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1.
Int J Radiat Biol ; : 1-28, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995174

RESUMO

Purpose: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Yangjiang and Enping areas in South China to assess whether the risk of lens opacity induced by natural high background radiation exposure is modulated by polymorphisms of ATM and TP53.Materials and methods: A total of 133 cases who were diagnosed with cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) opacity were recruited, and 419 healthy controls were selected through counter-matching in terms of radiation status. Genomic DNA from all the participants was genotyped with the Illumina platform for four single nucleotide polymorphisms of ATM (rs189037, rs373759, and rs4585) and TP53 (rs1042522). The cumulative lens dose received during the entire life was estimated based on annual indoor and outdoor radiation doses and gender- and age-specific occupancy factors. Non-conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).Results: ATM rs189037 and TP53 rs1042522 were significantly related to cortical and PSC opacity. The risk of opacity was higher when individuals carried the A allele of ATM rs189037 and C allele of TP53 rs1042522, compared with GG genotype. ATM rs189037 A allele carriers (AG/AA) and TP53 rs1042522 C allele carriers (CG/CC) combined with a cumulative lens dose of 100 mGy or higher showed statistically significant opacity risks (OR =5.51, 95% CI: 1.47-20.66; OR =2.69, 95% CI: 1.10-6.60).Conclusion: The A allele of ATM rs189037 and C allele of TP53 rs1042522 increase the risk of lens opacity induced by radiation. These polymorphisms in ATM and TP53 might modify the risk of cortical and PSC opacity induced by chronic and prolonged low-dose radiation.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126816, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396968

RESUMO

Defect and interlayer engineering are considered as two promising strategies to alter the electronic structures of sensing materials for improved gas sensing properties. Herein, ethylene glycol intercalated Al-doped SnS2 (EG-Al-SnS2) featuring Al doping, sulfur (S) vacancies, and an expanded interlayer spacing was prepared and developed as an active NO2 sensing material. Compared to the pristine SnS2 with failure in detecting NO2 at room temperature, the developed EG-Al-SnS2 exhibited a better conductivity, which was beneficial for realizing the room-temperature NO2 sensing. As a result, a high sensing response of 410% toward 2 ppm NO2 was achieved at room temperature by using the 3% EG-Al-SnS2 as the sensing material. Such outstanding sensing performance was attributed to the enhanced electronic interaction of NO2 on the surface of SnS2 induced by the synergistic effect of Al doping, S vacancies, and the expanded interlayer spacing, which is directly revealed by the in-suit measurement based on near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (NAP-XPS). Furthermore, to identify the role of Al doping, S vacancies, and the expanded interlayer spacing in enhancing the NO2 sensing properties, a series of comparative experiments and theoretical calculations were performed.

3.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882196

RESUMO

Multiple statistical methods for aggregate association testing have been developed for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. Many aggregate variants in a given genomic window and ignore existing knowledge to define test regions, resulting in many identified regions not clearly linked to genes, and thus, limiting biological understanding. Functional information from new technologies (such as Hi-C and its derivatives), which can help link enhancers to their effector genes, can be leveraged to predefine variant sets for aggregate testing in WGS data. Here, we propose the eSCAN (scan the enhancers) method for genome-wide assessment of enhancer regions in sequencing studies, combining the advantages of dynamic window selection in SCANG (SCAN the Genome), a previously developed method, with the advantages of incorporating putative regulatory regions from annotation. eSCAN, by searching in putative enhancers, increases statistical power and aids mechanistic interpretation, as demonstrated by extensive simulation studies. We also apply eSCAN for blood cell traits using NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine WGS data. Results from real data analysis show that eSCAN is able to capture more significant signals, and these signals are of shorter length (indicating higher resolution fine-mapping capability) and drive association of larger regions detected by other methods.

