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1.
Water Res ; 204: 117628, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507021

RESUMO

Both biological sulfate reduction process and sulfur reduction process are attractive technologies for metal-laden wastewater treatment. However, the acidity stress of metal-laden wastewater could affect the sulfidogenic performance and the microbial community, weaken the stability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the biological sulfidogenic processes (BSP). In this study, long-term lab-scale trials were conducted with a sulfate-reducing bioreactor and a sulfur-reducing bioreactor to evaluate the effects of acidity on sulfidogenic activities and the microbial community of the BSP. In the 300-day trial, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)-driven BSP was stable in terms of sulfidogenic performance and microbial community with the decline of pH, while the sulfur-reducing bacteria (S0RB)-driven BSP achieved high-rate and low-cost sulfide production under neutral conditions but unstable under acidic conditions. With the decline of pH, the sulfide production rate (SPR) of the SRB-driven BSP stably increased from 30 to 83 mg S/L-h; while it decreased from 56 to 37 mg S/L-h in the S0RB-driven BSP with high fluctuation. The results of estimation were consistent with the thermodynamical calculations, in which the sulfur reduction process showed a better performance at pH 5-7, while the sulfate reduction process might gain more energy when pH<5. The stable sulfidogenic performance and microbial community diversity of the SRB-driven BSP could be attributed to the alkalinity produced in sulfate reduction to buffer the acidic stress. In comparison, the microbial community in the S0RB-driven BSP was significantly re-shaped by acidity stress, and the predominant sulfidogenic bacterium changed from Desulfovibrio at neutral condition, to Desulfurella at pH≤5.4. The stability of the microbial community significantly affected the SPR and the operational cost. Nevertheless, the organic consumption for sulfide production of the S0RB-driven BSP was still less than the SRB-driven BSP even in acidic conditions. Collectively, the S0RB-driven BSP was recommended under neutral or mild acid conditions, while the SRB-driven BSP was more suitable under fluctuating pH conditions, especially at low pH. Overall, this study presented the long-term performance of SRB- and S0RB-driven BSP under varying pH conditions, and provided guidance to determine the suitable BSP and operational cost for different metal-laden wastewater.


Assuntos
Enxofre , Águas Residuárias , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metais , Sulfatos
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9978206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497684

RESUMO

Evidence is increasingly indicating that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are closely involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the function and application of circRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are still unknown. In this study, we constructed a circRNA-associated competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network to investigate the regulatory mechanism of LUAD procession and further constructed a prognostic signature to predict overall survival for LUAD patients. Differentially expressed circRNAs (DEcircRNAs), differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs), and differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) were selected to construct the ceRNA network. Based on the TargetScan prediction tool and Pearson correlation coefficient, we constructed a circRNA-associated ceRNA network including 11 DEcircRNAs, 8 DEmiRNAs, and 49 DEmRNAs. GO and KEGG enrichment indicated that the ceRNA network might be involved in the regulation of GTPase activity and endothelial cell differentiation. After removing the discrete points, a PPI network containing 12 DEmRNAs was constructed. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that three DEmRNAs were significantly associated with overall survival. Therefore, we constructed a three-gene prognostic signature for LUAD patients using the LASSO method in the TCGA-LUAD training cohort. By applying the signature, patients could be categorized into the high-risk or low-risk subgroups with significant survival differences (HR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12-2.35, log-rank p = 0.009). The prognostic performance was confirmed in an independent GEO cohort (GSE42127, HR: 2.59, 95% CI: 1.32-5.10, log-rank p = 0.004). Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved that the three-gene signature was an independent prognostic factor. Combining the three-gene signature with clinical characters, a nomogram was constructed. The primary and external verification C-indexes were 0.717 and 0.716, respectively. The calibration curves for the probability of 3- and 5-year OS showed significant agreement between nomogram predictions and actual observations. Our findings provided a deeper understanding of the circRNA-associated ceRNA regulatory mechanism in LUAD pathogenesis and further constructed a useful prognostic signature to guide personalized treatment of LUAD patients.

