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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(1): 116-134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892850

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve injury is a complex condition with a variety of signs and symptoms such as numbness, tingling, jabbing, throbbing, burning or sharp pain. Peripheral nerves are fragile in nature and can easily get damaged due to acute compression or trauma which may lead to the sensory and motor functions deficits and even lifelong disability. After lesion, the neuronal cell body becomes disconnected from the axon's distal portion to the injury site leading to the axonal degeneration and dismantlement of neuromuscular junctions of targeted muscles. In spite of extensive research on this aspect, complete functional recovery still remains a challenge to be resolved. This review highlights detailed pathophysiological events after an injury to a peripheral nerve and the associated factors that can either hinder or promote the regenerative machinery. In addition, it throws light on the available therapeutic strategies including supporting therapies, surgical and non-surgical interventions to ameliorate the axonal regeneration, neuronal survival, and reinnervation of peripheral targets. Despite the availability of various treatment options, we are still lacking the optimal treatments for a perfect and complete functional regain. The need for the present age is to discover or design such potent compounds that would be able to execute the complete functional retrieval. In this regard, plant-derived compounds are getting more attention and several recent reports validate their remedial effects. A plethora of plants and plant-derived phytochemicals have been suggested with curative effects against a number of diseases in general and neuronal injury in particular. They can be a ray of hope for the suffering individuals.

2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predictors besides symptoms of obstruction indicating small bowel stenosis are little known. AIMS: To detect predictors of small bowel stenosis in balloon-assisted enteroscopy. METHODS: Over a 6-year period, 461 patients had enteroscopy for suspected small intestinal disease. Details of clinical manifestations, medical history, demographic characteristics, findings of examinations, information on enteroscopy, and treatment were retrospectively collected based on medical records. Small bowel stenosis was defined as stricture that over-tube cannot go through in enteroscopy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors for small bowel stenosis. RESULTS: A total of 314 patients had definite diagnosis after enteroscopy, imaging modalities, and/or even surgical exploration. They were included in this study for analyses. Mean age for them was 48.2 years old (range 15-81 years). Small bowel stenosis was present in 59 patients (18.8%). Analyses showed that CT/MRI indicating stenosis was significantly associated with severe stenosis (p = 0.014) but insignificant related to general stenosis (p = 0.097). Predictive factors that accompanied stenosis were age ≥ 60 years (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.0), underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5) (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-8.4), symptoms of obstruction (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.8-7.4), and overt small bowel bleeding (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Small bowel stenosis more tended to occur to patients with symptoms of obstruction, no overt small bowel bleeding, age ≥ 60 years, or underweight.

3.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799179

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical hypervascular solid tumor that requires neoangiogenesis for growth. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most potent proangiogenic factor in neovascularization. The multifunctional Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) is involved in the regulation of tumor malignancy of HCC. However, the relationship between YY1 and endothelial cell-dependent tumor angiogenesis in HCC remains unclear. In this study, we observed that YY1 is positively correlated with microvessel density (MVD) and poor prognosis in HCC tissues. We further found that YY1 promotes the transcriptional activity of VEGFA by binding its promoter in HCC. The secreted VEGFA from HCC cells activates phosphorylation of VEGFR2 to promotes tube formation, cell migration, and invasion of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, and promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, upregulation of YY1 enhanced resistance of bevacizumab in HCC cells. These results indicate that YY1 plays essential roles in HCC angiogenesis and resistance of bevacizumab by inducing VEGFA transcription and that YY1 may represent a potential molecular target for antiangiogenic therapy during HCC progression.

4.
Oncogene ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801971

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the author affiliations. Affiliation number 4 incorrectly read "Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tianjin Institute of Digestive Disease, Tianjin Institute of Digestive Disease". It should be "Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052, China".

5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835582

RESUMO

In this paper, the reaction characteristic of a novel reactive material, which introduced bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3) into traditional polytetrafluoroethylene/aluminum (PTFE/Al), is studied. The effect of Bi2O3 with different content and particle size on the reaction behaviors of PTFE/Al/Bi2O3 are investigated by drop-weight test and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), including impact sensitivity, energy release performance under a certain impact, and reaction mechanism. The experimental results show that the content of Bi2O3 increased from 0% to 35.616%, the characteristic drop height of impact sensitivity (H50) of PTFE/Al/Bi2O3 reactive materials decreased first and then increased, and the minimum H50 of all types of materials in the experiment is 0.74 times that of PTFE/Al, and the particle size of Bi2O3 affects the rate of H50 change with Bi2O3 content. Besides, with the increase of Bi2O3 content, both the reaction intensity and duration first increase and then decrease, and there is optimum content of Bi2O3 maximizing the reaction degree of the PTFE/Al/Bi2O3. Furthermore, a prediction model for the impact sensitivity of PTFE-based reactive material is developed. The main reaction products include AlF3, xBi2O3·Al2O3, and Bi.