4.
Int J Genomics ; 2021: 3997045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901263

RESUMO

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are reported as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) and play key roles in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression. Thus, this study was aimed at clarifying underlying molecular mechanisms of circHUWE1 in NSCLC. Methods: The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analyses were used for examining circHUWE1, microRNA-34a-5p (miR-34a-5p), and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8). IC50 of cisplatin (DDP) in A549/DDP and H1299/DDP cells and cell viability were analyzed by the Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay. Colony forming assay was performed to assess colony forming ability. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry. Migrated and invaded cell numbers were examined by transwell assay. The association among circHUWE1, miR-34a-5p, and TNFAIP8 was analyzed by dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. A xenograft experiment was applied to clarify the functional role of circHUWE1 in vivo. Results: circHUWE1 was upregulated in NSCLC tissues and cells, especially in DDP-resistant groups. circHUWE1 downregulation inhibited DDP resistance, proliferation, migration, and invasion while it induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of DDP-resistant NSCLC cells, which was overturned by silencing of miR-34a-5p. TNFAIP8 was a functional gene of miR-34a-5p, and the suppressive effects of miR-34a-5p overexpression on DDP-resistant NSCLC progression were dependent on the suppression of TNFAIP8. circHUWE1 inhibition also delayed tumor growth of DDP-resistant NSCLC cells. Conclusion: circHUWE1 functioned as a promoter in DDP-resistant NSCLC by interaction with miR-34a-5p-TNFAIP8 networks, providing novel insight into DDP-resistant NSCLC diagnosis and treatment.

6.
Toxicology ; 465: 153052, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838597

RESUMO

Bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is toxic to the central nervous system. Although recent studies have shown BPA-induced neurotoxicity, it is far from clear what precisely epigenetic mechanisms are involved in BPA-induced cognitive deficits. In this study, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were treated with BPA at 1 µM for 36 h in vitro. In vivo, C57BL/6 mice were administered to BPA at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. The results showed that 1 µM BPA exposure for 36 h impaired neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells through decreasing the primary and secondary branches. Besides, BPA exposure decreased the level of Ac-H3K9 (histone H3 Lys9 acetylation) by upregulating the expression of HDAC2 (histone deacetylases 2) in PC12 cells. Furthermore, treatment of both TSA (Trichostatin A, inhibitor of the histone deacetylase) and shHDAC2 plasmid (HDAC2 knockdown construct) resulted in amelioration neurite outgrowth deficits induced by BPA. In addition, it was shown that repression of HDAC2 could markedly rescue the spine density impairment in the hippocampus and prevent the cognitive impairment caused by BPA exposure in mice. Collectively, HDAC2 plays an essential role in BPA-induced neurotoxicity, which provides a potential molecular target for medical intervention.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 54152-54161, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734688

RESUMO

Tin disulfide (SnS2) has been extensively researched as a promising sensing material due to its large electronegativity, suitable band gap, earth abundance, and nontoxicity. However, the poor conductivity and slow response/recovery speed at room temperature greatly hinder its application in high-performance practical gas sensors. Herein, to promote the study of SnS2-based gas sensors, a hierarchical SnS2/TiO2 heterostructure was synthesized and used as a sensing material to detect NO2 with the help of light illumination. Through the synergistic effect of the SnS2/TiO2 heterostructure and 525 nm light activation, the NO2 sensor based on the SnS2/TiO2 heterostructure exhibited a high response factor of 526% toward 1 ppm NO2 and a short response/recovery time of 43/102 s at room temperature due to the enhanced charge transfer and increased adsorption sites, which was superior to the vast majority of other NO2 sensors. An obvious decrease in the surface-adsorbed oxygen content based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement further confirmed that light illumination was helpful to clear the surface of SnS2/TiO2 and thus increased active sites for NO2 sensing. In addition, a flexible SnS2/TiO2 sensor was also fabricated to confirm its potential application in portable and wearable devices.

8.
Nano Lett ; 21(21): 9270-9278, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670093

RESUMO

Time-domain dynamic evolution properties of topological states play an important role in both fundamental physics study and practical applications of topological photonics. However, owing to the absence of available ultrafast time-domain dynamic characterization methods, studies have mostly focused on the frequency-domain-based properties, and there are few reports demonstrating the time-domain-based properties. Here, we measured the dynamic near-field responses of plasmonic topological structures of gold nanochains with the configuration of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model by using ultrahigh spatial-temporal resolution photoemission electron microscopy. The dephasing time of plasmonic topological edge states increases with increasing the bulk lattice number that has a threshold requirement and finally reaches saturation. We directly revealed through simulation that there is a transient bulk state in the evolution of topological edge states, that is, the energy undergoes relaxation from oscillation between the bulk lattice and the edge. This work shows a new perspective of time-domain dynamic topological photonics.