3.
Mol Plant ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390871

RESUMO

The male sterility (MS) line is a prerequisite for efficient production of hybrid seeds in rice, a self-pollinating species. MS line breeding is pivotal for hybrid rice improvement. Understanding the historical breeding trajectory will help to improve hybrid rice breeding strategies. Maternally inherited cytoplasm is an appropriate tool for phylogenetic reconstruction and pedigree tracing in rice hybrids. In this study, we analyzed the cytoplasmic genomes of 1495 elite hybrid rice varieties and identified five major types of cytoplasm, which correspond to different hybrid production systems. As the cytoplasm donors for hybrids, 461 MS lines were also divided into five major types based on cytoplasmic and nuclear genomic architecture. Specific core accessions cooperating with different fertility-associated genes drove the sequence divergence of MS lines. Dozens to hundreds of convergent and divergent selective sweeps spanning several agronomic trait-associated genes were identified among different types of MS lines. We further analyzed the cross patterns between different types of MS lines and their corresponding restorers. This study systematically analyzed the cytoplasmic genomes of rice hybrids revealed their relationships with nuclear genomes of MS lines, and illustrated the trajectory of hybrid rice breeding and the strategies for breeding different types of MS lines providing new insights for future improvement of hybrid rice.

4.
Lasers Surg Med ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A 730 nm picosecond-domain laser was developed to improve the clearance of pigmented lesion and reduce adverse events. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of this system for the clearance of lentigines and explores how the short picosecond pulses interact with tissue via histology. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV were enrolled in this prospective, IRB-approved study. Four treatments were administered using a 730 nm picosecond-domain laser. Pre- and posttreatment photos were assessed by blinded reviewers at 4- and 12-week follow-up visits, using a 5-point clearance scale. Subject satisfaction was measured using a 5-point scale. Investigator Global Improvement Score (IGIS) was performed at the 4- and 12-week follow-up visits, using an 11-point clearance scale. Subject pain level was measured using an 11-point scale (no pain [0], extreme pain [10]). Histology of 730 and 532 nm picosecond pulses was compared with 755 and 532 nm nanosecond pulses. RESULTS: Sixteen subjects with a total of 118 discontinuous treatment areas, each comprised of 1-20 lesions, completed all study visits. Thirty body regions were studied, including arms (6), hands (16), scalp (1), forehead (2), face (3), and back (2). Spot sizes ranging from 2 to 5 mm diameters were used with fluences ranging from 0.8 to 4.0 J/cm2 . Mean pain score was 3.6 of 10 for all four treatments. Ninety-nine percent of randomly paired 4-week posttreatment images and 100% of 12-week posttreatment images were correctly identified from their respective baseline images by three blinded reviewers. Mean IGIS demonstrated scores of 6.7 and 7.0 at 4- and 12-week follow-up visits, respectively. At the 4- and 12-week follow-up visits, 76% and 73% of subjects, respectively, were satisfied to highly satisfied. The mean clearance score for all 118 treatment areas was 3 of 4 in follow-up visits. At 12-week follow-up, 36% of 118 treatment areas had a clearance score of 4, and 38% had a clearance score of 3. Post treatment, there was typical erythema, edema, dryness, crusting, and itching but negligible purpura, no pinpoint bleeding, blistering or scarring, and no significant hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation. Histology showed diffuse, focal epidermal vacuolization ~5-10 µm in diameter and mild extravasation of erythrocytes with 730 nm picosecond pulses, while diffuse epidermal vacuolization was observed with coalescence of vacuoles (~20-100 µm), junctional clefting and mild extravasation of erythrocytes with 755 nm nanosecond pulses. Picosecond pulses of the wavelength of 532 nm produced diffuse, focal epidermal vacuolization and larger dermal vacuoles to depths of 500 µm, while 532 nm nanosecond pulses produced diffuse epidermal vacuolization with coalescence of vacuoles and marked dermal hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the potential of a new 730 nm picosecond-domain laser for the clearance of lentigines. The results showed good clearance with no adverse events and good subject satisfaction in patients with skin type II-III. Additional studies need to be conducted on darker skin types. The histopathologic findings demonstrate that the picosecond 730 nm laser produces excellent selectivity for pigment with minimal disruption of the dermal-epidermal junction and may therefore reduce healing times and the risk of adverse events.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For initial respiratory management, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly used for preterm infants, especially for gestational age less than 32 weeks. However, neonatologists are concerned about the potential risks of CPAP support failure. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between different initial respiratory support modalities and the outcomes of preterm infants at <32 weeks of gestation across multiple neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in China. METHODS: This study was carried out over a period of 12 months in 2018. Unadjusted relative risks (RR) for demographic and clinical characteristics were calculated for CPAP failure and CPAP success in the total cohort using log-linear model based on generalised estimating equations for clustered observations. RESULTS: Among 1560 preterm infants delivered at <32 weeks, the incidence of CPAP failure was 10.3%. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, the relative risk of mortality (RR 7.54, 95% CI 5.56, 10.44), pneumothorax (RR 9.85, 95% CI 2.89, 61.53), pulmonary haemorrhage (RR 7.78, 95% CI 4.51, 14.64) and BPD (RR 3.65, 95% CI 3.65, 4.51) were considerably higher for infants in the CPAP failure group than those in the CPAP-S group. However, the risk of poor outcomes in CPAP failure infants was similar to that of those in the initial mechanical ventilation (MV) group. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous positive airway pressure failure was associated with an increased risk of mortality and major morbidities, including BPD, pulmonary haemorrhage and pneumothorax, and was comparable to the risk associated with initial MV.