6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829036

RESUMO

Two new 1,3-benzodioxole derivatives, leucandioxoles A and B (1-2), together with two known related compounds (3-4), have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Leucandra sp. The structures of all compounds were clearly elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and compared with the literatures. The cytotoxicity against A549, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa cell lines of 1-4 were evaluated. Only compound 1 exhibited moderate activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with the IC50 value of 7.98 ± 0.74 µM.

7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863304

RESUMO

For Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) patients, small bowel polyps develop and result in symptoms at an early age. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) is verified as a safe and efficient choice to evaluate and remove small intestinal polyps in adult PJS. But the safety of BAE, especially BAE-facilitated polypectomy for young pediatrics, is little known. This prospective study focused on the effectiveness and safety of BAE-facilitated polypectomy in small bowel for young pediatric PJS. PJS patients (aged 0-14 years old) with BAE (including both single-balloon and double-balloon enteroscopies) were included from 1 September 2012 to 30 April 2018. The demographic data, medical history, and details of BAE were recorded. BAE-related complications and symptom relief after BAE were evaluated and compared between the PJS patients aged 5-10 years old (the younger pediatric group) and those aged 11-14 years old (the older pediatric group). A total of 41 pediatric PJS patients (5-14 years old) subjected to 82 BAEs were included. BAE-facilitated polypectomy was performed for 33 children (80.5%), and 242 polyps in small bowel were removed. For 10 (24.4%) patients, one or more giant polyps (maximum diameter larger than 5 cm) were removed. For eight patients, no polypectomy was done as no polyps were observed (six subjects) or not suitable for BAE-facilitated polypectomy (two subjects) because of high risk of perforation. The complication rates of BAE and BAE-facilitated polypectomy were 1.2% (1/82) and 1.8% (1/55), and the symptom relief rate was 70.8% (17/24). Compared with the older pediatric group, the younger pediatric group showed no increased BAE complication rate (0.0% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.488) and a comparable rate of symptom relief after BAE therapy (80.8% vs. 55.6%, p = 0.356).Conclusion: BAE-facilitated polypectomy in young pediatric PJS is safe and effective.What is known:• Small bowel evaluation and prophetic polypectomy are important for pediatric PJS patients to avoid polyp-related intussusception, obstruction, and bleeding.• BAE polypectomy was a recommended intervention for removing small bowel polyps in adult PJS patients.What is new:• BAE-facilitated small bowel polypectomy is safe and effective for young pediatric PJS, even for those aged less than 10 years old.

8.
J Anim Sci ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710661

RESUMO

This study was to explore metabolic effects of two forms and concentrations of supplemental methionine in grower and finisher diets for broiler chickens raised at high temperature. Male Cornish cockerel chicks (total = 360, day-old) were divided into four groups (10 pens/treatment, 9 chicks/pen) and fed with 100 or 130% required methionine in the diets as DL-methionine (DL-MET) or 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBA). The room was maintained at 4 to 13oC above the suggested thermoneutral temperature. The higher concentration of both DL-MET and HMTBA enhanced (P < 0.05) hepatic GSH concentrations of the growers and plasma ferric reducing ability of the finishers. The DL-MET-fed growers had greater (P < 0.05%) muscle GSH and hepatic unsaturated fatty acid concentrations than those fed HMTBA. Expression of inflammation-related genes in the liver of finishers was affected (P < 0.05) by interaction effects of the methionine form and concentration. In conclusion, effects of the extra methionine supplementation on the high ambient temperature-related metabolic responses of broilers varied with their age and(or) tissue and the methionine form.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(21): 1901430, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728288

