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1.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(5): 426-432, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914318

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the role of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) in bladder neck contracture (BNC) after transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate (TUERP). METHODS: This study included 300 BPH patients undergoing TUERP, aged 51-89 (69.19 ± 8.43) years, with the prostate volume of 14.4-355.8 (63.18 ± 47.63) ml and preoperative IPSS of 15-35 (26.07 ± 5.9), QOL score of 3-6 (4.43 ± 0.67), PSA content of 0.17-23.16 (2.94 ± 3.77) ug/L, urinary leukocyte increase in 50 cases, post-void residual urine volume (PVR) of 0-440 (83.53 ± 86.85) ml, and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) of 2.3-14.5 (7.77 ± 3.47) ml/s. During TUERP, we collected the tissues from the bladder neck at 5 and 7 o'clock as well as the BPH tissue and the tissue from the residual prostate for HE staining, immunohistochemistry (the SP method) and examination of the infiltration degree of inflammatory cells and expressions of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß3. During the 6-24 months follow-up, 6 of the patients were confirmed with BNC based on the clinical symptoms and the results of uroflowmetry and cystoscopy, and underwent transurethral bladder neck incision and detection of the expressions of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß3 in the bladder neck tissue with BNC. RESULTS: The bladder neck tissue without BNC was mainly composed of smooth muscle and fibrous tissues with local infiltration of inflammatory cells, and the residual prostate tissue primarily comprised fibrous and muscle tissues, mixed with a little prostatic epithelial tissue. The bladder neck tissue with BNC, compared with that harvested during the initial TUERP, exhibited significantly increased expression of TGF-ß1 (ï¼»68.20 ± 10.88ï¼½% vs ï¼»36.14 ± 7.62ï¼½%, P < 0.05), decreased expression of TGF-ß3 (ï¼»8.55 ± 4.73ï¼½% vs ï¼»20.77 ± 8.69ï¼½%, P < 0.05), and enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells (P < 0.05). The bladder neck tissue without BNC, in comparison with the BPH tissue, showed dramatically up-regulated expressions of TGF-ß1 (ï¼»27.05 ± 8.21ï¼½% vs ï¼»1.61 ± 0.69ï¼½%, P < 0.001) and TGF-ß3 (ï¼»14.09 ± 4.19ï¼½% vs ï¼»0.32 ± 0.11ï¼½%, P < 0.001) and increased infiltration of inflammatory cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: After TUERP, the expression of TGF-ß1 is increased, that of TGF-ß3 decreased and the infiltration of inflammatory cells enhanced in the bladder neck tissue with BNC, which suggests that BNC may be related to the expression of TGF-ß and that BNC after TUERP could be prevented by regulating the expression of TGF-ß.


Assuntos
Contratura , Bexiga Urinária , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contratura/etiologia , Contratura/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 557, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arabidopsis protein disulfide isomerase 1 (AtPDI1) has been demonstrated to have disulfide isomerase activity and to be involved in the stress response. However, whether the anti-stress function is directly related to the activities of thiol-disulfide exchange remains to be elucidated. RESULTS: In the present study, encoding sequences of AtPDI1 of wild-type (WT) and double-cysteine-mutants were transformed into an AtPDI1 knockdown Arabidopsis line (pdi), and homozygous transgenic plants named pdi-AtPDI1, pdi-AtPDI1m1 and pdi-AtPDI1m2 were obtained. Compared with the WT and pdi-AtPDI1, the respective germination ratios of pdi-AtPDI1m1 and pdi-AtPDI1m2 were significantly lower under abiotic stresses and exogenous ABA treatment, whereas the highest germination rate was obtained with AtPDI1 overexpression in the WT (WT- AtPDI1). The root length among different lines was consistent with the germination rate; a higher germination rate was observed with a longer root length. When seedlings were treated with salt, drought, cold and high temperature stresses, pdi-AtPDI1m1, pdi-AtPDI1m2 and pdi displayed lower survival rates than WT and AtPDI1 overexpression plants. The transcriptional levels of ABA-responsive genes and genes encoding ROS-quenching enzymes were lower in pdi-AtPDI1m1 and pdi-AtPDI1m2 than in pdi-AtPDI1. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results clearly suggest that the anti-stress function of AtPDI1 is directly related to the activity of disulfide isomerase.