9.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211038182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468244

RESUMO

Silver micro/nanomaterials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their superior physicochemical properties. The atomic migration driven by electromigration or stress-induced migration has been demonstrated to be a promising method for the fabrication of metallic micro-/nanomaterials because of the advantage of simple processing. However, how to realize the controllable fabrication and mass production is still the critical technical problem for the method to be used in large-scale industrial applications. In this paper, the multilayered samples consisted of copper foil substrate, Ti adhesive layer, Ag film, and TiN passivation layer and with arrays of artificial holes on the passivation layer were applied to prepare arrays of Ag micro-particles. For the purpose of controllable fabrication, stress-induced migration experiments combined with finite element simulation were applied to analyze the influence of the passivation layer thickness and the heating temperature on the atom migration and Ag particles growing behavior. And the relationship between size of the fabricated Ag particles and the processing parameters of stress-induced migration experiments were also investigated. As a result, a proper structure size of the multilayered samples and heating temperature were recommended, which can be used for the Ag micro-particles controllable fabrication and mass production.

10.
ACS Nano ; 15(10): 16802-16810, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582163

RESUMO

The optical near field (NF) induced by circularly polarized light (CPL) is a hot scientific topic. We observed a chiral NF intensity distribution on a series of achiral gold nanorectangular structures (Au-NRs) under CPL irradiation by using multiphoton photoemission electron microscopy (MP-PEEM). Additionally, the differential NF spectra under left and right CPL irradiation, which represent the asymmetry of the NF intensity distribution, were investigated. We propose an interpretation that the chiral NF intensity distribution on an achiral metallic nanostructure is extrinsically generated by the interference between two plasmonic modes by combining state-of-the-art MP-PEEM techniques and the classical oscillator model. Our interpretation well explains both the experimental and simulation results. Furthermore, the intensity of the NF and its phase angle of each mode under linearly polarized light irradiation were revealed to be critical factors for the generation of extrinsic chirality in the NF intensity distribution.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1836-1851, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582791

RESUMO

Many common and rare variants associated with hematologic traits have been discovered through imputation on large-scale reference panels. However, the majority of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted in Europeans, and determining causal variants has proved challenging. We performed a GWAS of total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts generated from 109,563,748 variants in the autosomes and the X chromosome in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which included data from 61,802 individuals of diverse ancestry. We discovered and replicated 7 leukocyte trait associations, including (1) the association between a chromosome X, pseudo-autosomal region (PAR), noncoding variant located between cytokine receptor genes (CSF2RA and CLRF2) and lower eosinophil count; and (2) associations between single variants found predominantly among African Americans at the S1PR3 (9q22.1) and HBB (11p15.4) loci and monocyte and lymphocyte counts, respectively. We further provide evidence indicating that the newly discovered eosinophil-lowering chromosome X PAR variant might be associated with reduced susceptibility to common allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. Additionally, we found a burden of very rare FLT3 (13q12.2) variants associated with monocyte counts. Together, these results emphasize the utility of whole-genome sequencing in diverse samples in identifying associations missed by European-ancestry-driven GWASs.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257908, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587205

RESUMO

In response to various stimuli, naïve macrophages usually polarize to M1 (classically activated) or M2 (alternatively activated) cells with distinct biological functions. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) is involved in M1 macrophage polarization at an early stage. Here, we show for the first time that NOS1 is dispensable for M2 macrophage polarization for the first time. Further, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) regulated by NOS1 signaling in M1-polarized macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were characterized by transcriptome analysis of wild-type (WT) and NOS1 knockout mouse macrophages. Thousands of affected genes were detected 2 h post LPS challenge, and this wide-ranging effect became greater with a longer stimulation time (8 h post LPS). NOS1 deficiency caused dysregulated expression of hundreds of LPS-responsive genes. Most DEGs were enriched in biological processes related to transcription and regulation of the immune and inflammatory response. At 2 h post-LPS, the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway were the major pathways affected, whereas the main pathways affected at 8 h post-LPS were Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, FoxO, and AMPK signaling pathway. Identified DEGs were validated by real-time quantitative PCR and interacted in a complicated signaling pathway network. Collectively, our data show that NOS1 is dispensable for M2 macrophage polarization and reveal novel insights in the role of NOS1 signaling at different stages of M1 macrophage polarization through distinct TLR4 plasma membrane-localized and endosome-internalized signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/citologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Animais , Polaridade Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500915

