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1.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236848

RESUMO

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae) is an evergreen tree that has been used to treat lung diseases. In this study, the toxicity profile of indole alkaloids from leaves of A. scholaris was investigated. In acute toxicity tests, mice were administered total alkaloids (TA) and five indole alkaloids. In a chronic toxicity test, rats were continuously administered TA (50, 100, and 300 mg/kg bw) for 13 weeks, followed by a 4-week recovery. A single administration of TA affected the behavior of mice, and at 12.8 g/kg bw, prone position, shortness of breath, wheezing, and convulsion were observed. The half-lethal dose (LD50) in mice was 5.48 g/kg bw, almost 2740 times the clinical dose in humans. Among the five indole alkaloids, the maximum tolerance dose in mice ranged from 0.75 to 4 g/kg bw. The TA-treated rats did not die and showed no adverse effects or dose-dependent changes in weight or food and water consumption, despite fluctuations in hematological and biochemical parameters compared with historical data. Furthermore, both gross and histopathological observations revealed no abnormalities in any organ. With daily oral administration to rats, the non-observed-adverse-effect-level of TA was 100 mg/kg bw. The results indicate that TA is safe for clinical use.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241961

RESUMO

As the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidities continues to rise, driven by increased prevalence of obesity and an aging population, so does the demand for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore cardiac blood flow. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are commonly prescribed to hypertensive diabetic patients to prevent diabetic nephropathy. However, evidence suggests that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may increase the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) following coronary angiography (CAG) and PCI. We therefore conducted a retrospective, multicenter study applying the propensity score matching method to evaluate the impact of RAAS inhibition on CIAKI in diabetic patients undergoing CAG/PCI. Among 2240 subjects that met the inclusion criteria, 704 patients in the ACEIs/ARBs group were successfully matched to eligible control patients. The incidence of CIAKI (serum creatinine increase ≥0.5 mg/dl or ≥25% from baseline within 72 h post-CAG/PCI) was significantly higher in the ACEIs/ARBs group than in the control group (26.6% vs. 16.2%, P<0.001). However, control patients showed increased risk of overall adverse cardiovascular events (4.1% vs. 1.8% for ACEIs/ARBs; P=0.016). These data indicate that RAAS inhibition increases the risk of CIAKI in diabetic patients, but confers protection against early cardiovascular events.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(11): 113601, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242677

RESUMO

The prominent Dicke superradiant phase arises from coupling an ensemble of atoms to a cavity optical field when an external optical pumping exceeds a threshold strength. Here we report a prediction of the superradiant instability driven by Anderson localization, realized with a hybrid system of the Dicke and Aubry-André (DAA) model for bosons trapped in a one-dimensional (1D) quasiperiodic optical lattice and coupled to a cavity. Our central finding is that for bosons condensed in a localized phase given by the DAA model, the resonant superradiant scattering is induced, for which the critical optical pumping of the superradiant phase transition approaches zero, giving an instability driven by the Anderson localization. The superradiant phase for the DAA model with or without a mobility edge is investigated, showing that the localization driven superradiant instability is in sharp contrast to the superradiance as widely observed for a Bose-Einstein condensate in extended states, and should be insensitive to the temperature of the system. This study unveils a novel effect of localization on the Dicke superradiance, and is well accessible based on the current experiments.

4.
J Neurol Sci ; 413: 116769, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169741

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glucocorticoid (GC) is probably related to biological aging, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. Cushing's disease (CD) could represent a unique human model for examining the effects of prolonged exposure to hypercortisolism and its relationship with aging. Thus, we studied the alterations of neurites in CD patients with Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI). METHODS: CD patients (n = 15) and healthy control subjects (n = 15) were included in this study. Orientation dispersion index (Odi), neurite density index (Ndi), partial fraction of free water (fiso), partial fraction of extracellular water (fec) were examined in a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: Significant altered NODDI parameters were found in CD patients. Some of these alterations were correlated with current age. Additionally, increased dendritic density was found in cerebellar of CD patients. CONCLUSION: Hypercortisolism relative reductions of the dendritic density were correlated with current age in several regions of CD patients. Our study enhances the understanding of the link between the aging and GC.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162743