3.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739331

RESUMO

Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. cause Blackleg on potato worldwide (Charkowski, 2018). Potato plants (cv. Innovator V4 or Favorita) with blackleg symptoms (vascular browning of crown stems or curled leaves, Fig. S1) were observed in the field in Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia in 2018, and in Chengdu, Sichuan Province in 2020, in China. The disease incidence were around 10% and 20% in Xilingol League (20 ha) and Chengdu (40 ha), respectively. Diseased plants (5 from Xilingol League, and 2 from Chengdu) were collected to isolate the pathogen. Blackleg symptomatic stems were soaked in 75% ethanol for 2 min, rinsed and ground in sterile distilled water. Serial tenfold dilutions of the above solution were plated onto the crystal violet pectate agar (CVP) plate (Ge et al., 2018). Two to 3 days after incubation at 28°C, the bacterial colonies which digested pectin from the media and developed pit on CVP plates were purified and sequenced for identification using the universal 16S rRNA gene primer set 27F/1492R (Monciardini et al., 2002). Three colony sequences that showed more than 99% sequence identity to Pectobacterium polaris type strain NIBIO1392 (NR_159086.1) were submitted to the GenBank ( accession numbers: MT242579, MT242580, and MZ489432). Additionally, six housekeeping genes proA (MZ39581-MZ395583), gyrA (MZ395569-MZ395571), icdA (MZ395572-MZ39574), mdh (MZ395575-MZ395577), gapA (MZ395578- MZ395580), and rpoS (MZ39584-MZ395586) of these three isolates were amplified and sequenced (Ma et al., 2007, Waleron et al., 2008). All strains show 99% to 100% identity with Pectobacterium polaris strain NIBIO1392. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences (Fig. S2) and concatenated sequences of the housekeeping genes (Fig. S3) of the 3 isolates were constructed using MEGA 6.0 software (Tamura et al., 2013). Koch's postulate was performed on potato seedlings (cv. Favorita) by injecting 100 µl bacterial suspension (107 CFU/ml) or sterile phosphate-buffered solution into the crown area of the stems and kept at 80% humidity and 21°C for 2 days. Seven days after inoculation, the infected area of the inoculated seedlings rotten and turned black or even lodged, while the controls were symptomless (Fig. S4). It was observed that isolate MZ489432 from Chengdu, Sichuan Province was more virulent than the isolates from Xilingol League (Fig. S4). Bacterial colonies were reisolated from these symptomatic seedlings and identified using the same methods described above. Blackleg on potato plants has been reported to be caused by Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense, and Pectobacterium parmentieri in China (Zhao et al., 2018; Cao et al., 2021). To our knowledge, this is the first report of blackleg of potato caused by Pectobacterium polaris in China. We believe that this report will draw attention to the management of this pathogen in China.

4.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(32): 675-680, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594966

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic? Dramatic heatwaves frequently occurred simultaneously with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide in 2020 and posed public health challenges. Public risk perceptions and behavioral responses to this compound risk need to be addressed. What is added by this report? During heatwaves, the proportion of individuals who perceived COVID-19 to be more concerning than heatwaves decreased by 9.4%, and the behavior of continuously wearing masks reduced by 20.6%. Heatwave exposures also corresponded to an average decline of 58% in the likelihood of continuously wearing masks and a decline of 41% in taking well-ventilated public transportation. What are the implications for public health practice? At-risk populations should be effectively prepared to respond to compounded risks from heatwaves occurring at the same time as COVID-19 outbreaks to better address threats caused by climate change.

5.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(4): 61-64, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595003

RESUMO

Summary: What is already known about this topic? While the establishment of an air quality health index (AQHI) in some countries yielded positive outcomes in communicating health risks of air pollution, China lagged behind in developing its own AQHI. Several research studies of AQHI were conducted in China, but this scientific research has not yet been applied to standards. What is added by this report? This report introduced the method of calculation of Chinese AQHI to be launched in pilot cities. The index in this report was established on the basis of fully drawing on international experience and considering Chinese characteristics. What are the implications for public health practice? The purpose of this report is to guide unified application of the AQHI throughout China and translate scientific evidence into public services to promote public health. Based on the AQHI construction method in this report, an AQHI real-time computing platform and data transfer interface will be developed. The release of AQHI aims to communicate health risk of air pollution and provide scientific health protective guidance to the general public, accordingly to protect people's health.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39689-39700, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357753