6.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 121, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overcrowding, abuse of antibiotics and increasing antimicrobial resistance negatively affect neonatal survival rates in developing countries. We aimed to define pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of early-onset sepsis (EOS), hospital-acquired late-onset sepsis (HALOS) and community-acquired late-onset sepsis (CALOS) in 25 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective descriptive study included pathogens and their AMR from all neonates with bloodstream infections (BSIs) admitted to 25 tertiary hospitals in China from January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019. We defined EOS as the occurrence of BSI at or before 72 h of life and late-onset sepsis (LOS) if BSI occurred after 72 h of life. LOS were classified as CALOS if occurrence of BSI was ≤ 48 h after admission, and HALOS, if occurrence was > 48 h after admission. RESULTS: We identified 1092 pathogens of BSIs in 1088 infants from 25 NICUs. Thirty-two percent of all pathogens were responsible for EOS, 64.3% HALOS, and 3.7% CALOS. Gram-negative (GN) bacteria accounted for a majority of pathogens in EOS (56.7%) and HALOS (62.2%). The most frequent pathogens causing EOS were Escherichia coli (27.2%) and group B streptococcus (GBS; 14.6%) whereas in CALOS they were GBS (46.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (41.5%). Klebsiella pneumoniae (27.9%), Escherichia coli (15.7%) and Fungi (12.8%) were the top three isolates in HALOS. Third-generation cephalosporin resistance rates in GN bacteria ranged from 9.7 to 55.6% in EOS and 26% to 63.3% in HALOS. Carbapenem resistance rates in GN bacteria ranged from 2.7 to 31.3% in HALOS and only six isolates in EOS were carbapenem resistant. High rates of multidrug resistance were observed in Klebsiella pneumoniae (60.7%) in HALOS and in Escherichia coli (44.4%) in EOS. All gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to vancomycin except for three Enterococcus faecalis in HALOS. All-cause mortality was higher among neonates with EOS than HALOS (7.4% VS 4.4%, [OR] 0.577, 95% CI 0.337-0.989; P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and GBS were the leading pathogens in EOS, HALOS and CALOS, respectively. The high proportion of pathogens and high degree of antimicrobial resistance in HALOS underscore understanding of the pathogenesis and emphasise the need to devise effective interventions in developing countries.