RESUMO

Since the application of silicon materials in electronic devices in the 1950s, microprocessors are continuously getting smaller, faster, smarter, and larger in data storage capacity. One important factor that makes progress possible is decreasing the dielectric constant of the insulating layer within the integrated circuit (IC). Nevertheless, the evolution of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) is not driven by a single factor. At first, the objective was to reduce the dielectric constant (k). Reduction of the dielectric constant of a material can be accomplished by selecting chemical bonds with low polarizability and introducing porosity. Moving from silicon dioxide, silsesquioxane-based materials, and silica-based materials to porous silica materials, the industry has been able to reduce the ILDs' dielectric constant from 4.5 to as low as 1.5. However, porous ILDs are mechanically weak, thermally unstable, and poorly compatible with other materials, which gives them the tendency to absorb chemicals, moisture, etc. All these features create many challenges for the integration of IC during the dual-damascene process, with plasma-induced damage (PID) being the most devastating one. Since the discovery of porous materials, the industry has shifted its focus from decreasing ILDs' dielectric constant to overcoming these integration challenges. More supplementary precursors (such as Si-C-Si structured compounds), deposition processes (such as NH3 plasma treatment), and post porosity plasma protection treatment (P4) were invented to solve integration-related challenges. Herein, we present the evolution of interlayer dielectric materials driven by the following three aspects, classification of dielectric materials, deposition methods, and key issues encountered and solved during the integration phase. We aim to provide a brief overview of the development of low-k dielectric materials over the past few decades.

15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553764

RESUMO

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet related disorder genes influencing variation in platelet traits in TOPMed cohorts (not enriched for blood disorders). For example, association of GP9 with lower PLT and higher MPV was partly driven by a pathogenic Bernard-Soulier syndrome variant (rs5030764, p.Asn61Ser), and the signals at TUBB1 and CD36 were partly driven by loss of function variants not annotated as pathogenic in ClinVar (rs199948010 and rs571975065). However, residual signal remained for these gene-based signals after adjusting for lead variants, suggesting that additional variants in Mendelian genes with impacts in general population cohorts remain to be identified. Gene-based signals were also identified at several GWAS identified loci for genes not annotated for Mendelian platelet disorders (PTPRH, TET2, CHEK2), with somatic variation driving the result at TET2. These results highlight the value of whole genome sequencing in populations of diverse genetic ancestry to identify novel regulatory and coding signals, even for well-studied traits like platelet traits.

16.
Plant J ; 108(1): 151-168, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414618

RESUMO

Senescence is a gradual physiological process involving the integration of numerous internal and environmental signals. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-known inducer of senescence. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying ABA-mediated senescence remain largely unknown. Here, we report that the citrus homeodomain leucine zipper I (HD-ZIP I) transcription factor CsHB5 functions as a regulator of ABA-triggered senescence. CsHB5 acts as a nucleus-localized transcriptional activator, the expression of which appeared to be closely associated with citrus senescence. Overexpression of CsHB5 in citrus calli upregulated the expression of ABA- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes, and significantly increased the content of ABA and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), whereas silencing CsHB5 in citrus calli downregulated the expression of ABA-related genes. Additionally, heterogenous overexpression of CsHB5 in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) leads to early leaf yellowing under dark-induced senescence conditions. Meanwhile, the levels of ABA and H2 O2 in transgenic tomatoes increased significantly and the lycopene content decreased. Transcriptome analysis of CsHB5-overexpressing citrus calli and tomato showed that CsHB5 was involved in multiple senescence-associated processes, including chlorophyll degradation, nutrient compound biosynthesis and transport, as well as ABA and ROS signal transduction. The results of yeast one-hybrid assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and dual luciferase assays indicated that CsHB5 directly binds to the promoters of ABA biosynthetic genes, including ß-carotene hydroxylase 1 (BCH1) and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 2 (NCED2), thereby activating their transcription. Our findings revealed that CsHB5 participates in senescence, at least partly, by directly controlling ABA accumulation. Our work provides insight into the regulatory mechanisms underlying ABA-mediated senescence.

