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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 27, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the imaging features of hemangiomas in long tabular bones for better diagnosis. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with long bone hemangiomas confirmed by pathology were enrolled. Nineteen patients had plain radiography, fourteen patients had computed tomography (CT) and eleven had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hemangioma was divided into medullary [13], periosteal [6] and intracortical type [5]. RESULTS: Among 19 patients with plain radiography, eleven patients were medullary, three periosteal, and five intracortical. In the medullary type, the lesion was primarily osteolytic, including five cases with irregular and unclear rims and one lesion having osteosclerotic and unclear rims. In three patients with the periosteal type, the lesion had clear rims with involvement of the cortical bone in the form of bone defect, including two cases with local thickened bone periosteum and one case having expansile periosteum. Five intracortical hemangiomas had intracortical osteolytic lesions with clear margins. Among 14 patients with CT imaging, 8 cases were medullary, three periosteal, and three intracortical. Among 8 medullary hemangiomas, one had ground glass opacity, and seven had osteolytic, expansile lesions like soft tissue density with no calcification. In three periosteal cases, the lesion was osteolytic with thickened periosteum and narrowed medullary cavity. In three intracortical hemangiomas, the lesion was of even soft tissue density with no calcification. Among 11 patients with MRI imaging, seven were medullary, two periosteal, and two intracortical. Among 7 medullary lesions, six were of hypointense signal on T1WI and hyperintensesignal on T2 WI. In two periosteal cases, the periosteum was thickened, with one case being of equal signal, and the other having no signal. Two intracortical hemangiomas were both of slightly low signal on T1WI but hyperintense signal on T2WI. CONCLUSIONS: The long bone hemangiomas had characteristic cystic honeycomb-like presentations in plain radiograph. CT and MRI imagings are helpful for diagnosis of hemangiomas in long bone.

2.
Skin Res Technol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is now well understood that, as an uncomfortable sensation evoked by special fabric, prickle derives from the mechanical stimulation of protruding hairiness from fabric surface against the human skin, in which some nociceptors are easy to be triggered by stiff fiber ends. However, up to now, the neural mechanism of the brain for perceiving fabric-evoked prickle is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, A type of single-fiber stimulus made from nylon filament was used to repetitively prick the skin of volar forearm at a specific frequency, and the technology of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was adopted to detect the brain response synchronously. RESULTS: The results show that repetitive prickling stimulation from the single fiber applied to the volar forearm aroused distributed activation in several brain regions, such as primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, bilateral occipital lobe, insular cortex, and ipsilateral limbic lobe. Although the brain activation distribution is similar to pain, the single fiber-evoked prickle sensation possesses unique activation characteristics in several brain regions. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the sensation evoked by cutaneous prickling stimulation from single fiber belongs to a kind of multidimensional experience involving somatosensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, etc Our study constitutes an important step toward identifying the brain mechanism of fabric-evoked prickle.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 411, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462214

RESUMO

Shape-morphing uses a single actuation source for complex-task-oriented multiple patterns generation, showing a more promising way than reconfiguration, especially for microrobots, where multiple actuators are typically hardly available. Environmental stimuli can induce additional causes of shape transformation to compensate the insufficient space for actuators and sensors, which enriches the shape-morphing and thereby enhances the function and intelligence as well. Here, making use of the ionic sensitivity of alginate hydrogel microstructures, we present a shape-morphing strategy for microrobotic end-effectors made from them to adapt to different physiochemical environments. Pre-programmed hydrogel crosslinks were embedded in different patterns within the alginate microstructures in an electric field using different electrode configurations. These microstructures were designed for accomplishing tasks such as targeting, releasing and sampling under the control of a magnetic field and environmental ionic stimuli. In addition to structural flexibility and environmental ion sensitivity, these end-effectors are also characterized by their complete biodegradability and versatile actuation modes. The latter includes global locomotion of the whole end-effector by self-trapping magnetic microspheres as a hitch-hiker and the local opening and closing of the jaws using encapsulated nanoparticles based on local ionic density or pH values. The versatility was demonstrated experimentally in both in vitro environments and ex vivo in a gastrointestinal tract. Global locomotion was programmable and the local opening and closing was achieved by changing the ionic density or pH values. This 'structural intelligence' will enable strategies for shape-morphing and functionalization, which have attracted growing interest for applications in minimally invasive medicine, soft robotics, and smart materials.