RESUMO

AIMS: His-Purkinje system pacing has been demonstrated as a synchronized ventricular pacing strategy via pacing His-Purkinje system directly, which can decrease the incidence of adverse cardiac structure alteration compared with right ventricular pacing (RVP). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the effects of His-Purkinje system pacing and RVP in patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction dysfunction. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched from the establishment of databases up to 15 December 2019. Studies on long-term clinical outcomes of His-Purkinje system pacing and RVP were included. Chronic paced QRS duration, chronic pacing threshold, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), all-cause mortality, and heart failure hospitalization were collected for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies comprising 2348 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with RVP group, patients receiving His-Purkinje system pacing showed improvement of LVEF (mean difference [MD], 5.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.38-6.92), shorter chronic paced QRS duration (MD, - 39.29; 95% CI, - 41.90 to - 36.68), higher pacing threshold (MD, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.71-0.89) and lower risk of heart failure hospitalization (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44-0.96) during the follow-up. However, no statistical difference existed in LVEDV, LVESV and all-cause mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggests that His-bundle pacing is more suitable for the treatment of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction dysfunction.

6.
JCI Insight ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213710

RESUMO

Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, but the molecular pathways determining the differentiation potential of these cells remain unclear. In this paper, we report that microRNA (miR)-148a serves as a critical regulator for moDC differentiation. Firstly, miR-148a deficiency impaired the moDC development in vitro and in vivo. Following mechanism study manifested that MAFB, a transcription factor that hampers moDC differentiation, was a direct target of miR-148a. In addition, promoter study further identified that miR-148a could be transcriptionally induced by PU.1, which is crucial for moDC generation. MiR-148a ablation eliminated the inhibition of PU.1 on MAFB. Furthermore, we found that miR-148a increased in monocytes from psoriasis patients, and miR-148a deficiency or intradermal injection of antagomir-148a immensely alleviated the development of psoriasis-like symptoms in a psoriasis-like mouse model. Therefore, these results identify a pivotal role for PU.1-miR-148a-MAFB circuit in moDC differentiation and suggest a potential therapeutic avenue for autoimmunity.

7.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215983

RESUMO

BRG1-associated factor 250a (BAF250a) is a component of the SWI/SNF adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling complex, which has been shown to control chromatin structure and transcription. BAF250a was reported to be a key component of the gene regulatory machinery in embryonic stem cells controlling self-renewal, differentiation, and cell lineage decisions. Here we constructed Baf250aF/F ;Gdf9-cre (Baf250aCKO ) mice to specifically delete BAF250a in oocytes to investigate the role of maternal BAF250a in female germ cells and embryo development. Our results showed that BAF250a deletion did not affect folliculogenesis, ovulation, and fertilization, but it caused late embryonic death. RNA sequencing analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, tissue morphogenesis, histone modification, and nucleosome remodeling were perturbed in Baf250aCKO MII oocytes. We showed that covalent histone modifications such as H3K27me3 and H3K27ac were also significantly affected in oocytes, which may reduce oocyte quality and lead to birth defects. In addition, the DNA methylation level of Igf2r, Snrpn, and Peg3 differentially methylated regions was decreased in Baf250aCKO oocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of Igf2r and Snrpn were significantly increased. The mRNA expression level of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3l, and Uhrf1 was decreased, and the protein expression in these genes was also reduced, which might be the cause for impaired imprinting establishment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that BAF250a plays an important role in oocyte transcription regulation, epigenetic modifications, and embryo development.

8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(4): 54, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172435

RESUMO

Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a Gram-positive bacterium closely related to many refractory infections of human and shows the resistant ability against the antibacterial effects of silver. Simvastatin is a semisynthetic compound derived from lovastatin and a hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A(HMG-COA) reductase inhibitor showing certain inhibitive effects on bacteria. The main purpose of this study was to establish and characterize the Ag+/silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-resistant E. faecalis, and further evaluate the function of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the silver resistance and the effect of simvastatin on the silver-resistance of E. faecalis. The results showed that the established silver-resistant E. faecalis had strong resistance against both Ag+ and AgNPs and simvastatin could decrease the silver-resistance of both original and Ag+/AgNPs-resistant E. faecalis. The Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) and mapping images showed that the silver ions or particles aggregated and confined in the EPS on surface areas of the cell membrane when the silver-resistant E. faecalis were incubated with Ag+ or AgNPs. When the simvastatin was added, the silver element was not confined in the EPS and entered the bacteria. These findings may indicate that the silver resistance of E. faecalis was derived from the entrapping function of EPS, but simvastatin could compromise the function of EPS to decrease the silver resistant ability of E. faecalis.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195500