17.
Nat Methods ; 18(9): 1056-1059, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446921

RESUMO

Single-cell Hi-C (scHi-C) analysis has been increasingly used to map chromatin architecture in diverse tissue contexts, but computational tools to define chromatin loops at high resolution from scHi-C data are still lacking. Here, we describe Single-Nucleus Analysis Pipeline for Hi-C (SnapHiC), a method that can identify chromatin loops at high resolution and accuracy from scHi-C data. Using scHi-C data from 742 mouse embryonic stem cells, we benchmark SnapHiC against a number of computational tools developed for mapping chromatin loops and interactions from bulk Hi-C. We further demonstrate its use by analyzing single-nucleus methyl-3C-seq data from 2,869 human prefrontal cortical cells, which uncovers cell type-specific chromatin loops and predicts putative target genes for noncoding sequence variants associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Our results indicate that SnapHiC could facilitate the analysis of cell type-specific chromatin architecture and gene regulatory programs in complex tissues.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Visualização de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thousands of genetic variants have been associated with hematological traits, though target genes remain unknown at most loci. Moreover, limited analyses have been conducted in African ancestry and Hispanic/Latino populations; hematological trait associated variants more common in these populations have likely been missed. METHODS: To derive gene expression prediction models, we used ancestry-stratified datasets from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, including n = 229 African American and n = 381 Hispanic/Latino participants, monocytes) and the Depression Genes and Networks study (DGN, n = 922 European ancestry participants, whole blood). We then performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for platelet count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell count in African (n = 27,955) and Hispanic/Latino (n = 28,324) ancestry participants. RESULTS: Our results revealed 24 suggestive signals (p < 1 × 10-4) that were conditionally distinct from known GWAS identified variants and successfully replicated these signals in European ancestry subjects from UK Biobank. We found modestly improved correlation of predicted and measured gene expression in an independent African American cohort (the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study (n = 802), lymphoblastoid cell lines) using the larger DGN reference panel; however, some genes were well predicted using MESA but not DGN. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses demonstrate the importance of performing TWAS and other genetic analyses across diverse populations and of balancing sample size and ancestry background matching when selecting a TWAS reference panel.

19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(2): 819-831, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional status has been recognized as an important factor influencing cognitive function-related diseases, but few comprehensive nutrition indicators are available to assess the risk of cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and cognitive function in an elderly population, and the differences in nutrient intake between different levels of nutritional risk. METHODS: Based on cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014, we included 2,564 older participants. The lower quartile of each of the four cognitive tests was considered to have cognitive function impairment (CFI). Binary and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between the PNI and the odds ratio of CFI. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounding variables, we found that the odds of CFI were significantly lower for participants with normal PNI levels than for those with low PNI levels. In a comparison of global cognitive impairment scores, participants with a normal PNI had lower ratios of poor cognitive performance than those with a low PNI. By comparing the nutrient intake at different PNI levels, we found a reduction in the intake of protein, dietary fiber, total saturated fatty acids, and multiple micronutrients in the low PNI group. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the PNI can be a good predictor of the odds of CFI in the elderly population and that it is a convenient indicator of reduced intake of nutrients which may be important to brain health.

20.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376796

RESUMO

Despite the dramatic underrepresentation of non-European populations in human genetics studies, researchers continue to exclude participants of non-European ancestry, as well as variants rare in European populations, even when these data are available. This practice perpetuates existing research disparities and can lead to important and large effect size associations being missed. Here, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 31 serum and urine biomarker quantitative traits in African (n = 9354), East Asian (n = 2559), and South Asian (n = 9823) ancestry UK Biobank (UKBB) participants. We adjusted for all known GWAS catalog variants for each trait, as well as novel signals identified in a recent European ancestry-focused analysis of UKBB participants. We identify 7 novel signals in African ancestry and 2 novel signals in South Asian ancestry participants (p < 1.61E-10). Many of these signals are highly plausible, including a cis pQTL for the gene encoding gamma-glutamyl transferase and PIEZO1 and G6PD variants with impacts on HbA1c through likely erythrocytic mechanisms. This work illustrates the importance of using the genetic data we already have in diverse populations, with novel discoveries possible in even modest sample sizes.

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