4.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469903

RESUMO

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune bleeding disorder. Monocytes and macrophages are the major cells involved in autoantibody-mediated platelet clearance in ITP. In the present study, we found increased percentages of peripheral blood proinflammatory CD16+ monocytes and elevated frequencies of splenic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-expressing macrophages in ITP patients compared with healthy controls. Concurrently, we observed elevated TNF-α secretion in plasma as well as higher TNF-α mRNA expression in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD14+ monocytes of ITP patients. Of note, in vitro TNF-α blockade with neutralizing antibody remarkably reduced polarization to M1 macrophages by inhibiting the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Moreover, TNF-α blockade dampened macrophage phagocytosis and T cell stimulatory capacity. Finally, in passive and active murine models of ITP, anti-TNF-α therapy reduced the number of nonclassical monocytes and M1 macrophages, ameliorated the retention of platelets in spleen and liver, and increased the platelet count of ITP mice. Taken together, TNF-α blockade decreased the number and function of proinflammatory subsets of monocytes and macrophages by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway, leading to remarkable attenuation of antibody-mediated platelet destruction. Thus, TNF-α blockade may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of ITP.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1704, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462325

RESUMO

Diabetic sensory neuropathy leads to impairment of peripheral sensory nerves and downregulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in a functionally specific subset of peripheral sensory neurons mediating pain. Whether CGRP plays a neuroprotective role in peripheral sensory nerve is unclear. We evaluated alterations in noxious thermal sensation and downregulation of CGRP in the 8 weeks after induction of diabetes in rats. We supplemented capsaicin in the diet of the animals to upregulate CGRP and reversed the downregulation of the neuropeptide in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons dissociated from the diabetic animals, via gene transfection and exogenous CGRP, to test disease-preventing and disease-limiting effects of CGRP. Significant preservation of the nociceptive sensation, CGRP in spinal cord and DRG neurons, and number of CGRP-expressing neurons was found in the diabetic animals given capsaicin. Improvement in the survival of the neurons and the outgrowth of neurites was achieved in the neurons transfected by LV-CGRP or by exogenous CGRP, paralleling the correction of abnormalities of intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial transmembrane potentials. The results suggest that downregulation of CGRP impairs viability, regeneration and function of peripheral sensory neurons while capsaicin normalizes the CGRP peptidergic DRG neurons and function of the sensory nerves.

6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A member of the S100 family of Ca2+-binding proteins, S100A1 is highly expressed in cardiac muscle tissue. Although this protein is considered an indicator of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), high-throughput and sensitive detection methods are still urgently needed. We constructed a rapid and sensitive method for detecting S100A1 and to investigate the clinical utility of S100A1 as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of AMI and subsequent prognostic assessments. We developed an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay to detect S100A1. We then analyzed the performance of the newly developed assay including evaluation of the analytical sensitivity, analytical selectivity, linear range, accuracy and repeatability. METHODS: We recruited 87 patients with AMI or angina pectoris to explore the value of this marker for the early diagnosis and prognostic assessment. RESULTS: The chemiluminescent-immune-based S100A1 assay had functional analytical sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.13 ng/ml, and a wide linear range of 0.13 to 31.66 ng/ml. It also exhibited good repeatability with intra-assay and inter-assay findings of < 5% and <15%, respectively. Plasma S100A1 was found to have a higher diagnostic sensitivity than conventional cardiac biomarkers (creatine kinase-MB and cardiac troponin T). The survival analysis showed that a higher concentration of plasma S100A1 (>1.02 ng/ml) was notably associated with the poor prognosis of AMI patients after first PCI. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of circulating S100A1 concentrations with our newly developed chemiluminescent-immune-based assay shows potential for use in the clinic. This assay could enable early identification and prognostic assessment of AMI.