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute over 50% of the number of cells within the tumor, playing a major role in tumor progression and invasion. Remodeling the tumor immune microenvironment by modulating TAM polarization has been emerging as a new and promising therapeutic strategy. However, the high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix lead to insufficient penetration of nanosized therapies. To overcome this dilemma, an acid-triggered size-changeable nanoparticle (aptamer/acid sensitive linker crosslinked DGL/zoledronic acid, i.e., Apt@(DGL-ZA) n NPs) with effective tumor distribution, extravasation, and penetration is designed. Dendrigraft poly-L-lysines (DGLs) which can induce tumor autophagy as mimics of natural abnormal proteins are crosslinked via a mild-acid-responsive linker (1,6-bis(4-formylbenzoyloxy) hexane). Long circulation property and tumor penetration are achieved simultaneously by catching DGLs in neutral pH while releasing them in the tumor's pH, like dandelion seeds in midair. The macrophage conditioning agent zoledronic acid (ZA) is loaded on DGLs by the charge attraction. A Tenascin-C targeting aptamer (GBI-10) is modified onto (DGL-ZA) n NPs for a tumor-homing effect. Apt@(DGL-ZA) n NPs show both enhanced penetration in in vitro 3D triple negative breast cancer spheroids and in vivo tumor tissues. Effective macrophage regulation, enhanced tumor autophagy, and excellent in vivo antitumor efficacy are achieved, suggesting this tactic as a significant antitumor strategy.

10.
iScience ; 21: 549-561, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715498

RESUMO

Multi-targeted kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib, have been used in various malignancies, but their efficacy in clinical applications varies among individuals and lacks pretherapeutic prediction measures. We applied the concept of "click chemistry" to pathological staining and established a drug-loaded probe staining assay. We stained the cells and different types of pathological sections and demonstrated that the assay was reliable. We further verified in cells, cell-derived xenograft model, and clinical level that the staining intensity of the probe could reflect drug sensitivity. The stained samples from 300 patients who suffered from hepatocellular carcinoma and used the sorafenib probe also indicated that staining intensity was closely related to clinical information and could be used as an independent marker without undergoing sorafenib therapy for prognosis. This assay provided new ideas for multi-target drug clinical trials, pre-medication prediction, and pathological research.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754437

RESUMO

Background: Lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a potential sustainable source for industrial applications. The costs associated with conversion of plant biomass to fermentable sugar represent a significant barrier to the production of cost-competitive biochemicals. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is considered a potential breakthrough for achieving cost-efficient production of biomass-based fuels and commodity chemicals. During the degradation of cellulose, cellobiose (major end-product of cellulase activity) is catabolized by hydrolytic and phosphorolytic pathways in cellulolytic organisms. However, the details of the two intracellular cellobiose metabolism pathways in cellulolytic fungi remain to be uncovered. Results: Using the engineered malic acid production fungal strain JG207, we demonstrated that the hydrolytic pathway by ß-glucosidase and the phosphorolytic pathway by phosphorylase are both used for intracellular cellobiose metabolism in Myceliophthora thermophila, and the yield of malic acid can benefit from the energy advantages of phosphorolytic cleavage. There were obvious differences in regulation of the two cellobiose catabolic pathways depending on whether M. thermophila JG207 was grown on cellobiose or Avicel. Disruption of Mtcpp in strain JG207 led to decreased production of malic acid under cellobiose conditions, while expression levels of all three intracellular ß-glucosidase genes were significantly up-regulated to rescue the impairment of the phosphorolytic pathway under Avicel conditions. When the flux of the hydrolytic pathway was reduced, we found that ß-glucosidase encoded by bgl1 was the dominant enzyme in the hydrolytic pathway and deletion of bgl1 resulted in significant enhancement of protein secretion but reduction of malate production. Combining comprehensive manipulation of both cellobiose utilization pathways and enhancement of cellobiose uptake by overexpression of a cellobiose transporter, the final strain JG412Δbgl2Δbgl3 produced up to 101.2 g/L and 77.4 g/L malic acid from cellobiose and Avicel, respectively, which corresponded to respective yields of 1.35 g/g and 1.03 g/g, representing significant improvement over the starting strain JG207. Conclusions: This is the first report of detailed investigation of intracellular cellobiose catabolism in cellulolytic fungus M. thermophila. These results provide insights that can be applied to industrial fungi for production of biofuels and biochemicals from cellobiose and cellulose.