RESUMO

A post-synthetic transmetallation self-assembly strategy was developed for the preparation of near infrared (NIR) emitting Yb8L6 cubes, which could not be synthesized through direct metal-ligand assembly procedures. Metal-adaptive critical structural transformations from La6L3 triangular prism to Ln8L6 cubes were observed along the lanthanide series, the latter of which showed size-selective guest binding behaviour toward poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

10.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186388

RESUMO

To construct an artificial intelligence system with high efficient information integration and computing capability like the human brain, it is necessary to realize the biological neurotransmission and information processing in artificial neural network (ANN), rather than a single electronic synapse as most reports. Because the power consumption of single synaptic event is ∼10 fJ in biology, designing an intelligent memristors-based 3D ANN with energy consumption lower than femtojoule-level (e.g., attojoule-level) and faster operating speed than millisecond-level makes it possible for constructing a higher energy efficient and higher speed computing system than the human brain. In this paper, a flexible 3D crossbar memristor array is presented, exhibiting the multilevel information transmission functionality with the power consumption of 4.28 aJ and the response speed of 50 ns per synaptic event. This work is a significant step toward the development of an ultrahigh efficient and ultrahigh-speed wearable 3D neuromorphic computing system.

11.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(Suppl 2): 50, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) often occur as a result of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The use of data mining for detecting effects of drug combinations on ADE has attracted growing attention and interest, however, most studies focused on analyzing pairwise DDIs. Recent efforts have been made to explore the directional relationships among high-dimensional drug combinations and have shown effectiveness on prediction of ADE risk. However, the existing approaches become inefficient from both computational and illustrative perspectives when considering more than three drugs. METHODS: We proposed an efficient approach to estimate the directional effects of high-order DDIs through frequent itemset mining, and further developed a novel visualization method to organize and present the high-order directional DDI effects involving more than three drugs in an interactive, concise and comprehensive manner. We demonstrated its performance by mining the directional DDIs associated with myopathy using a publicly available FAERS dataset. RESULTS: Directional effects of DDIs involving up to seven drugs were reported. Our analysis confirmed previously reported myopathy associated DDIs including interactions between fusidic acid with simvastatin and atorvastatin. Furthermore, we uncovered a number of novel DDIs leading to increased risk for myopathy, such as the co-administration of zoledronate with different types of drugs including antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) and analgesics (acetaminophen, fentanyl, gabapentin, oxycodone). Finally, we visualized directional DDI findings via the proposed tool, which allows one to interactively select any drug combination as the baseline and zoom in/out to obtain both detailed and overall picture of interested drugs. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a more efficient data mining strategy to identify high-order directional DDIs, and designed a scalable tool to visualize high-order DDI findings. The proposed method and tool have the potential to contribute to the drug interaction research and ultimately impact patient health care. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://lishenlab.com/d3i/explorer.html.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208364

RESUMO

To investigate the whole functional brain networks of active Cushing disease (CD) patients about topological parameters (small world and rich club et al.) and compared with healthy control (NC). Nineteen active CD patients and twenty-two healthy control subjects, matched in age, gender, and education, underwent resting-state fMRI. Graph theoretical analysis was used to calculate the functional brain network organizations for all participants, and those for active CD patients were compared for and NCs. Active CD patients revealed higher global efficiency, shortest path length and reduced cluster efficiency compared with healthy control. Additionally, small world organization was present in active CD patients but higher than healthy control. Moreover, rich club connections, feeder connections and local connections were significantly decreased in active CD patients. Functional network properties appeared to be disrupted in active CD patients compared with healthy control. Analyzing the changes that lead to abnormal network metrics will improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CD.