7.
Am J Gastroenterol ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare systemic venous malformation (VM) disease. The characteristic gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from multiple VM lesions causes severe chronic anemia which renders most patients depend on lifelong blood transfusion and frequent endoscopic treatment with dismayed outcomes. Although recent case reports suggest that oral sirolimus (rapamycin) is effective, a comprehensive evaluation of its efficacy and safety is in need. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted for both pediatric and adult BRBNS patients with administration of sirolimus at the dose of 1.0 mg/m2 to maintain a trough concentration of 3-10 ng/mL. Laboratory tests including complete blood count, biochemical profile, D-dimer, and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging were performed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Clinical indicators such as hemoglobin level, lesion size, and transfusion need were evaluated. Adverse effects were recorded regularly. RESULTS: A total of 11 patients (4 males and 7 females) with median age of 14 (range, 5-49) years were recruited. The average lesion size was reduced by 7.4% (P < 0.001), 9.3% (P < 0.001), and 13.0% (P < 0.05) at 3, 6, and 12 months of sirolimus treatment, respectively. Hemoglobin increased significantly after 6- and 12-month treatment (P = 0.006 and 0.019, respectively). Only 1 patient received blood transfusion once during the study. Patients' quality of life and coagulation function were improved. Grade 1-2 adverse effects including oral ulcers (81.8%), acne (27.3%), transient elevation of liver enzymes (18.2%), and hair loss (9.1%) were observed. DISCUSSION: Sirolimus reduces the size of VMs, alleviates GI bleeding, and eliminates transfusion dependence of patients with BRBNS. The drug-related adverse effects are mild and mostly self-limited. These findings support sirolimus as a first-line treatment for GI and cutaneous VMs of BRBNS (see Visual abstract, Supplementary Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/AJG/B819).

8.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417427

RESUMO

Real-time imaging of multiple low-abundance microRNAs (miRNAs) simultaneously in living cells with high sensitivity is of vital importance for accurate cancer clinical diagnosis and prognosis studies. Maintaining stability of nanoprobes resistant to enzyme degradation and enabling effective signal amplification is highly needed for in vivo imaging studies. Herein, a rationally designed one-pot assembled multicolor tetrahedral DNA frameworks (TDFs) by encoding multicomponent nucleic acid enzymes (MNAzymes) was developed for signal-amplified multiple miRNAs imaging in living cells with high sensitivity and selectivity. TDFs could enter cells via self-delivery with good biocompatibility and stability. Two kinds of MNAzymes specific for miRNA-21 and miRNA-155 with fluorescein labeling were encoded in the structure of TDFs respectively through one-step thermal annealing. In the intracellular environment, the TDFs could be specifically bound with its specific miRNA target and form an active DNAzyme structure. The cleavage of the active site would trigger the release of target miRNA and circular fluorescence signal amplification, which enabled accurate diagnosis on miRNA identifications of different cell lines with high sensitivity. Meanwhile, with the specific AS1411 aptamer targeting for nucleolin overexpressed on the surface of the carcinoma cells, this well-designed TDFs nanoprobe exhibited good discrimination between cancer cells and normal cells. The strategy provides an efficient tool for understanding the biological function of miRNAs in cancer pathogenesis and therapeutic applications.

10.
Biomed Mater ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455956

RESUMO

Pharmacotherapies for brain disorders are generally faced with obstacles from the blood-brain barrier (BBB). There are a variety of drug delivery systems that have been put forward to cross or bypass the BBB with the access to the central nervous system (CNS). Brain drug delivery systems have benefited greatly from the development of nanocarriers, including lipids, polymers and inorganic materials. Consequently, various kinds of brain drug delivery nano-systems have been established, such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), nanomicelles, nanohydrogels, dendrimers, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The characteristics of their carriers and preparations usually differ from each other, as well as their transportation mechanisms into intracerebral lesions. In this review, different types of brain drug delivery nanocarriers are classified and summarized, especially their significant achievements, to present several recommendations and directions for future strategies of cerebral delivery.