7.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(5): 5665-5671, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between the vitamin A, D, and E levels and recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in children of different ages. METHODS: A total of 150 RRTI patients were divided into three groups: the 0 to 2 year-old group, the 3-5 year-old group, and the 6-14 year-old group. Collectively, we refer to the three groups as the RRTI group. The serum vitamin A, D and E levels were measured in the three groups. Healthy children without RRTIs were recruited as a control group. The correlations between the changes in the vitamin A, D, and E levels and the RRTIs were analyzed. RESULTS: The vitamin A, D, and E levels decreased significantly in the children with RRTIs, but only the vitamin A and D levels were negatively correlated with the incidence of RRTIs, while the vitamin E levels were not significantly correlated with the incidence of RRTIs. The follow-up results showed that the serum vitamin A, D, and E levels in the RRTI group were significantly increased after the treatment, and the WBC and CRP levels were remarkably reduced. CONCLUSION: Monitoring the serum vitamin A and D levels helps determine the disease severity, and the supplementation of adequate vitamin A and D through diet or drugs is of great help in treating RRTIs.

8.
Water Res ; 185: 116230, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784032

RESUMO

Elemental sulfur-driven sulfidogenic process has been demonstrated to be more economical and energy-efficient than sulfate-driven sulfidogenic process when treating metal-laden wastewater. In previous studies, we observed that the polysulfide-involved indirect sulfur reduction ensured the superiority of sulfur over sulfate as the electron acceptor in the sulfidogenic process under neutral or weak-alkaline conditions. However, realizing high-rate sulfur reduction process for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment without pH amelioration is still a great challenge because polysulfide cannot exist under acidic conditions. In this study, a laboratory-scale sulfur-packed bed reactor was therefore continuously operated with a constant sulfate concentration (~1300 mg S/L) and decreasing pH from 7.3 to 2.1. After 400 days of operation, a stable sulfide production rate (38.2 ± 7.6 mg S/L) was achieved under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.6-3.5), which is significantly higher than those reported in sulfate reduction under similar conditions. In the presence of high sulfate content, elemental sulfur reduction could dominate over sulfate reduction under neutral and acidic conditions, especially when the pH ≥ 6.5 or ≤ 3.5. The decreasing pH significantly reduced the diversity of microbial community, but did not substantially influence the abundance of functional genes associated with organic and sulfur metabolisms. The predominant sulfur-reducing genera shifted from Desulfomicrobium under neutral conditions to Desulfurella under highly acidic conditions. The high-rate sulfur reduction under acidic conditions could be attributed to the combined results of high abundance of Desulfurella and low abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Accordingly, sulfur reduction process can be developed to achieve efficient and economical treatment of AMD under highly acidic conditions (pH ≤ 3.5).


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Microbiota , Mineração , Oxirredução , Sulfatos , Enxofre
9.
Cancer Cell Int ; 20: 284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647495

RESUMO

Background: Evidence suggests that altered DNA methylation plays a causative role in the occurrence, progression and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). Thus, methylated-differentially expressed genes (MDEGs) could potentially serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in GC. Methods: Four genomics profiling datasets were used to identify MDEGs. Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to explore the biological roles of MDEGs in GC. Univariate Cox and LASSO analysis were used to identify survival-related MDEGs and to construct a MDEGs-based signature. The prognostic performance was evaluated in two independent cohorts. Results: We identified a total of 255 MDEGs, including 192 hypermethylation-low expression and 63 Hypomethylation-high expression genes. The univariate Cox regression analysis showed that 83 MDEGs were associated with overall survival. Further we constructed an eight-MDEGs signature that was independent predictive of prognosis in the training cohort. By applying the eight-MDEGs signature, patients in the training cohort could be categorized into high-risk or low-risk subgroup with significantly different overall survival (HR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.71-4.02, P < 0.0001). The prognostic value of the eight-MDEGs signature was confirmed in another independent GEO cohort (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.78, P = 0.0302) and TCGA-GC cohort (HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.16-2.94, P = 0.0084). Multivariate cox regression analysis proved the eight-MDEGs signature was an independent prognostic factor for GC. Conclusion: We have thus established an innovative eight-MDEGs signature that is predictive of overall survival and could be a potentially useful guide for personalized treatment of GC patients.