RESUMO

To compensate for the photoelectric losses of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the development of high-quality textured absorbers with excellent light-harvesting ability and carrier extraction/transfer efficiency is of great significance to achieve a high-efficiency stable photovoltaic output. In this paper, we propose an in situ growth passivation technique to construct high-performance textured absorbers by adding a 2-amino-4-chlorophenol (AC) modifier consisting of multiple groups during the growth of textured perovskite. Initially, according to the Ostwald ripening mechanism, the strongly polar dimethylformamide (DMF) was used as the etchant to systematically study its synergistic effect on the morphology evolution, crystallization kinetics, light-trapping capability, and photovoltaic loss of textured absorbers. An appropriate amount of DMF induces formamidinium cations (FA+) to replace methylammonium cations (MA+) in the perovskite lattice while etching the absorber to form a texture configuration, which effectively broadens the spectral absorption range, thus greatly improving the light-trapping capacity and short-circuit current density of planar PSCs. In contrast, excess DMF deteriorates the device performance due to the excessive corrosion of the perovskite. Moreover, the introduction of the AC modifier is of great significance for passivating deep-level defects and accelerating the charge extraction/transfer. Owing to the electron-donating nature of the Lewis base, the hydroxyl groups with a higher electron density in AC molecules can better coordinate with Pb2+ ion defects, which effectively improves the crystallinity of the textured perovskite, thus suppressing the nonradiative recombination and ultimately improving the photovoltaic outputs of modified devices, particularly the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage. Thus, the photovoltaic performance of the AC-modified planar PSC is significantly better than that of the conventional textured device, with a reverse efficiency of 21.18% and forward efficiency of 20.77%. Owing to the synergistic effect of (1) the superior optical properties of the textured perovskite induced by DMF and (2) excellent charge dynamics driven by AC, the functionalized devices without encapsulation also exhibited good photovoltaic output stability and reproducibility. This work provides novel insights into the growth mechanism of textured absorbers and paves the way for more efficient and stable planar PSCs.

7.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420359

RESUMO

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) common scab can be caused by multiple pathogenic Streptomyces spp. worldwide. Potato tubers (cv. Favorita) with severe pitted common scab symptoms were observed at a small farm (2 hectares) during harvest in Anshun, Guizhou province in early May 2020. The disease incidence was around 10%, and symptomatic samples were collected to isolate the pathogen. Two isolates, ZR-IMU141 and ZR-IMU146 (Accession number MW995958 and MW995959 respectively), showed more than 99% sequence identity to S. stelliscabiei sequences (Accession No. HM018085). Five house-keeping genes for multi-locus sequence analyze (MLSA) of Streptomycetaceae were amplified, sequenced and uploaded to NCBI: atpD (MZ343164 and MZ343165), gyrB (MZ343162 and MZ343163), recA (MZ343166 and MZ343167), rpoB (MZ343168and MZ343169) and trpB (MZ343170 and MZ343171). All the genes show over 98% identity with S. stelliscabiei. Phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA gene sequence and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) were constructed. The two isolates contain pathogenicity genes txtAB, nec1, and tomA, which was confirmed by PCR. To complete Koch's postulates, 9 potato seedlings (cv. Favorita, 15 centimeters high), were transferred to new pots and inoculated with spore suspensions of ZR-IMU141 and ZR-IMU146 (104 CFU/ml), or water as a negative control. Two months later, potato tubers inoculated with either ZR-IMU141 or ZR-IMU146 exhibited typical symptoms of potato common scab, such as superficial or deep, raised, pitted, or polygonal lesions like the field symptoms, but the negative controls remained asymptomatic. The pathogens were reisolated from the lesions and confirmed identical to the original isolate by 16s rRNA gene sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. stelliscabiei causing potato common scab in Guizhou province, China. We believe that this report will draw attention to the study and management of the increased pool of scab pathogens in China.