13.
Foot Ankle Int ; : 1071100720908858, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The all-inside arthroscopic Broström-Gould technique gained particular attention among clinicians and researchers due to its high rate of satisfactory results. Thus far, there is a lack of evidence regarding the differences in clinical outcomes between the use of 1 anchor and 2 anchors. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in clinical function and activity levels in patients treated with 1 or 2 anchors in all-inside arthroscopic Broström-Gould surgery for chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). METHODS: The data of 75 patients with CLAI (unilateral) admitted from May 2013 to July 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with all-inside arthroscopic Broström-Gould surgery. The patients were divided into a single-anchor group (n = 36) and double-anchor group (n = 39) according to the number of anchors used. There was no statistical difference in general characteristics between the 2 groups before surgery. After 36 to 72 months of follow-up, the pain visual analog scale (VAS) score, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, Karlsson Ankle Functional Score (KAFS), and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) were used to evaluate and compare the clinical function results between the 2 groups. RESULTS: The incidence of wound complications; reaction to the suture; injury to the nerve, blood vessel, or tendon; and length of postoperative hospitalization were similar between the 2 groups. At the last follow-up, there was no significant difference in the VAS and AOFAS scores between single- and double-anchor groups, but the KAFS and FAOS in the double-anchor group were significantly higher than in the single-anchor group. Additionally, more patients in the double-anchor group returned to preinjury sports activities. CONCLUSION: All-inside arthroscopic Broström-Gould surgery for the treatment of CLAI yielded a better functional effect and better recovery to preinjury mobility when 2 anchors were used instead of a single anchor. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, comparative study.

14.
Orthop Surg ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional outcomes of arthroscopic anatomical repair of anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) in the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI) during medium- and long-term follow-up. METHODS: From September 2014 to August 2017, the data of 37 patients (23 males, 14 females; 12 left ankles, 25 right ankles) aged between 21 and 56 years, with an average age of 32.17 ± 6.35 years, presenting with CLAI, was retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 32 injuries were caused by sprain and five injuries were caused by car accidents. The course of the disease lasted for 12 to 60 months, with an average of 26.07 ± 13.29 months. All patients had intact skin around the ankle and no skin lesions. All patients underwent arthroscopic anatomical repair of ATFL, with the fixation of one to two anchors. Pre- and post-operative visual analogue scales (VAS), the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Score (AOFAS), and the Karlsson Ankle Functional Score (KAFS) were compared to evaluate the curative effect of the operation. RESULTS: The operation was successful in all 37 cases. The operation time ranged from 40 to 75 min, with an average of 51.25 ± 11.49 min. After surgery, all incisions healed in stage I and there were no complications such as nerve, blood vessel and tendon injury, implant rejection, or suture rejection. Hospital stays of postoperative patients were 3 to 5 days, with an average of 3.77 ± 1.36 days. All patients were followed for 24 to 45 months, averaging 33.16 ± 10.58 months. For three patients with CLAI combined with mild limitation of subjective ankle movement, joint activity was normal after rehabilitation function exercise and proprioceptive function training for 2 months. At the final follow-up, ankle pain had disappeared completely. The ankle varus stress test and ankle anterior drawer test were both negative. Range of joint motion was good. There was no lateral instability of the ankle and all patients returned to normal gait. The mean VAS score decreased to 1.12 ± 0.13, the AOFAS score increased to 92.53 ± 4.87, and the KAFS score increased to 93.36 ± 6.15. All the follow-up indexes were significantly different from those before surgery. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic anatomical repair of ATFL for CLAI is precise, with less surgical trauma and reliable medium- and long-term effect.

15.
Food Chem ; 318: 126495, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146308

RESUMO

Wheat-based products are staple foods for over a third of the world's population. However, most wheat-based staple foods are provided with a high water content to maintain naturally chewable mouthfeel, which leads to a short shelf life and limits their distribution and marketing. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms and dynamics that drive the quality deterioration is therefore essential for obtaining alternative technologies for optimal quality and extended shelf life. Here, we provide the basis for the physicochemical, structural, and molecular changes occurring in various wheat products during storage, intending to elucidate the underlying deterioration causes. Generally, more desirable qualities are obtained for fresh wheat products, both in appearance and mouthfeel. During storage, changes in the physicochemical properties, structure, main constituents, and water status contribute to the quality deterioration. Based on these changes, deterioration mechanisms are summarized to provide both theoretical and practical references for the quality regulation of high-moisture wheat-based food.

16.
Food Chem ; 318: 126519, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151926

RESUMO

Ovalbumin (Oval)-ribose glycation induced by vacuum freeze-drying (VFD) was studied. The protein conformational changes based on fluorescence, ultraviolet and circular dichroism spectra were evident with the increase in VFD time. The glycated sites and the average degree of substitution per peptide molecule (DSP) were determined using LC-HRMS. Lysine was shown to be the sole glycated site. Two glycated sites and the minimum DSP values were found during the first 6 h of VFD and increased to nine and the maximum DSP values after 48 h of VFD. The glycated sites located on the protein surface were mostly more active than those in the folded or helical regions, and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic environment could also influence DSP values. This study gave relationships between VFD time and the conformational structure and glycated sites of VFD-treated Oval-ribose system, providing a theoretical basis for VFD technique-based protein food and drug industries.