12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8345-8360, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695371

RESUMO

Background: The protective role of puerarin (PUE) against myocardial infarction is closely related to its regulation on mitochondria. However, free PUE can hardly reach the mitochondria of ischemic cardiomyocytes due to the lack of mitochondrial targeting of PUE. Here PUE was loaded into mitochondria-targeted micelles (PUE@TPP/PEG-PE) for precisely delivering PUE into mitochondria with the aim of enhancing the anti-apoptosis effect. Methods: The mitochondriotropic polymer TPP-PEG-PE was synthesized for the preparation of PUE@TPP/PEG-PE micelles modified with triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation. The physicochemical properties and anti-apoptosis effect of PUE@TPP/PEG-PE micelles were investigated. The coumarin 6 (C6)-labeled TPP/PEG-PE (C6@TPP/PEG-PE) micelles were used to observe the enhanced cellular uptake, mitochondrial targeting and lysosomes escape. Moreover, in vivo and ex vivo biodistribution of lipophilic near-infrared dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR)-labeled PUE@TPP/PEG-PE (DiR@TPP/PEG-PE) micelles were detected through fluorescence imaging. Results: The successful synthesis of TPP-PEG-PE conjugate was confirmed. PUE@TPP/PEG-PE micelles had a particle size of 17.1 nm, a zeta potential of -6.2 mV, and a sustained-release behavior. The in vitro results showed that the intracellular uptake of C6@TPP/PEG-PE micelles was significantly enhanced in H9c2 cells. C6@TPP/PEG-PE micelles could deliver C6 to mitochondria and reduce the capture of lysosomes. In addition, compared with the PUE@PEG-PE micelles and free PUE, the PUE@TPP/PEG-PE micelles exerted an enhanced protective effect against isoprenaline-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis, as evident by the decreased percentage of apoptotic cells, Caspase-3 activity, ROS level, Bax expression, and increased Bcl-2 expression. The in vivo detecting results of the targeting effect using DiR probe also indicated that TPP/PEG-PE micelles could accumulate and retain in the ischemic myocardium. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the promising potential of applying PUE@TPP/PEG-PE micelles in mitochondria-targeted drug delivery to achieve maximum therapeutic effects of PUE.

13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8499-8507, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695377

RESUMO

Background: Beyond magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has been widely used clinically, molecular MRI (mMRI) can further provide qualitative and quantitative information at the cellular and molecular levels. However, the diagnostic accuracy may not be satisfactory via single-contrast mMRI due to some interferences in vivo. T1/T2 dual-contrast MRI using the same contrast agent (CA) could significantly improve the detection accuracy. Therefore, in this study, we fabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-coated, manganese-doped iron oxide nanocomposites (Mn-IONPs@PEG) as T1/T2 dual-contrast CA, and evaluated its feasibility of T1/T2 dual-contrast MRI in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Mn-IONPs were prepared by the thermal decomposition of iron-eruciate and manganese-oleate complexes and were coated with 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy[polyethylene glycol]-2000) (DSPE-PEG 2000). The physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of the Mn-IONPs were fully characterized, followed by MRI in vitro and in vivo. Results: Ultrasmall 3 nm-sized nanoparticles were successfully prepared and were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and X-ray diffraction. After coating with DSPE-PEG, the Mn-IONPs@PEG displayed excellent hydrophilicity and good biocompatibility. Due to the manganese-doping and PEG coating, the Mn-IONPs@PEG showed good relaxivity in vitro. Especially, the Mn-IONPs@PEG coated with DSPE-PEG following a mass ratio to Mn-IONPs of 1:20 showed harmonious longitudinal relaxivity (r 1 = 7.1 mM-1s-1) and transversal relaxivity (r 2 = 120.9 mM-1s-1), making it a better candidate for T1/T2 dual-contrast mMRI. After administrated via a caudal vein, the Mn-IONPs@PEG can induce significant enhancement in both T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR images and the time at 10 mins after injection was regarded as a suitable time for imaging because both the T1 and T2 enhancement were optimum at that time. Conclusion: The obtained Mn-IONPs@PEG exhibited good r 1 and r 2 and was a reasonable candidate for T1/T2 dual-contrast mMRI.

14.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The epidemiological studies of Chinese developmental dyslexia (DD) in China are still limited. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate, risk factors, and psychiatric comorbidities of Chinese DD in Guangzhou, a city in South China. METHOD: A total of 1661 students from second to fifth grades were recruited. The dyslexic students were identified by evaluating learning disability through the Pupil Rating Scale-Revised Screening for Learning Disability (PRS) scale by the head teachers and word recognition through the standard test. Students with a PRS score of <65 received the Raven's test, and those with intelligence quotient scores below 80 in the Raven's test were excluded. Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire completed by parents. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of Chinese DD was 4.9% in Guangzhou city. There were significant differences in gender, the paternal educational level, and reading experience before the age of 6 years between the DD group and the non-DD group. Male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 4.17), low paternal educational level (p = 0.045), and lack of reading experience before the age of 6 years (OR = 1.99) were the risk factors for DD. The DD cases had a higher risk of hyperactivity and inattention (OR = 3.21). CONCLUSION: This study showed that the prevalence rate of DD was 4.9% in Guangzhou city. Male gender, low paternal educational level, and lack of reading experience before the age of 6 years were the risk factors for Chinese DD. The high comorbidity rate of hyperactivity and inattention in the Chinese DD population needs further evaluation.