8.
New Phytol ; 232(5): 2124-2137, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449897

RESUMO

Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., secrete effectors to modulate plant immune responses and establish a parasitic relationship with host plants. However, the functions and plant targets of C-type lectin (CTL)-like effectors of Meloidogyne incognita remain unknown. Here, we characterized a CTL-like effector of M. incognita, MiCTL1a, and identified its target and role in nematode parasitism. In situ hybridization demonstrated the expression of MiCTL1 in the subventral glands; and in planta, immunolocalization showed its secretion during M. incognita parasitism. Virus-induced gene silencing of the MiCTL1 reduced the infection ability of M. incognita in Nicotiana benthamiana. The ectopic expression in Arabidopsis not only increased susceptibility to M. incognita but also promoted root growth. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that MiCTL1a interacts with Arabidopsis catalases, which play essential roles in hydrogen peroxide homeostasis. Knockout or overexpression of catalases showed either increased or reduced susceptibility to M. incognita, respectively. Moreover, MiCTL1a not only reduced catalase activity in vitro and in planta but also modulated stress-related gene expressions in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that MiCTL1a interacts with plant catalases and interferes with catalase activity, allowing M. incognita to establish a parasitic relationship with its host by fine-tuning responses mediated by reactive oxygen species.

9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104926, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446202

RESUMO

Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are widespread nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes that are involved in a variety of biological processes, including responses to oxidative stress. Although studies have been conducted on NDPKs in mammals and some plants, there is scant research on insect NDPKs, especially in honey bees. In the present study, we isolated AccNDPK from Apis cerana cerana. Sequence analysis showed that AccNDPK has high homology with many NDPKs and contains a highly conserved NDPK active site motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis, AccNDPK has a relatively recent evolutionary relationship with NDPKs in other hymenopteran insects. AccNDPK was found to be highly expressed in newly emerged honey bees and muscle tissues, and RT-qPCR analysis and bacteriostatic assays showed that the expression level of AccNDPK is affected by abnormal temperature, UV light, H2O2, heavy metals, and various pesticides. After AccNDPK knockdown, antioxidant-related genes, including AccCAT, AccCYP4G11, AccGSTS4, AccTpx1 and AccMsrA, were upregulated, whereas AccGSTD, AccGST1, AccHSP22.6 and AccTrx1 were downregulated. Furthermore, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly increased, and the tolerance of bees to oxidative stress caused by cyhalothrin was reduced by silencing of AccNDPK. Given these findings, we speculate that AccNDPK plays an important role in the oxidative stress response of A. cerana cerana.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Núcleosídeo-Difosfato Quinase , Animais , Antioxidantes , Abelhas/genética , Núcleosídeo-Difosfato Quinase/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Filogenia
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112524, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274836

RESUMO

Emerging evidence supports that exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with the metabolic syndrome. As the main neuroendocrine axis in mammals, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis's circadian rhythm (CR) plays an essential role in regulating metabolic homeostasis. Our previous studies found that ambient PM2.5 exposure caused CR disorder of the critical enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in mouse liver and adipose tissues. However, the impact of ambient PM2.5 exposure on the HPA axis is not fully illustrated yet. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly exposed to ambient PM2.5 or filtered air for ten weeks via a whole-body exposure system. Rhythmic oscillations of clock genes in the hypothalamus and adrenal gland were characterized. The effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure on clock gene expression and rhythmic expression of molecules related to glucocorticoid synthesis were also examined. Firstly, a more robust CR of clock genes was demonstrated in the adrenal gland than that in the hypothalamus. Secondly, PM2.5 exposure significantly inhibited the expression of Clock at ZT8 in the hypothalamus. However, both circadian oscillation and expression levels of Bmal1, Cry1, Cry2, and Rorα were increased significantly by ambient PM2.5 exposure in the adrenal gland. Moreover, abnormal rhythmic oscillation patterns of corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone were observed after ambient PM2.5 exposure, with no change at the expression levels. Finally, the expression of Cyp11b1 was markedly decreased at ZT0 in the adrenal gland of PM2.5 exposed mice. Our findings provide new insights into the ambient PM2.5 exposure-induced metabolic syndrome from the perspective of CR disturbances.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Material Particulado , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281260