10.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(9): 2473-2482, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is a glycophosphoinositol-anchored glycoprotein which mediates cell-cell interactions. Here, we aimed to explore the specific functions and regulatory mechanisms of CEACAM6 on cisplatin (DDP) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). METHODS: RNA sequencing was performed in the DDP-resistant A549/DDP cell line and parental A549 cell line; miRNA expression profiling of the two cell lines was analyzed using GEO data (GSE43249). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were used to investigate the biological function of CEACAM6 in vitro. The expression status and prognostic value of CEACAM6 in LUAD were verified using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. RESULTS: CEACAM6 was first screened to be one of the most significantly upregulated genes in the DDP-resistant A549/DDP cell line compared to the parental A549 cell line. Combined with computational prediction of candidate miRNAs that target CEACAM6, miR-146a and miR-26a were selected and verified by qPCR and luciferase reporter assay. The knockdown of CEACAM6 expression in A549/DDP cells inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and migration, decreased the IC50 values of DDP, and caused a significant downregulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Sox2, Oct4 and GTP-RhoA and upregulation of E-cadherin; while CEACAM6 overexpression in A549 cells resulted in the opposite effects. Of note, both miR-146a and miR-26a could counteract the biological effects of CEACAM6. Furthermore, CEACAM6 mRNA expression was significantly unregulated in DDP-resistant LUAD tissues of TCGA database. CONCLUSIONS: CEACAM6 promotes DDP resistance in LUAD by affecting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and stemness, which is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-146a and miR-26a.

11.
Environ Int ; 136: 105457, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926438

RESUMO

A novel sulfidogenic acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment system with a sulfur reduction process was developed. During the 220-d operation, >99.9% of 380-mg/L ferric, 150-mg/L aluminum, 110-mg/L zinc, 20-mg/L copper and 2.5-mg/L lead ions, and 42.6-44.4% of 100-mg/L manganese ions in the synthetic AMD were step-by-step removed in the developed system with three pre-posed metal precipitators and a sulfur reduction reactor. Among them, zinc, copper and lead ions were removed by the biogenic hydrogen sulfide that produced through elemental sulfur reduction; while ferric, aluminum and manganese ions were removed by the alkali precipitation. Compared with the reported sulfate reduction reactors, the sulfur reduction reactor significantly reduced the chemical cost by 25.6-78.9% for sulfide production, and maintained a high sulfide production rate (1.12 g S2-/L-d). The pH level in the sulfidogenic reactor driven by sulfur-reducing bacteria posed a significant effect on the sulfide production rate. Under a nearly neutral condition (pH 7.0-7.5), elemental sulfur dissolved into polysulfide to increase the bioavailability of S0. At acidic conditions (pH < 6.0), polysulfide formation was limited and sulfate reduction became dominant. Therefore, maintaining the sulfidogenic reactor driven by sulfur-reducing bacteria at neutral condition is essential to realize high-rate and low-cost AMD treatment. Moreover, the escape of residual hydrogen sulfide from the system was eliminated by employing a 17% recirculation from effluent to the sulfidogenic reactor.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Bactérias Redutoras de Enxofre , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Reatores Biológicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mineração , Oxirredução , Sulfatos , Sulfetos , Enxofre
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200262, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1143145