11.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458722

RESUMO

Bond cleavage bioorthogonal chemistry has been widely employed to restore or activate proteins or prodrugs. Nitric oxide (NO), as a free radical molecule, has joined the clinical arena of cancer therapy, since high levels of NO could produce a cancer cell growth inhibitory effect. However, the spatiotemporal controlled release of NO remains a great challenge, and bioorthogonal chemistry may open a new window. Herein, we described a class of O2-3-isocyanopropyl diazeniumdiolates 3a-f as new bioorthogonal NO precursors, which can be effectively uncaged via tetrazine-mediated bond cleavage reactions to liberate NO and acrolein in living cancer cells, exhibiting potent antiproliferative activity. Furthermore, 3a and tetrazine BTZ were respectively encapsulated into two liposomes. It was found that simultaneous administrations of the two liposomes could specifically release large amounts of NO in the implanted cancer cells in zebrafish, thus generating potent tumor suppression activity in vivo. Our findings indicate that the TZ-labile NO precursors could serve to expand the NO-based smart therapeutics and the scope of bioorthogonal chemistry utility in vivo in the near future.

12.
Neurosurg Focus ; 50(1): E10, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) have the ability to noninvasively visualize changes in white matter tracts, as well as their relationships with lesions and other structures. DTI/DTT has been increasingly used to improve the safety and results of surgical treatment for lesions in eloquent areas, such as brainstem cavernous malformations. This study aimed to investigate the application value of DTI/DTT in brainstem glioma surgery and to validate the spatial accuracy of reconstructed corticospinal tracts (CSTs). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 54 patients with brainstem gliomas who had undergone surgery from January 2016 to December 2018 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital. All patients underwent preoperative DTI and tumor resection with the assistance of DTT-merged neuronavigation and electrophysiological monitoring. Preoperative conventional MRI and DTI data were collected, and the muscle strength and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score before and after surgery were measured. The surgical plan was created with the assistance of DTI/DTT findings. The accuracy of DTI/DTT was validated by performing direct subcortical stimulation (DsCS) intraoperatively. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between quantitative parameters of DTI/DTT (such as the CST score and tumor-to-CST distance [TCD]) and postoperative muscle strength and mRS scores. RESULTS: Among the 54 patients, 6 had normal bilateral CSTs, 12 patients had unilateral CST impairments, and 36 had bilateral CSTs involved. The most common changes in the CSTs were deformation (n = 29), followed by deviation (n = 28) and interruption (n = 27). The surgical approach was changed in 18 cases (33.3%) after accounting for the DTI/DTT results. Among 55 CSTs on which DsCS was performed, 46 (83.6%) were validated as spatially accurate by DsCS. The CST score and TCD were significantly correlated with postoperative muscle strength (r = -0.395, p < 0.001, and r = 0.275, p = 0.004, respectively) and postoperative mRS score (r = 0.430, p = 0.001, and r = -0.329, p = 0.015, respectively). The CST score was independently linearly associated with postoperative muscle strength (t = -2.461, p = 0.016) and the postoperative mRS score (t = 2.052, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: DTI/DTT is a valuable tool in the surgical management of brainstem gliomas. With good accuracy, it can help optimize surgical planning, guide tumor resection, and predict the postoperative muscle strength and postoperative quality of life of patients.

13.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394115

RESUMO

The impact of reverse left ventricular remodeling (r-LVR) on clinical outcomes after surgical correction of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) remains unclear. This study aims to examine the prognostic significance of r-LVR in patients with ALCAPA after surgery. We prospectively identified 61 patients undergoing surgical correction for ALCAPA; 54 patients had adequate echocardiographic image quality with quantitative biplane analysis performed both at baseline and at 30-day postoperative follow-up. Postoperative r-LVR was defined as a reduction of ≥ 10% in left ventricular end-diastolic volume index during follow-up. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to investigate the independent association of r-LVR and all-cause mortality. Among 54 patients (age: 21.2 ± 7 months; 37% females), r-LVR occurred in 35 patients (64.8%) after surgery. Compared to patients with r-LVR, patients without r-LVR had significantly higher level of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [2176 (711, 4219) vs 998 (623, 2145) P < 0.001] and lower survival rate (47.3% vs 82.9%, HR = 5.72 [1.96 to 17.20], P < 0.001) at 1-year follow-up. NT-proBNP (OR = 2.27 [1.67 to 18.3], P = 0.02) was an independent predictor of r-LVR in multivariate analysis. Moreover, r-LVR was significantly associated with a lower rate of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.27 [0.08 to 0.98], P = 0.03) in multivariate analysis, even after adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic variables. R-LVR occurred in more than half of patients with ALCAPA undergoing surgical correction and it was associated with better clinical outcomes. NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of r-LVR.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417538

