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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 538-547, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256425

RESUMO

Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) has been accounted for regulation of a few cell processes through interaction with other significant proteins. The molecular mechanisms underlying TRB3 in tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma have not been entirely elucidated. The present study is aimed at determining the function and fundamental mechanisms of TRB3 in lung adenocarcinoma progression. TRB3 was highly expressed in A549 and H1299 cells and lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpC) and adjacent normal lung tissues. Hypoxia significantly upregulated the expression of TRB3 protein in A549 and H1299 cells in a time-dependent way. Gene expression profiling interactive analysis data analysis indicated that patients with lung adenocarcinoma with excessive expression of TRB3 mRNA had fundamentally shorter survival time. TRB3 knockdown in A549 cells can inhibit cell proliferation and migration, and promote cell apoptosis. TRB3 knockdown reduced the expression of p-ERK and p-JNK, but did not affect the expression of p-P38 MAPK. TRB3 overexpression enhances the malignant transformation abilities of HBEpC such as cell proliferation, migration and colony formation, which could be reversed by U0126 and SP600125. TRB3 overexpression promotes the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but was not affected by U0126 and SP600125. The results of coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that TRB3 binds directly to ERK and JNK. This study suggests that TRB3 has a potentially carcinogenic role in lung adenocarcinoma by binding to ERK and JNK and promoting the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. TRB3 can be a possible therapeutic focus for lung adenocarcinoma.

2.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671249

RESUMO

Human-induced disturbances, including grazing and clipping, that cause defoliation are common in natural grasslands. Plant functional type differences in the ability to compensate for this tissue loss may influence interspecific competition. To explore the effects of different intensities of clipping and nitrogen (N) addition on compensatory growth and interspecific competition, we measured accumulated aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), tiller number, non-structural carbohydrates concentrations and leaf gas exchange parameters in two locally co-occurring species (the C3 grass Leymus chinensis and the C4 grass Hemarthria altissima) growing in monoculture and in mixture. For both grasses, the clipping treatment had significant impacts on the accumulated AGB, and the 40% clipping treatment had the greatest effect. BGB gradually decreased with increasing defoliation intensity. Severe defoliation caused a significant increase in tiller number. Stored carbohydrates in the belowground biomass were mobilized and transported to aboveground for the growth of new leaves to compensate for clipping-induced injury. The net CO2 assimilation rate (A) of the remaining leaves increased with clipping intensity and peaked under the clipping intensities of 20% or 40%. Nitrogen addition, at a rate of 10 g N m-2 yr-1 , enhanced the A of the remaining leaves and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations, which benefited plant compensatory growth, especially for the C3 grass. Under the mixed planting conditions, the clipping and N addition treatments lowered the competitive advantage of the C4 grass. The results suggest that the combination of defoliation and N deposition have the potential to benefit the coexistence of C3 and C4 grasses.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683704

RESUMO

High dynamic range (HDR) has wide applications involving intelligent vision sensing which includes enhanced electronic imaging, smart surveillance, self-driving cars, intelligent medical diagnosis, etc. Exposure fusion is an essential HDR technique which fuses different exposures of the same scene into an HDR-like image. However, determining the appropriate fusion weights is difficult because each differently exposed image only contains a subset of the scene's details. When blending, the problem of local color inconsistency is more challenging; thus, it often requires manual tuning to avoid image artifacts. To address this problem, we present an adaptive coarse-to-fine searching approach to find the optimal fusion weights. In the coarse-tuning stage, fuzzy logic is used to efficiently decide the initial weights. In the fine-tuning stage, the multivariate normal conditional random field model is used to adjust the fuzzy-based initial weights which allows us to consider both intra- and inter-image information in the data. Moreover, a multiscale enhanced fusion scheme is proposed to blend input images when maintaining the details in each scale-level. The proposed fuzzy-based MNCRF (Multivariate Normal Conditional Random Fields) fusion method provided a smoother blending result and a more natural look. Meanwhile, the details in the highlighted and dark regions were preserved simultaneously. The experimental results demonstrated that our work outperformed the state-of-the-art methods not only in several objective quality measures but also in a user study analysis.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5009, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676752