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: This study aims to replicate the phenotype of Ltbp1 knockout mice in zebrafish, and to address the function of LTBP1 in craniofacial development. Methods: Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) of ltbp1 was performed at critical periods of zebrafish craniofacial development to explore the spatial-temporal expression pattern. Furthermore, we generated morpholino based knockdown model of ltbp1 to study the craniofacial phenotype. Results: WISH of ltbp1 was mainly detected in the mandibular jaw region, brain trunk, and internal organs such as pancreas and gallbladder. And ltbp1 colocalized with both sox9a and ckma in mandibular region. Morpholino based knockdown of ltbp1 results in severe jaw malformation. Alcian blue staining revealed severe deformity of Meckel's cartilage along with the absence of ceratobranchial. Three-dimension measurements of ltbp1 morphants jaws showed decrease in both mandible length and width and increase in open mouth distance. Expression of cartilage marker sox9a and muscle marker ckma was decreased in ltbp1 morphants. Conclusions: Our experiments found that ltbp1 was expressed in zebrafish mandibular jaw cartilages and the surrounding muscles. The ltbp1 knockdown zebrafish exhibited phenotypes consistent with Ltbp1 knockout mice. And loss of ltbp1 function lead to significant mandibular jaw defects and affect both jaw cartilages and surrounding muscles.

13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 585956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859613

RESUMO

Background: At present, the relationship between thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in relation to postmenstrual age (PMA) in preterm infants is still unclear, and there is no reliable standard thyroid hormone reference ranges, resulting in different diagnostic criteria for congenital hypothyroidism been used by different newborn screening programs and different countries. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between TSH/FT4 and PMA in very preterm infants (VPIs) born with gestational age (GA) <32 weeks and to derive thyroid function reference charts based on PMA. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed on VPIs born with GA<32 weeks and born in or transferred to the 27 neonatal intensive care units from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019. Serial TSH and FT4 values were measured at the end of each week during the first month after birth and also at PMA36 weeks, PMA40 weeks and at discharge, respectively. The 2.5th, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles of TSH and FT4 of different PMA groups were calculated to draw the percentile charts based on PMA. Results: 1,093 preterm infants were included in this study. The percentile charts of TSH and FT4 levels based on PMA were drawn respectively, and the result indicated that the percentile charts of TSH values were gradually increased initially and then decreased with increasing PMA. The 97.5th percentile chart reached the peak at PMA30 weeks (17.38µIU/ml), and then decreased gradually, reaching the same level as full-term infants (9.07µIU/ml) at PMA38-40 weeks. The 2.5th percentile chart of FT4 was at its lowest point at PMA26-27 weeks (5.23pmol/L), then increased slowly with PMA and reached the same level as full-term infants at PMA38-40 weeks (10.87pmol/L). At PMA36 weeks, the reference intervals of the 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles of TSH and FT4 were 1.18-12.3µIU/ml and 8.59-25.98pmol/L, respectively. Conclusion: The percentile charts of TSH and FT4 in VPIs showed characteristic change with PMA. The results prompt that age-related cutoffs, instead of a single reference range, might be more useful to explain the thyroid function of VPIs. And repeated screening is necessary for preterm infants.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/sangue , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Tireóidea
14.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(11): e4643, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271658

RESUMO

Ginsenoside compound K (CK) is an active metabolite of ginsenoside and has been shown to have ameliorative property in various diseases. However, the detailed in vivo metabolism of this compound has rarely been reported. In the present study, a method using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry together with multiple data processing techniques, including extracted ion chromatogram, multiple mass defect filter and MS/MS scanning, was developed to detect and characterize the metabolites of CK in rat urine and feces. After oral administration of CK at a dose of 50 mg/kg, urine and feces were collected for a period of time and subjected to a series of pretreatment. A total of 12 metabolites were tentatively or conclusively identified, comprising 11 phase I metabolites and a phase II metabolite. Metabolic pathways of CK has been proposed, including oxidation, deglycosylation, deglycosylation with sequential oxidation and dehydrogenation and deglycosylation with sequential glucuronidation. Relative quantitative analyses suggested that deglycosylation was the main metabolic pathway. The result could offer insights for better understanding of the mechanism of its pharmacological activities.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fezes/química , Ginsenosídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/urina , Masculino , Metabolômica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
15.
J Org Chem ; 83(20): 12535-12548, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230328

RESUMO

Microwave irradiation, four-component branched domino reaction of methyl acetoacetate/2,4-pentanedione, diethyl malonate, triethyl orthoformate and amines offering an extremely efficient strategy for the construction of fully substituted 2-pyridone derivatives under sustainable conditions is established. This self-sorting branched domino transformation is proposed to proceed separate through N-nucleophilic addition and imine-enamine tautomerization/condensation reaction generated from enamino ester and diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate, and then would be subjected to an aza-ene reaction and intramolecular cyclization mechanism to afford the 2-pyridones with only water and ethanol as byproducts. The simple experimental procedure, high bond-forming efficiency, step and atom economy, inexpensive readily available starting materials, moderate to excellent yields, and good functional group compatibility are other noteworthy advantages of this method.