RESUMO

Full projector compensation aims to modify a projector input image to compensate for both geometric and photometric disturbance of the projection surface. Traditional methods usually solve the two parts separately and may suffer from suboptimal solutions. In this paper, we propose the first end-to-end differentiable solution, named CompenNeSt++, to solve the two problems jointly. First, we propose a novel geometric correction subnet, named WarpingNet, which is designed with a cascaded coarse-to-fine structure to learn the sampling grid directly from sampling images. Second, we propose a novel photometric compensation subnet, named CompenNeSt, which is designed with a siamese architecture to capture the photometric interactions between the projection surface and the projected images, and to use such information to compensate the geometrically corrected images. By concatenating WarpingNet with CompenNeSt, CompenNeSt++ accomplishes full projector compensation and is end-to-end trainable. Third, to improve practicability, we propose a novel synthetic data-based pre-training strategy to significantly reduce the number of training images and training time. Moreover, we construct the first setup-independent full compensation benchmark to facilitate future studies. In thorough experiments, our method shows clear advantages over prior art with promising compensation quality and meanwhile being practically convenient.

15.
Inflammation ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398541

RESUMO

Arthritis is characterized by irreversible joint destruction and presents a global health burden. Natural alternatives to synthetic drugs have been gaining popularity for their safety and effectiveness. Juglanin has demonstrated a range of anti-inflammatory effects in various tissues and cell types. However, the pharmacological function of Juglanin in arthritis and chondrocytes has been little studied. ATDC5 cells were treated with 1 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of juglanin (2.5, 5 µM) for 24 h. The effects of juglanin on cellular nucleotide-binding domain leucin-rich repeat receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex and endproduct interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin (IL-18) were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot experiments. The oxidative stress was measured by super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression. The dependent effect of juglanin on silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) was evaluated by siRNA knockdown approach. Juglanin significantly reduced cellular oxidative stress by downregulating NOX4 expression production and rescuing the decreased activity of total SOD induced by LPS. Juglanin inhibited the activation of the TxNIP/NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 axis, and decreased production of IL-1ß and IL-18. Moreover, juglanin rescued the LPS-induced decrease in SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 silencing abolished the anti-NLRP3 inflammasome effect of juglanin, indicating that the effects of juglanin are dependent on its amelioration on SIRT1 expression. Juglanin possesses an anti-inflammatory and anti-ROS capacity in chondrocytes, and this study provides available evidence that juglanin may be of use in the treatment of arthritis.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0236536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444336

RESUMO

Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured on a comprehensive sampling of feathers from two spring Hooded Warblers (Setophaga citrina) in Texas to evaluate isotopic variability between feathers and during molt. Isotopic homogeneity within each bird was found across all four isotopic systems, supporting the hypothesis that molt in these neotropical migrants is fully completed on the breeding grounds. This homogeneity suggests that the isotopic composition of a single feather is may be representative of the whole songbird. However, each bird was found to have one or two outlier feathers, which could signify regrowth of lost feathers after prebasic molt.