17.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139157

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between the total number of top-quality blastocysts (TQB) developed in the first IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle (ICSI) and live births after a single blastocyst transfer (SBT)? DESIGN: Pregnancy outcomes from 1336 infertile women who had undergone their first IVF/ICSI treatment and accepted a first-time embryo transfer with a single fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst between January 2016 and August 2018 were assessed retrospectively. The restricted cubic splines method was used to evaluate the association between the number of TQB, and ongoing pregnancies and live births. RESULTS: A significant non-linear functional form was found between the number of TQB and the ongoing pregnancies and live births (P < 0.05). The odds of an ongoing pregnancy or live birth were similar, at about 11% or higher for each additional TQB up to five TQB (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.21). After this, pregnancy outcomes nearly plateaued, indicating that the number of TQB was not related to pregnancy when it was greater than five. CONCLUSIONS: The quantity of TQB available for transfer or cryopreservation can provide important predictors for pregnancy and live birth after the first embryo transfer cycle with a single blastocyst. This valuable information may assist with the future application of SBT.

18.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(2): 149-53, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effects of debridement and bone grafting with internal fixation via anterior approach in treatment of tuberculosis of lower cervical vertebrae. METHODS: The clinical data of 15 patients with tuberculosis of lower cervical vertebrae who accepted the treatment of one-stage debridement and bone grafting with internal fixation from June 2010 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 9 males and 6 females, aged from 39 to 72 years with an average of (54.67±10.75) years. The lesion segment was C4 to C6. Pre- and post-operative neurologic functions were evaluated by ASIA grade. All the patients underwent the X-ray films of positive and lateral of cervical spine before and after the operation and accepted the periodic review of CT to evaluate the bone grafting. RESULTS: All the 15 operations were successful, no neurological or vascular injury occurred during the operation, and all patients were followed up for 18 to 52 months. The clinical symptoms improved significantly during the follow-up period and CT showed good bone grafting fusion. One patient suffered a relapse of the illness 3 years later, but was healed during the follow-up visit by strengthening the anti tuberculosis therapy. CONCLUSION: For the patients with vertebral destruction and loss of cervical stability, one-stage debridement and bone grafting with internal fixation via anterior approach has definite curative effects. On the basis of standard anti tuberculosis treatment before operation, the long-term standard anti-tuberculosis treatment after operation is the key to healing the tuberculosis of lower cervical vertebrae.


Assuntos
Fusão Vertebral , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral , Adulto , Idoso , Transplante Ósseo , Vértebras Cervicais , Desbridamento , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155350

RESUMO

Nature has evolved a wide range of strategies to create self-assembled protein nanostructures with structurally defined architectures that serve a myriad of highly specialized biological functions. With the advent of biological tools for site-specific protein modifications and de novo protein design, a wide range of customized protein nanocarriers have been created using both natural and synthetic biological building blocks to mimic these native designs for targeted biomedical applications. In this review, different design frameworks and synthetic decoration strategies for achieving these functional protein nanostructures are summarized. Key attributes of these designer protein nanostructures, their unique functions, and their impact on biosensing and therapeutic applications are discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Volume 11 is June 8, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

20.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159213

RESUMO

Microbial communities drive diverse processes that impact nearly everything on this planet, from global biogeochemical cycles to human health. Harnessing the power of these microorganisms could provide solutions to many of the challenges that face society. However, naturally occurring microbial communities are not optimized for anthropogenic use. An emerging area of research is focusing on engineering synthetic microbial communities to carry out predefined functions. Microbial community engineers are applying design principles like top-down and bottom-up approaches to create synthetic microbial communities having a myriad of real-life applications in health care, disease prevention, and environmental remediation. Multiple genetic engineering tools and delivery approaches can be used to 'knock-in' new gene functions into microbial communities. A systematic study of the microbial interactions, community assembling principles, and engineering tools are necessary for us to understand the microbial community and to better utilize them. Continued analysis and effort are required to further the current and potential applications of synthetic microbial communities.

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