RESUMO

Males have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) than females. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) exposure increases CVD risk with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are important to vascular structure and function and can contribute to the development of CVDs. The aims of the present study were to determine if sex differences exist in the effect of PM exposure on circulating EPCs in mice and, if so, whether oxidative stress plays a role. Male and female C57BL/6 mice (8-10 weeks old) were exposed to PM or a vehicle control for six weeks. ELISA analysis showed that PM exposure substantially increased the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1ß in both males and females, but the concentrations were significantly higher in males. PM exposure only increased the serum levels of TNF-α in males. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that ROS production was significantly increased by PM treatment in males but not in females. Similarly, the level of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+ and Sca-1+/Flk-1+) was significantly decreased by PM treatment in males but not in females. Antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively prevented PM exposure-induced ROS and inflammatory cytokine production and restored circulating EPC levels in male mice. In sharp contrast, circulating EPC levels remained unchanged in female mice with PM exposure, an effect that was not altered by ovariectomy. In conclusion, PM exposure selectively decreased the circulating EPC population in male mice via increased oxidative stress without a significant impact on circulating EPCs in females independent of estrogen.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/patologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovariectomia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
12.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108761, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965533

RESUMO

Inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues (e.g., liver, visceral adipose tissue [VAT]) plays a major role in obesity and insulin resistance. Recruitment of innate immune cells drives the dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. We aimed to seek the role of Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3), a pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immunity, obesity and the metabolic disorder. TLR3 expression in liver and VAT from diet induced obese mice and in VAT from overweight women was examined. Body weight, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in TLR3 wild-type and knockout (KO) mice on a chow diet (CD) or high-fat diet for 15 weeks. At euthanasia, blood was collected, and plasma biochemical parameters and adipokines were determined with commercial kits. Flow cytometry was used to measure macrophage infiltration and activation in VAT. Standard western blot, immunohistochemistry and quantative PCR were used to assess molecules in pathways about lipid and glucose metabolism, insulin and inflammation in tissues of liver and VAT. Utilizing human and animal samples, we found that expression of TLR3 was upregulated in the liver and VAT in obese mice as well as VAT in overweight women. TLR3-deficiency protected against high-fat diet induced obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and lipid accumulation. Lipolysis was enhanced in VAT and hepatic lipogenesis was inhibited in TLR3 KO animals. Macrophages infiltration into adipose tissue was attenuated in TLR3 KO mice, accompanied with inhibition of NF-κB-dependent AMPK/Akt signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that TLR3 ablation prevented obesity and metabolic disorders, thereby providing new mechanistic links between inflammation and obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities in lipid/glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Intolerância à Glucose , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Obesidade , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(34): 47367-47374, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890220

RESUMO

Previous studies have proved that particulate air pollution was related to adverse cardiovascular effects. However, most studies focused on the acute effects of short-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and the general population. Evidence from long-term cohort studies based on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients was scarce. Our study aimed to explore the impact of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on the mortality among post-CVD patients. This is a cohort study that involved 5143 post-CVD patients in Beijing, China. We collected records of CVD patients from hospitals in Beijing, China from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 and followed up these patients from hospital admission until December 31, 2016. The vital status of the patients was determined using the National Death Surveillance Point System (DSPs). The PM2.5 concentrations were obtained from the Atmospheric Composition Analysis Group. The Cox regression models were used for data analyses. Our findings suggested that increased mortality of CVD patients with an HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.63) was related to long-term exposure to PM2.5. The association was stronger for cardiovascular-related mortality, especially for mortality from myocardial infarction (MI). The HR for any CVD mortality was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.94), HR for MI mortality was 1.82 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.83). Long-term PM2.5 exposure may significantly affect the survival of CVD patients. Compared with the general population, patients with CVD are more susceptible to PM2.5 exposure. Increased attention to the management of CVD patients is warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(6): 1152-1161, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605513