RESUMO

Gene annotation is a critical resource in genomics research. Many computational approaches have been developed to assemble transcriptomes based on high-throughput short-read sequencing, however, only with limited accuracy. Here, we combine next-generation and third-generation sequencing to reconstruct a full-length transcriptome in the rat hippocampus, which is further validated using independent 5´ and 3´-end profiling approaches. In total, we detect 28,268 full-length transcripts (FLTs), covering 6,380 RefSeq genes and 849 unannotated loci. Based on these FLTs, we discover co-occurring alternative RNA processing events. Integrating with polysome profiling and ribosome footprinting data, we predict isoform-specific translational status and reconstruct an open reading frame (ORF)-eome. Notably, a high proportion of the predicted ORFs are validated by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Moreover, we identify isoforms with subcellular localization pattern in neurons. Collectively, our data advance our knowledge of RNA and protein isoform diversity in the rat brain and provide a rich resource for functional studies.

5.
Hear Res ; 384: 107826, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683074

RESUMO

The prevalence of tinnitus is positively correlated with hearing loss, although, tinnitus can also present alongside clinically normal pure-tone thresholds. As standard pure tone audiograms (PTA) only sample at octave or inter-octaves, they potentially can miss lesions between the tested frequencies. Here we investigate if tinnitus patients with normal audiograms have hearing loss missed by standard PTA testing, referred as "missed hearing loss" in the paper. Hearing thresholds in 106 tinnitus patients who have a normal PTA were tested using fine frequency resolution (1/24 octave step) audiometry, referred as precision PTA (P-PTA), at ±1/3 octave band centered at their tinnitus frequencies. Tinnitus pitch, loudness and residual inhibition were evaluated based on the result of P-PTA. DPOAEs were also tested to evaluate the function of outer hair cells (OHC). Using the P-PTA test, we found that 49% (52 out of 106) of tinnitus patients with normal audiograms showed sharply notched hearing loss and most of the notches were at their tinnitus frequencies. Using a fine frequency step (1/24 octave) to assess tinnitus pitch, the successful matching rate increased to 84%, significantly higher than the rate measured in traditional method (51%, Fisher's test, P < 0.0001, n = 106). The number of patients whose tinnitus loudness was less than 5 dB SL increased from 26% to 55% after the loudness reassessment based on the tinnitus pitch match (n = 106, Chi-Square test, P < 0.01). The percentage of patients who showed positive residual inhibition of tinnitus also increased from 31% to 54% (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). DPOAEs revealed significantly reduced OAE amplitude in the tinnitus patients, suggesting that OHC dysfunction may contribute to their notched hearing loss. However, in 13 out of 31 patients with notched hearing loss, their DPOAE did not show any reduction which suggests that their notched hearing loss may be induced by the dysfunction of the inner hair cells or afferent synapses (synaptopathy). Our study confirmed hidden cochlear impairments in tinnitus patients with seemingly normal audiograms. We conclude that P-PTA can help identify a mild hearing impairment that may otherwise be missed by conventional PTA and that P-PTA can also improve tinnitus evaluation accuracy.

6.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689131

RESUMO

Hypoxia induces cellular oxidative stress that is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. 4'-hydroxyl-2-subsitiuted phenyl nitronyl nitroxide (HPN), a stable nitronyl nitroxide, shows excellent free radical scavenge activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of HPN on hypoxia-induced damage in PC12 cell. It was shown that HPN significantly attenuated hypoxia induced loss of cell viability, LDH release and morphological changes of PC12 cell. Moreover, hypoxic PC12 cells had an elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, but a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), while HPN could reverse these changes. HPN also inhibited hypoxia induced cell apoptosis via suppressing Bax, cytochrome C and caspase-3 expression and inducing Bcl-2 expression. These results indicate that the protection of HPN on hypoxia-induced damage in PC12 cells is associated with its suppression on hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. HPN could be a promising candidate in the development of a novel neuroprotective agent.