15.
Med Ultrason ; 21(4): 441-448, 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765453

RESUMO

AIM: Studies on the usefulness of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in the evaluation of the left ventricle in rats with stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) are limited. Our aim was to investigate whether strain values by STE and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) could predict early myocardial injury in rats with SCM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: SCM was induced in Sprague-Dawley female rats using immobilization (IMO) stress. Biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters were evaluated and compared among groups (group 1 - 30 minutes after IMO stress, group 2 - 24 hours after IMO stress, and control group). We defined myocardial injury as a left ventricular ejection fraction <50%. Possible predictors of early myocardial injury were determined by univariate logistic regression, and independent predictors of early myocardial injury were investigated with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 44 rats with a mean weight of 426±33 g were evaluated. Group 1 had the highest plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels (p<0.001) and the highest heart rate (p<0.001). In univariate logistic regression, cTnI (OR=2.61 [1.02‒10.25], p=0.043) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) (OR=2.13 [1.12‒6.26], p=0.022) were predictive of early myocardial injury. When GLS and cTnI were included in a multivariate analysis, only GLS remained an independent predictor of early myocardial injury (OR=2.67 [1.14‒14.76], p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: STE is useful for the quantitative detection of subtle myocardial abnormalities in rats with SCM. GLS may provide a reliable and non-invasive method to predict early myocardial injury.

16.
Gene ; : 144169, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND (OBJECTIVE): In the development of tumor therapy, the role of long non-coding RNA actin filagenin 1 antisense RNA 1 (1ncRNA AFAP1-AS1) is quite significant, but the actual role of AFAP1-AS1 in the treatment of prostate cancer has not been determined. In view of this, the author took AFAP1-AS1 as the research object to design an experimental study, and conducted an in-depth exploration of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. METHODS: RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of AFAP1-AS1 and miR-512-3p in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. Perforation, flow cytometry and CCK-8 were used to detect the effects of cell proliferation, migration and invasion of mir-512-3p and a AFAP1-AS1. And the luciferase reporter gene was used to detect the downstream target gene of AFAP1-AS1, and the expression of CDK4, CDK6 and CCND1 protein was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: AFAP1-AS1 is highly expressed in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression level of AFAP1-AS1 is correlated with histological grade and distant metastasis. The overall level of patients with high expression of AFAP1-AS1 is low, and their survival rate is relatively low. Silencing AFAP1-AS1 can significantly increase the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. AFAP1-AS1 silencing induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The downstream target of AFAP1-AS1 was mir-512-3p. The role of AFAP1-AS1 in the progression of prostate cancer cells was mediated by mir-512-3p. CONCLUSION: AFAP1-AS1 regulates miR-512-3p, so as to realize the regulation effect on the proliferation, invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells, and thereby promote the occurrence and development of prostate cancer, so as to provide the corresponding program for the treatment of prostate cancer. Abberivation: ADPC, androgen-dependent prostate cancer; CRPC, castrated prostate cancer; RNA1 AFAP1-Asl, Actin fiber-associated protein 1-anti-RNA1; miRNAs, MicroRNAs.

17.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 772-782, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748948