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidences have indicated that fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure is associated with the occurrence and development of hypertension. The present study aims to explore the effects of parental PM2.5 exposure on blood pressure in offspring and elucidate the potential mechanism. The parental male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to concentrated PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) using Shanghai Meteorological and Environmental Animal Exposure System (Shanghai-METAS) for 16 weeks. At week 12, the mice were assigned to breed offspring. The male offspring mice were further exposed to PM2.5 or FA as above method. During the parental exposure, the average PM2.5 concentration was 133.7 ± 53.32 µg/m3 in PM chamber, whereas the average concentration in FA chamber was 9.4 ± 0.23 µg/m3 . Similarly, during the offspring exposure, the average concentration in PM and FA chamber were 100.76 ± 26.97 µg/m3 and 9.15 ± 0.15 µg/m3 , respectively. The PM2.5 -exposed offspring mice displayed the elevation of blood pressure, the increase of angiotensin II (Ang II), the decrease of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Ang (1-7) in serum when compared with the FA-exposed offspring mice. The similar results displayed in the proteins expression of ACE2, AT1R, and Ang (1-7) in vessel and kidney. More importantly, parental PM exposure further induced the increase in serous Ang II and the protein expression of AT1R in vessel, but decrease in ACE2 and Ang (1-7). The serous Ang II was positively associated with splenic T helper type 17 (Th17) cell population and serous IL (interleukin)-17A, but negatively associated with T regular (Treg) cell population and serous IL-10. The results suggested that parental air pollution exposure might induce the elevation of offspring blood pressure via mediate Th17- and Treg-related immune microenvironment.


Assuntos
Material Particulado , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , China , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Material Particulado/toxicidade
15.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630693

RESUMO

Blackleg on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) is caused by Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. (Charkowski, 2018) worldwide. From June to August in both 2018 and 2019, cases of blackleg were investigated in potato-producing areas in Hulunbuir, Ulanqab, and Hohhot in Inner Mongolia, China. The total surveyed field area was about 200 hectares. The plants showed typical blackleg symptoms, such as black and stunted stems or curled leaves (Fig. S1), and the number of infected plants were counted. The disease showed an incidence of around 8%. Five diseased plants were collected from a 10 ha potato field with approximately 75,000 potato plants (cv. mainly Favorita and Xisen) per hectare. Two-centimeter-long samples of symptomatic stems were removed from the selected plants using a sterile scalpel. The surfaces of the samples were disinfected with 75% ethanol for 2 min. They were then rinsed with sterile distilled water and soaked in 5 ml sterile distilled water for 30 min. Aliquots of three tenfold dilutions of this solution were plated onto the crystal violet pectate agar (CVP) plate and incubated for 3 days at 28°C (Ge et al., 2018). A single bacterial colony that showed pitting on CVP plates (Fig. S2) was picked with a toothpick, streaked onto nutritional agar (She et al., 2013) to obtain pure colonies. Amplification of a 1.4-kb segment containing 16S rRNA gene was performed on the pure colonies using the universal primer set 27F/1492R (Monciardini et al., 2002). The amplicons were sequenced and submitted to the GenBank Nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of four isolates (GenBank accession numbers: MN626412, MN626449, MN625916, and MT235556) showed more than 99% sequence identity to Pectobacterium parmentieri type strain RNS 08-42-1A (NR_153752.1) (Fig. S3). Six housekeeping genes proA (MT427753-MT427756), gyrA (MT427757-MT427760), icdA (MT427761-MT427764), mdh (MT427765-MT427768), gapA (MT427769-MT427772), and rpoS (MT427773-MT427776) of these four isolates were amplified and sequenced (Ma et al., 2007, Waleron et al., 2008). All sequences showed 99% to 100% sequence identity with Pectobacterium parmentieri strains. Phylogenetic trees (Fig. S4) were constructed by multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) using MEGA 6.0 software (Tamura et al., 2013). The samples were tested against Koch's postulates on potato seedlings (cv. Favorita) by injecting 100 µl bacterial suspension (107 CFU/ml) or sterile phosphate buffered solution into the stems 2 cm above the base (Ge et al., 2018). The seedlings were incubated at 21°C and 80% humidity (She et al., 2013). Three to 5 days after inoculation, only infected seedlings showed similar symptoms as those observed in the field: the infected area turned black and rotten (Fig. S5). Bacterial colonies isolated from these symptomatic seedlings were identified using the same methods described above and were identified as inoculated Pectobacterium parmentieri strains. Blackleg on potato plants has been reported to be caused by Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in China (Zhao et al., 2018). To our knowledge, this is the first report of blackleg of potato caused by Pectobacterium parmentieri in Inner Mongolia, China. We believe that this report will draw attention to the identification of this pathogen, which is essential to disease management.