7.
Mol Cell ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668930

RESUMO

High-resolution Cas9 structures have yet to reveal catalytic conformations due to HNH nuclease domain positioning away from the cleavage site. Nme1Cas9 and Nme2Cas9 are compact nucleases for in vivo genome editing. Here, we report structures of meningococcal Cas9 homologs in complex with sgRNA, dsDNA, or the AcrIIC3 anti-CRISPR protein. DNA-bound structures represent an early step of target recognition, a later HNH pre-catalytic state, the HNH catalytic state, and a cleaved-target-DNA-bound state. In the HNH catalytic state of Nme1Cas9, the active site is seen poised at the scissile phosphodiester linkage of the target strand, providing a high-resolution view of the active conformation. The HNH active conformation activates the RuvC domain. Our structures explain how Nme1Cas9 and Nme2Cas9 read distinct PAM sequences and how AcrIIC3 inhibits Nme1Cas9 activity. These structures provide insights into Cas9 domain rearrangements, guide-target engagement, cleavage mechanism, and anti-CRISPR inhibition, facilitating the optimization of these genome-editing platforms.

8.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125178, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675587

RESUMO

The comprehensive recovery of iron and titanium resources from early tailings were systematically attempted from fundamental work to industrial application. Geochemical characterization of the tailings was first conducted, followed by the iron recovery and titanium recovery. Iron recovery was mainly achieved through a series of magnetic separation, and titanium recovery was on the combination of magnetic pre-concentration and flotation separation. Special for titanium recovery, different pretreatment methods including ultrasonic cleaning and attrition-scrubbing were studied to reduce the influence of serious surface pollution of early tailings on ilmenite floatability, and attrition-scrubbing proved to be the best one. Associated mechanisms of flocculants influence on ilmenite floatability and the attrition-scrubbing effects were explored using micro-flotation and XPS tests. After a series of fundamental studies, the industrial production of iron and ilmenite concentrate went into operation and the industrial debugging results were roughly satisfactory. At last, a brief economic analysis was given for the present work.

9.
Waste Manag ; 102: 131-138, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677520

RESUMO

A novel and efficient approach for stepwise recycling of valuable metals from Ni-rich cathode material is developed. First, the spent cathode materials are leached by H2SO4 + H2O2 solution. The leaching efficiencies of lithium, nickel, manganese and cobalt reach almost 100%, 100%, 94% and 100%, respectively, under the conditions of 2 M sulfuric acid, 0.97 M hydrogen peroxide, 10 ml·g-1 liquid-solid ratio, 30 min and 80 °C. Then, manganese and cobalt are co-extracted from the leaching liquor with PC88A, while almost 99% nickel and 100% lithium remain in the raffinate followed by being separated from each other by solvent extraction with neodecanoic acid (Versatic 10). The results show that 98% manganese and over 90% cobalt are co-extracted at pH = 5, 30 vol% PC88A and volume ratio of oil to water (O:A) = 2:1, while 100% nickel is separated from lithium under the optimum extraction conditions of initial pH = 4, O:A = 1:3 and 30 vol% Versatic 10. Finally, cobalt and manganese in the strip liquor of co-extraction are separated by selective precipitation method. Over 90% manganese is separated from cobalt under the conditions of pH = 0.5, 0.076 M KMnO4, 80 °C and 60 min.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134660, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704401

RESUMO

The biogeochemical cycles of plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are interlinked by ecological processes, and the N and P cycles become uncoupled in response to global change experiments. However, the complex natural hydrothermal conditions in arid, semiarid and humid grassland ecosystems may have different effects on the availability of soil nutrients and moisture and may induce different balances between the N and P cycles. Here, we evaluated how the aridity index (AI) affects the balance between N and P of alpine grassland by the collected 115 sites along water and heat availability gradients on the Tibetan Plateau. We found that AI was negatively related to the variation in the coefficients of soil total dissolved N (TDN) and soil availability of P (SAP), and positive effects of AI, TDN and SAP on the coupling of plant N and P were detected. Thus, AI was positively correlated with soil nutrients and moisture, which may favor the co-uptake of soil nutrients by plants, resulting in a small variation in plant N and P in humid environments. Conversely, in arid environments with temporally variable soil nutrients, the plants tend to be more flexible in their N:P stoichiometry. Generally, our findings suggest that plant N and P could be more strongly coupled in humid conditions than in arid environments across alpine grasslands, with potential decoupling of the N biogeochemical cycle from P in an arid environment with an asynchronous dynamic of temperature and precipitation.

