CXCR2 reveals a distinct activation process and the competitive small-molecule antagonism of chemokine receptors. In addition, our results provide insights into how a G-protein-coupled receptor is activated by an endogenous protein molecule, which will assist in the rational development of therapeutics that target the chemokine system for better pharmacological profiles.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/química , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação Alostérica , Sítio Alostérico , Quimiocinas/classificação , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-7, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700627

RESUMO

Purpose/aim of the study: Posterior circulation stroke (PCS) accounts for 20% of ischemic stroke, and vertebrobasilar stenosis is an important cause of PCS. Notably, not all patients with artery stenosis progress to ischemic stroke, and one of the important reason is that collateral circulation construction plays important protection role in this process.Clinical presentation: Here, we present the case of a 71-year-old male who presented with lightheadedness and three episodes of loss of consciousness after bilateral subclavian artery stenting. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated severe stenosis of the left vertebral artery, and the bilateral subclavian artery was kept open. The patient was then given the left vertebral artery stenting in an effort to resolve the vascular stenosis. As expected, he achieved a complete remission after stenting. However, six months later the patient suffered from loss of consciousness again. Repeat DSA confirmed restenosis of the left vertebral artery, and revealed a collateral flow to the left vertebral artery which fed by external carotid collateral branches. Then DSA was performed after 12 months, and another collateral circulation involving thyrocervical trunk was also found supplying flow to the left vertebral artery. In this process, the frequency of loss of consciousness gradually decreased as the collateral circulation construction.Conclusion: Through this case, we observe the whole process of the collateral circulation construction. Moreover, this case serves as a testament to the variability and complexity of vertebrobasilar arteriopathies, suggesting promotion of collateral flow offers the opportunity for outcome improvement.

14.
Cell ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342735

RESUMO

Nucleotide analog inhibitors, including broad-spectrum remdesivir and favipiravir, have shown promise in in vitro assays and some clinical studies for COVID-19 treatment, this despite an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp12 drug interactions. Here, we examine the molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA replication by determining the cryo-EM structures of the stalled pre- and post- translocated polymerase complexes. Compared with the apo complex, the structures show notable structural rearrangements happening to nsp12 and its co-factors nsp7 and nsp8 to accommodate the nucleic acid, whereas there are highly conserved residues in nsp12, positioning the template and primer for an in-line attack on the incoming nucleotide. Furthermore, we investigate the inhibition mechanism of the triphosphate metabolite of remdesivir through structural and kinetic analyses. A transition model from the nsp7-nsp8 hexadecameric primase complex to the nsp12-nsp7-nsp8 polymerase complex is also proposed to provide clues for the understanding of the coronavirus transcription and replication machinery.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 161: 681-691, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544588

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disease featured by the over-expanded polyglutamine (polyQ)-induced protein aggregation. Using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a model system, we show that water soluble polysaccharide extracted from the herb Peganum harmala L. (PS1) not only reduces polyQ aggregation but also alleviates the associated neurotoxicity. Genetic and pharmacologic analysis suggested that PS1 treatment acts though proteasome-mediated protein degradation pathway to inhibit polyQ aggregation. Notably, the efficacy of PS1 is aroused specifically by co-incubation with live Escherichia coli OP50, which is the sole food source for worms. Further UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis determined the bioactivity of polyQ inhibition, which is composed of several oligosaccharides, including stachyoses, verbascoses, trisaccharides and tetrasaccharides composed of galacturonic acids. Together, our study revealed a potential drug target for further HD treatment and pinpointed the possibility that the secreted metabolites produced from bacteria treated with various compounds may provide direct beneficial effect to human bodies.

16.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(7): 370, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504203

RESUMO

Core-shell structured magnetic covalent organic framework (Fe3O4@COF) nanospheres were rapidly synthesized at room temperature using the monodisperse Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) as magnetic core and benzene-1,3,5-tricarbaldehyde (BTA) and 3,3'-dihydroxybenzidine (DHBD) as two building blocks (denoted as Fe3O4@BTA-DHBD), respectively. They can serve as a mass spectrometry probe for rapid and high-throughput screening of bisphenols (BPs) from pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). The Fe3O4@BTA-DHBD nanospheres showed some superior features involving average pore size distribution (2.82 nm), high magnetization values (42.5 emu g-1), high specific surface area (82.96 m2 g-1), and good chemical/thermal stability. It was used as both ideal adsorbent for enrichment of BPs and new substrate to assist ionization in SELDI-TOF-MS. The method exhibited good linearity in the range 0.05-4000 ng mL-1 with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9920. Low limits of detection (LODs) (500 pg mL-1 for bisphenol A (BPA), 2 pg mL-1 for bisphenol B (BPB), 28 pg mL-1 for bisphenol C (BPC), 60 pg mL-1 for bisphenol F (BPF), 33 pg mL-1 for bisphenol AF (BPAF), 200 pg mL-1 for bisphenol BP (BPBP), 10 pg mL-1 for bisphenol S (BPS), 90 pg mL-1 for tetrabromobisphenol A (BPA(Br)4), and 380 pg mL-1 for tetrabromobisphenol S (BPS(Br)4)) and good recoveries (80.6-115%) of BPs in PPCPs were achieved. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of spot-to-spot (n = 10) and sample-to-sample (n = 5) were in the ranges 5-11% and 5-12%, respectively. The dual-function platform was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of BPs in PPCPs. It not only expanded the scope of the application of COFs but also provided an alternative strategy for the determination of hazardous compounds in PPCPs. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the synthesis of core-shell structured magnetic covalent organic framework nanospheres (Fe3O4@COFs) and its application in the analysis of bisphenols by using Fe3O4@BTA-DHBD nanospheres as a MS probe based on surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