RESUMO

During the last decade, China's agro-food production has increased rapidly and been accompanied by the challenge of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental pollutants from fertilizers, pesticides, and intensive energy use. Understanding the energy use and environmental impacts of crop production will help identify environmentally damaging hotspots of agro-production, allowing environmental impacts to be assessed and crop management strategies optimized. Conventional farming has been widely employed in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) cultivation in China, which is an important cash tree crop not only for the rural economy but also from an ecological standpoint. Energy use and global warming potential (GWP) were investigated in a wolfberry production system in the Yellow River irrigated Jingtai region of Gansu. In total, 52 household farms were randomly selected to conduct the investigation using questionnaires. Total energy input and output were 321,800.73 and 166,888.80 MJ ha-1, respectively, in the production system. The highest share of energy inputs was found to be electricity consumption for lifting irrigation water, accounting for 68.52%, followed by chemical fertilizer application (11.37%). Energy use efficiency was 0.52 when considering both fruit and pruned wood. Nonrenewable energy use (88.52%) was far larger than the renewable energy input. The share of GWP of different inputs were 64.52% electricity, 27.72% nitrogen (N) fertilizer, 5.07% phosphate, 2.32% diesel, and 0.37% potassium, respectively. The highest share was related to electricity consumption for irrigation, followed by N fertilizer use. Total GWP in the wolfberry planting system was 26,018.64 kg CO2 eq ha-1 and the share of CO2, N2O, and CH4 were 99.47%, 0.48%, and negligible respectively with CO2 being dominant. Pathways for reducing energy use and GHG emission mitigation include: conversion to low carbon farming to establish a sustainable and cleaner production system with options of raising water use efficiency by adopting a seasonal gradient water pricing system and advanced irrigation techniques; reducing synthetic fertilizer use; and policy support: smallholder farmland transfer (concentration) for scale production, credit (small- and low-interest credit) and tax breaks.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Lycium , Agricultura , Carbono , China , Fertilizantes , Efeito Estufa , Metano , Óxido Nitroso
18.
Appl Opt ; 58(29): 8069-8074, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674362

RESUMO

The optical properties of symmetric split-ring/ring dimer (SRRD) nanostructures composed of a small nanoring surrounded by an Ag splitting nanoring with a larger diameter are calculated theoretically. The apparent asymmetric Fano line shape in the spectra is related to fast switching of the bonding modes between the split-ring plasmon and ring dipole. The influence of the dimensions of the SRRD nanostructures on the spectral positions and intensity of Fano resonance is studied, and the asymmetric Fano line shape can be flexibly adjusted by varying the geometric parameters. In addition, relatively simple SRRD nanostructures have the same overall sensing figures of merit as conventional nanoparticles, thus rendering them suitable for high-performance optical sensors.

19.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676872

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer type and a threat to human health. Tumor budding (TB) is the presence of a single cancer cell or clusters of up to five cancer cells prior to the invasive front of an aggressive carcinoma and is an independent prognosis factor for CRC. The molecular mechanism of TB is still unclear, and drugs that inhibit this process are still in the blank stage. This study found that TBs exhibit characteristics of partial EMT with a decreased expression of E-cadherin and no substantial differences in the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin. We also observed the interaction of integrin with extracellular matrix components, laminin-5γ2 (LN-5γ2), play essential roles in the TB of CRC. We then verified that the interaction between LN-5γ2 and integrin ß1 promotes the TB of CRC via the activation of FAK and Yes-associated proteins (YAP). A natural drug monomer, cucurbitacin B, was screened using virtual screening methods for the interaction interface of proteins. We found that this monomer could block the interaction interface between LN-5γ2 and integrin ß1 and substantially inhibit the TB of CRC cells via inactivation of YAP. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of TB mechanism and the development of drugs targeting the TB of CRC.

20.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8281-8288, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe devastating condition associated with serious disability and neurologic deficits. Aberrant micro RNA (miRNA) expression has been related to a variety of central nervous system diseases including SCI. In the present study, we aimed to discover the role of miR-129-5p on SCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS An acute SCI rat model was induced, following the modified Allen method. A total of 36 rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=9 in every group): Sham group; Model group (SCI+saline); SCI+NC group; and SCI+miR-129-5p group (100 nm solution, every 2 days). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating score was carried out to determine functional recovery. TUNEL (terminal dUTP nick-end labeling) staining was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess the pathological state of spinal cord. Furthermore, western blot assay was conducted to measure the calpain1 and calpain2 expression. RESULTS Our data suggested that the expression level of miR-129-5p was markedly reduced in rats after SCI. Then miR-129-5p mimic was injected into the vertebral canal. We found that the SCI+miR-129-5p group had a high score in the BBB test compared with the SCI+NC group and the Model group. The overexpression of miR-129-5p obviously reduced tissue loss, damaged cells, and the number of TUNEL positive cells. Moreover, western blot assay exhibited that overexpression of miR-129-5p decreased calpain1, calpain2, and cleaved caspase-3 expression. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggested that overexpression of miR-129-5p improved neurological function by promoting functional recovery, reducing tissue loss and cell apoptosis in rats in an SCI model, possibly through downregulation of calpain1 and calpain2.

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