17.
Mol Pharm ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448219

RESUMO

For active targeting nanodrug delivery systems conjugated with antibodies, both lack of control of the antibody at the molecular level and protein corona formation remarkably decreases targeting efficacy. Herein, we designed a series of silica nanoparticles toward HER2-positive breast cancer cells, with an anti-HER2 Fab-6His density ranging from 50 to 180 molecules per nanoparticle. Through the site-directed immobilization method we developed, the antigen-binding domain of anti-HER2 Fab was mostly accessible to the HER2 receptor. Both polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and a high density of Fab were shown to suppress protein corona formation and macrophage uptake. The dependency of targeting efficacy and cytotoxicity on Fab density was shown using a series of breast cancer cell lines with different levels of the HER2 expression. The high density of Fab stimulates quick responses from HER2-positive cells. Combined with PEG chains, conjugated antibodies with a well-controlled orientation and density significantly improves delivery performance and sheds light on the design and preparation of an improved active targeting nanodrug delivery system.

18.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify the levels of three inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous humour of patients with prior acute primary angle closure (APAC) and investigate their correlation with surgical outcomes of trabeculectomy. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, aqueous humour samples were collected from 44 prior APAC eyes. Analyte concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured using multiplexed immunoassay kits. Intraocular pressure was measured using Goldmann application tonometry. RESULTS: Forty-four prior APAC eyes were followed up for 24 months after trabeculectomy and divided into success and failure groups according to surgical outcomes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in the aqueous humour were significantly higher in the failure group (p = 0.0118). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that MCP-1 level was a significant risk factor for trabeculectomy outcomes (univariate analysis: p = 0.016, odds ratio = 14.538; multivariate analysis: p = 0.023, odds ratio = 13.718). When prior APAC eyes were divided according to MCP-1 levels, the overall success rate was significantly higher in eyes with low MCP-1 levels than eyes with high MCP-1 levels (p = 0.0249). CONCLUSION: In prior APAC patients, the MCP-1 level in the aqueous humour predicts trabeculectomy results. Therefore, modulation of MCP-1 expression may have potential clinical applications after filtration surgery.

19.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 92: 104227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the magnitude of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) attributable to critical disease, especially in the middle-aged and elderly population. This research aimed to exploring the key aspects of how the health insurance fails to protect the middle-aged and elderly against CHE in the past five years. And propose corresponding measures to improve. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2011 to 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The method was adapted from WHO to calculate the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment by medical expense (IME), and use Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) to comprehensively analyze the risk factors that cause middle-aged and elderly people to fall into CHE. RESULTS: The incidence of CHE of China's middle-aged and elderly population has been rose in the five years from 2011 (10.5 %) to 2013 (17.5 %) to 2015 (19.7 %). The CHE of richest families was almost 6 times from 2011 to 2015. Urban Employee Medical Insurance Scheme, the incidence of CHE was up 10 percentage from 2011 to 2015. According to the GLMMs, families have inpatient cares as the most important factor to CHE. The incidence of CHE increased by 2.25 times compared with those who did not use inpatient services. CONCLUSIONS: The health system needs to control the irrational growth of health expenses and reduce residents' overuse of health services. Government should take supplementary measures to comprehensively strengthen the advantages of health insurance. Raise residents' awareness of health care, enhance citizens' physical fitness, and avoid unnecessary waste of health resources.

20.
Cancer Lett ; 497: 178-189, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091534

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a pro-tumorigenic role in various malignancies. However, its potential role in lymphomagenesis remains unclear. In this study, we identified an immunosuppressive state in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which was characterized by markedly elevated interleukin (IL)-18 levels in lymphoma tissues and positive correlation with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Furthermore, NLRP3 inflammasome activation in DLBCL cell lines upregulated PD-L1 and reduced the proportion of cytotoxic T cells. NLRP3 inflammasome blockade in vivo suppressed lymphoma growth and ameliorated anti-tumor immunity by downregulating PD-L1 in the tumor microenvironment and decreasing the proportion of PD-1/TIM-3-expressing T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and regulatory T cells. Further in vivo studies revealed IL-18 as the main effector cytokine involved in the negative regulation of anti-lymphoma immunity. Interestingly, NLRP3 blockers combined with anti-PD-L1 treatment exerted antagonistic effects during lymphoma therapy. Altogether, our findings indicate that NLRP3 inflammasome promotes immunosuppression by modulating PD-L1 and immune cells. Accordingly, this study highlights the prognostic and therapeutic values of the NLRP3 inflammasome in lymphoma.

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