17.
Cell ; 182(2): 417-428.e13, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526208

RESUMO

Nucleotide analog inhibitors, including broad-spectrum remdesivir and favipiravir, have shown promise in in vitro assays and some clinical studies for COVID-19 treatment, this despite an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp12 drug interactions. Here, we examine the molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA replication by determining the cryo-EM structures of the stalled pre- and post- translocated polymerase complexes. Compared with the apo complex, the structures show notable structural rearrangements happening to nsp12 and its co-factors nsp7 and nsp8 to accommodate the nucleic acid, whereas there are highly conserved residues in nsp12, positioning the template and primer for an in-line attack on the incoming nucleotide. Furthermore, we investigate the inhibition mechanism of the triphosphate metabolite of remdesivir through structural and kinetic analyses. A transition model from the nsp7-nsp8 hexadecameric primase complex to the nsp12-nsp7-nsp8 polymerase complex is also proposed to provide clues for the understanding of the coronavirus transcription and replication machinery.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , RNA Replicase/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Replicação Viral
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 128: 110274, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464305

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aggressively growing tumors are characterized by significant variations in metabolites, including lipids, and can involve the elevated synthesis ofde novo fatty acids. METHODS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics and lipidomics were performed to compare human gastric cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues from clinical patients. A series of cellular and molecular biological methods were applied to validate the lipidomics results. RESULTS: Palmitic acid (PA) was found to be significantly downregulated in gastric cancer tissues, and it was found that a high concentration of PA specifically inhibited cell proliferation and impaired cell invasiveness and migrationin vitro in AGS, SGC-7901, and MGC-803 gastric cancer cell lines. Moreover, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1c) was activated in human gastric cancer tissues, and it promoted the expression of a series of genes associated with the synthesis of fatty acids, such as SCD1 and FASN. SREBP-1c knockdown rescued the migration and invasion defects in AGS and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings confirmed the variation in fatty acid synthesis in gastric cancer and identified SREBP-1c as a promising target for gastric cancer treatment.

19.
Science ; 368(6492): 779-782, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47347

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] outbreak has caused a global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, resulting in tens of thousands of infections and thousands of deaths worldwide. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [(RdRp), also named nsp12] is the central component of coronaviral replication and transcription machinery, and it appears to be a primary target for the antiviral drug remdesivir. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of COVID-19 virus full-length nsp12 in complex with cofactors nsp7 and nsp8 at 2.9-angstrom resolution. In addition to the conserved architecture of the polymerase core of the viral polymerase family, nsp12 possesses a newly identified ß-hairpin domain at its N terminus. A comparative analysis model shows how remdesivir binds to this polymerase. The structure provides a basis for the design of new antiviral therapeutics that target viral RdRp.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , RNA Replicase/química , RNA Replicase/ultraestrutura , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/ultraestrutura , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/farmacologia , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Desenho de Fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios Proteicos , RNA Replicase/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
20.
Science ; 368(6492): 779-782, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277040

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] outbreak has caused a global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, resulting in tens of thousands of infections and thousands of deaths worldwide. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [(RdRp), also named nsp12] is the central component of coronaviral replication and transcription machinery, and it appears to be a primary target for the antiviral drug remdesivir. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of COVID-19 virus full-length nsp12 in complex with cofactors nsp7 and nsp8 at 2.9-angstrom resolution. In addition to the conserved architecture of the polymerase core of the viral polymerase family, nsp12 possesses a newly identified ß-hairpin domain at its N terminus. A comparative analysis model shows how remdesivir binds to this polymerase. The structure provides a basis for the design of new antiviral therapeutics that target viral RdRp.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , RNA Replicase/química , RNA Replicase/ultraestrutura , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/ultraestrutura , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/farmacologia , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Desenho de Fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios Proteicos , RNA Replicase/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
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