16.
Water Res ; 131: 239-245, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29291485

RESUMO

Biological sulfur reduction can theoretically produce sufficient sulfide to effectively remove and recover heavy metals in the treatment of organics-deficient sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater such as acid mine drainage and metallurgic wastewater, using 75% less organics than biological sulfate reduction. However, it is still unknown whether sulfur reduction can indeed compete with sulfate reduction, particularly under high-strength sulfate conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term feasibility of biological sulfur reduction under high sulfate conditions in a lab-scale sulfur-reducing biological sulfide production (BSP) system with sublimed sulfur added. In the 169-day trial, an average sulfide production rate (SPR) as high as 47 ±â€¯9 mg S/L-h was achieved in the absence of sulfate, and the average SPR under sulfate-rich conditions was similar (53 ±â€¯10 mg S/L-h) when 1300 mg S/L sulfate were fed with the influent. Interestingly, sulfate was barely reduced even at such a high strength and contributed to only 1.5% of total sulfide production. Desulfomicrobium was identified as the predominant sulfidogenic bacterium in the bioreactor. Batch tests further revealed that this sulfidogenic bacteria used elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor instead of the highly bioavailable sulfate, during which polysulfide acted as an intermediate, leading to an even higher bioavailability of sulfur than sulfate. The pathway of sulfur to sulfide conversion via polysulfide in the presence of both sulfur and sulfate was discussed. Collectively, when conditions favor polysulfide formation, sulfur reduction can be a promising and attractive technology to realize a high-rate and low-cost BSP process for treating sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Bactérias/genética , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Deltaproteobacteria/genética , Deltaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Metais/química , Oxirredução , Sulfatos/química , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação
17.
Water Res ; 130: 161-167, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220716

RESUMO

Sulfur reduction is a promising alternative to sulfate reduction as it can generate sulfide at a low cost for the precipitation of heavy metals or autotrophic denitrification in wastewater treatment. However, the extremely low water solubility of elemental sulfur limits its bioavailability and results in a low sulfur-reduction rate. Polysulfide, which is naturally generated through reactions between sulfur and sulfide, can enhance the bioavailability of sulfur and thus contribute to high-rate sulfur reduction. Based on this principle, a laboratory-scale sulfur-reducing bioreactor was designed in this study for wastewater treatment. After 164 days of operation, the sulfide production rate (SPR) in the bioreactor reached 126 mg S/L-h, which is significantly higher than those of other sulfate-reducing systems. Moreover, dissolved zero-valent sulfur (referred to as polysulfide) was detected in the sulfur-reducing reactor when the organics were completely depleted, indicating that polysulfide can form naturally and be readily reduced to sulfide in the bioreactor. We found that the produced sulfide promoted the formation of more polysulfide, which enabled a self-accelerating chain reaction of sulfur reduction via polysulfide. This stimulation effect was further validated by the 7-h batch tests. In the batch test without sulfide addition initially, a continuous increase in the hourly SPR was observed with increasing sulfide concentration. Furthermore, in the batch tests with the addition of 50-200 mg S/L sulfide at the beginning, the average SPR in the first 3 h increased with elevating initial sulfide concentration due to more polysulfide formation and reduction. However, high sulfide concentration (>250 mg S/L) hindered the continuous increase in SPR. Additionally, when polysulfide formation was prevented through the addition of Fe2+, the SPR dropped by 97.6% compared to that in the presence of polysulfide. This validates the key role of polysulfide in the high-rate sulfur reduction process. Overall, the findings suggest that high-rate sulfur reduction can be achieved for autotrophic denitrification or heavy-metal removal in wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Sulfetos/química , Enxofre/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Reatores Biológicos , Oxirredução
18.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0182668, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783759