16.
Pharmacol Res ; 165: 105439, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493658

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for anxiety. Berberine (BBR) has shown efficacy in the treatment of diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes through regulating the gut microbiota. However, the effects of BBR on postmenopausal anxiety are still unclear. The purpose of the study is to test whether BBR ameliorates anxiety by modulating intestinal microbiota under estrogen-deficient conditions. Experimental anxiety was established in specific pathogen-free (SPF) ovariectomized (OVX) rats, which were then treated with BBR for 4 weeks before undergoing behavioral tests. Open field and elevated plus maze tests demonstrated that BBR treatment significantly ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors of OVX rats compared with vehicle-treated counterparts. Moreover, as demonstrated by 16S rRNA sequencing and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis, BBR-treated OVX rats harbored a higher abundance of beneficial gut microbes, such as Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia, and exhibited increased equol generation. Notably, gavage feeding of BBR had no significant anti-anxiety effects on germ-free (GF) rats that underwent ovariectomy, whereas GF rats transplanted with fecal microbiota from SPF rats substantially phenocopied the donor rats in terms of anxiety-like symptoms and isoflavone levels. This study indicates that the gut microbiota is critical in the treatment of ovariectomy-aggravated anxiety, and that BBR modulation of the gut microbiota is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating postmenopausal symptoms of anxiety.

17.
Inflammation ; 44(3): 985-998, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415536

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/pulmonary emphysema is driven by the dysregulated airway inflammation and primarily influenced by the interaction between cigarette smoking (CS) and the individual's susceptibility. The inflammation in COPD involves both innate and adaptive immunity. By binding to its specific ligands, chemokine receptor CXCR3 plays an important role in regulating tissue inflammation and damage. In acute animal model challenged with either CS or pathogens, CXCR3 knockout (KO) attenuated lung inflammation and pathology. However, the role of CXCR3 in CS-induced chronic airway inflammation and pulmonary emphysema remains unknown. In this present study, we investigated the effect of CXCR3 in CS-induced pulmonary emphysema in an animal model, and the association between CXCR3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and COPD susceptibility in human subjects. We found that after chronic exposure to side stream CS (SSCS) for 24 weeks, CXCR3 KO mice demonstrated significant airspace enlargement expressed by mean linear intercept (Lm) compared with the wild-type (WT) mice. Consistently, CXCR3 KO mice had significantly higher BAL fluid macrophages and neutrophils, TNFα, and lung homogenate MMP-9 and MMP-12. Through genetic analysis of CXCR3 polymorphisms in a cohort of COPD patients with Han Chinese ethnicity, one CXCR3 SNP, rs2280964, was found to be genetically related to COPD susceptibility. Furthermore, CXCR3 SNP rs2280964 was significantly associated with the levels of serum MMP-9 in COPD patients. Our data from both animal and human studies revealed a novel role of CXCR3 possibly via influencing MMP9 production in the pathogenesis and progression of CS-associated COPD/pulmonary emphysema.

18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(6): 1813-1822, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The substantial disease burden attributed to heat waves, and their increasing frequency and intensity due to climate change, highlight the importance of understanding the health consequences of heat waves. We explore the mortality risk due to heat wave characteristics, including the timing in the seasons, the day of the heat wave, the intensity and the duration, and the modifying effect of temperature zones. METHODS: Heat waves were defined as ≥ 2 days with a temperature ≥99th percentile for the county from 1 May through 30 September. Heat waves were characterized by their intensity, duration, timing in the season, and day of the heat wave. Within each county, we estimated the total non-accidental death and cardiovascular disease mortality during each heat wave compared with non-heat wave days by controlling for potential confounders in summer. We combined individual heat wave effect estimates using a random-effects model to calculate overall effects at the temperature zone and national levels. RESULTS: The average daily total number of non-accidental deaths was nine in the warm season (across all the counties). Approximately half of the daily total number of non-accidental deaths were cardiovascular-related deaths (approximately four persons per day). The average and maximum temperatures across the study area were 23.1 °C (range: -1.2-35.9 °C) and 28.3 °C (range: 5.4-42.8 °C), respectively. The average relative humidity during the study was 68.9% (range: 8.0-100.0%). Heat waves increase the risk of total non-accidental death by 15.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 12.5, 18.9] compared with non-heat wave periods, and the risk of cardiovascular-related death increases by 22.0% (95% CI: 16.9, 27.4). The risk of non-accidental death during the first heat wave of the season increases by 16.3% (95% CI: 12.6, 20.2), the risk during the second heat wave increases by 6.3% (95% CI: 2.8, 9.9) and during subsequent heat waves increases by -2.1% (95% CI: -4.6, 0.4). The first day and the second to third days of heat waves increase the risk of total non-accidental death by 11.7% (95% CI: 7.6, 15.9) and 17.0% (95% CI: 13.1, 21.0), respectively. Effects of heat waves on mortality lasted more than 4 days (6.3%, 95% CI: 2.4, 10.5) and are non-significantly different from the first day of heat waves. We found non-significant differences of the heat wave-associated mortality risks across mid-, warm and subtropical temperature zones. CONCLUSIONS: In China, the effect of heat waves on mortality is acute, and varies by certain characteristics of heat waves. Given these results, national heat wave early warning systems should be developed, as well as precautions and protection warranted according to characteristics of heat waves.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
19.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(2): 177-184, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936519

RESUMO

Both cold stress and ambient fine particle particulate matter (PM2.5 ) has been reported to aggravate and induce respiratory problems like asthma, but the mechanism involved in that has not been fully understood. Therefore, the present study is to explore the mechanism involved in the increased susceptibility and severity of asthma caused by cold stress and PM2.5 exposure. Urban PM2.5 of Shanghai was concentrated to simulate a PM2.5 -polluted environment with an average concentration of 400 µg/m3 , where 1-month young C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 2 months under cold stress (2°C). Co-exposure of cold stress and PM2.5 in childhood of mice led to significant infiltration of inflammatory cells in the peribronchial region or airspaces and the thickening or fibrosis of alveolar septum, increased OVA-specific IgE in serum and total cells, eosinophil cells, and the levels of inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-8, IL-1ß, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthma mice. Moreover, mice in co-exposure group presented a significantly high cough feature, reduced catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA) elevated in BALF; increased ratio of Th2/Th1 and the markable inhibition of Th17 differentiation toward Treg cells in the adulthood of asthma mice. Cold stress and PM2.5 co-exposure in childhood may promote the deterioration of asthma symptoms in adulthood of mice by increasing inflammatory cytokines, ROS formation, Th2/Th1 imbalance, and suppressing the differentiation of Th17 toward Treg cells, which will help to provide experimental references when making some therapeutic strategies in allergic diseases through focusing on some natural solutions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Asma/etiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Criança , China , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115743, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022547

RESUMO

Stroke and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are two important public health concerns worldwide. Although numerous studies have reported the associations between PM2.5 and stroke, scientific evidence in China is incomplete, particularly the effect of PM2.5 on the acute incidence and national acute health burdens of stroke attributed to PM2.5 pollution. This study identified about 131,947 registered patients and 23,018 deaths due to stroke in 10 counties located in various regions from 2013 to 2017. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, this study evaluated the associations between short-term exposure to PM2.5 and the risks of acute incidence and mortality for different types of stroke on the same spatiotemporal scale. With a 10 µg/m3 increase in the PM2.5 concentration, the acute incidence risk increased by 0.37% (0.15%, 0.60%) for stroke, 0.46% (0.21%, 0.72%) for ischemic stroke, and -0.13% (-0.73%, 0.48%) for hemorrhagic stroke. The corresponding values for the mortality risk were 0.71% (0.08%, 1.33%), 1.09% (0.05%, 2.14%), and 0.43% (-0.44%, 1.31%) for stroke, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively. Compared with the other groups, females and patients aged over 64 years presented higher incidence and mortality risks, while the group aged >75 years may exhibit a greater risk of mortality. Based on the estimated effects, we evaluated 43,300 excess deaths and 48,800 acute incidences attributed to short-term PM2.5 exposure across China in 2015. This study provided robust estimates of PM2.5-induced stroke incidence and mortality risks, and susceptible populations were identified. Excess mortality and morbidity attributed to short-term PM2.5 exposure indicate the necessity to implement health care and prevention strategies, as well as medical resource allocation for noncommunicable diseases in regions with high levels of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
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