RESUMO

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy used to be elucidated by biomechanical, stretch-sensitive or neurohumoral mechanisms. However, a series of hints have indicated that hypertrophy process simulates senescence program. However, further evidence need to be pursued. To verify this hypothesis and examine whether cardiac senescence is a novel mechanism of hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol, 2-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to isoproterenol infusion (0.25mg/kg/day) for 7 days by subcutaneous injection). Key characteristics of senescence (senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity, lipofuscin, expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors) were examined in cardiac hypertrophy model. Senescence-like phenotype, such as increased senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity, accumulation of lipofuscin and high levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (e.g. p16, p19, p21 and p53) was found along the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac-specific transcription factor GATA4 increased in isoproterenol-treated cardiomyocytes as well. We further found that myocardial hypertrophy could be inhibited by resveratrol, an anti-aging compound, in a dose-dependent manner. Our results showed for the first time that cardiac senescence is involved in the process of pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Senescência Celular , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/genética , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA4/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/farmacologia
19.
Anal Chem ; 89(17): 9339-9346, 2017 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727917

RESUMO

Onsite rapid detection of herbicides and herbicide residuals in environmental and biological specimens are important for agriculture, environmental concerns, food safety, and health care. The traditional method for herbicide detection requires expensive laboratory equipment and a long turnaround time. In this work, we developed a single-stripe microliter plate smartphone-based colorimetric device for rapid and low-cost in-field tests. This portable smartphone platform is capable of screening eight samples in a single-stripe microplate. The device combined the advantages of small size (50 × 100 × 160 mm3) and low cost ($10). The platform was calibrated by using two different dye solutions, i.e. methyl blue (MB) and rhodamine B, for the red and green channels. The results showed good correlation with results attained from a traditional laboratory reader. We demonstrated the application of this platform for detection of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the range of 1 to 80 ppb. Spiked samples of tap water, rat serum, plasma, and human serum were tested by our device. Recoveries obtained varied from 95.6% to 105.2% for all of the spiked samples using the microplate reader and from 93.7% to 106.9% for all of the samples using the smartphone device. This work validated that the smartphone optical-sensing platform is comparable to the commercial microplate reader; it is eligible for onsite, rapid, and low-cost detection of herbicides for environmental evaluation and biological monitoring.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/isolamento & purificação , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Smartphone , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/química , Animais , Colorimetria/economia , Colorimetria/métodos , Herbicidas/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Impressão Tridimensional , Ratos , Soro/química , Água/química
20.
Exp Ther Med ; 13(5): 1900-1906, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28565783

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of baoxin decoction (BXD) on myocardial fibrosis and clarified the possible mechanism of action. Dilated myocardiopathy was induced by doxorubicin injected intraperitoneally for 6 weeks. Rats that demonstrated dilated myocardiopathy were randomly divided into five groups plus a control group. Three groups were treated with BXD (7.5/kg, 15 g/kg and 30 g/kg) daily for 4 weeks. One group was treated with 8.75 g/kg of captopril (positive control), and with physiologic saline (negative control). Cardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Massons trichrome staining were performed, PICP and PIIINP were assessed by ELISA, the expression of galectin-3 and collagen types I and III was evaluated with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, and interrelated proteins were detected by western blot analysis. BXD downregulated galectin-3, collagen I and III and was correlated with a high expression of fibrosis markers. It also significantly decreased myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF), together with markedly preventing the upregulation of collagen I and III. In addition, BXD downregulated the expression of TGF-ß1 and Smad3 in the myocardial fibrosis rats. Therefore, BXD treatment significantly improved cardiac function and alleviated myocardial fibrosis in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), which is the mechanism that may be associated with inhibiting the TGF-ß1 signaling pathway.

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