11.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 117: 105639, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669139

RESUMO

The main event in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis is the appearance of myofibroblasts. Recent evidence supports pericytes as a major source of myofibroblasts. TGFß/Smad2/3 and PDGF/Erk signaling pathways are important for regulating pericyte activation. Previous studies have demonstrated that PDGFßR and TGFßR are modified by core fucosylation (CF) catalyzed by α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of inhibiting CF versus the PDGFßR and TGFßR signaling pathways on pericyte activation and lung fibrosis. FUT8shRNA was used to knock down FUT8-mediated CF both in vivo and in isolated lung pericytes. The small molecule receptor antagonists, ST1571 (imatinib) and LY2109761, were used to block the PDGFß/pErk and TGFß/pSmad2/3 signaling pathways, respectively. Pericyte detachment and myofibroblastic transformation were assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings demonstrate that FUT8shRNA significantly blocked pericyte activation and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, achieving intervention effects superior to the small molecule inhibitors. The PDGFß and TGFß pathways were simultaneously affected by the CF blockade. FUT8 expression was upregulated with the transformation of pericytes into myofibroblasts, and silencing FUT8 expression inhibited this transformation. In addition, there is a causal relationship between CF modification catalyzed by FUT8 and pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings suggest that FUT8 may be a novel therapeutic target for pulmonary fibrosis.

12.
Food Funct ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the anti-fatigue function of anwulignan from Schisandra and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: After an excessive fatigue mouse model was created, anwulignan was administered to the mice, and its effect on exercise tolerance was studied by the weight-bearing swimming test, rotarod test, grip strength test, and tail suspension test. The biochemical indicators closely related to fatigue, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic acid (LD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK) in the serum; liver glycogen (LG) in the liver tissue; muscle glycogen (MG); inorganic phosphate (Pi) and Annexin V in the gastrocnemius; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities; malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); and the 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in both serum and the gastrocnemius were detected. Morphological changes were also observed. The anti-fatigue-related proteins of the NRF2/ARE, Bcl2, and PGC-1α pathways in the gastrocnemius of the mice were detected by western blot. RESULTS: Anwulignan significantly increased the exercise tolerance by decreasing BUN, LD, LDH, CK, Pi, MDA, TBARS, 8-OHdG, ROS, and Annexin V levels and increasing LG, MG, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px levels, significantly upregulated the expression of NRF2 and Bcl2 proteins, which are anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis regulators, and also activated the p38MAPK-PGC-1α pathway. CONCLUSION: Anwulignan can increase exercise tolerance and relieve fatigue in an excessive fatigue mouse model. The underlying mechanism may be through its regulatory effect on the NRF2 and PGC-1α signaling pathway. This study will provide scientific data for anwulignan to be developed as a novel and efficient component in anti-oxidant or anti-fatigue health food.

13.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 39(6): 451-458, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the differences in mean ocular dimensions between urban and rural children and identify possible influencing factors. METHODS: This work uses previously published data from the Shandong Children Eye Study, which was based on a random cluster sampling applied to a cross-sectional school-based study design in the rural Guanxian County and Weihai city. All children underwent auto-refractometry and biometry under cycloplegia. RESULTS: The study included 3290 children (aged 9.35 ± 2.93 years), consisting of 888 pairs of boys and 757 pairs of girls matched by sex, age and refractive error (each pair matching one child from urban cohort with one from the rural cohort). Overall urban children were significantly taller and heavier than rural children (t-test; p < 0.001), which was confirmed for all age groups for weight. Urban ocular axial lengths were significantly longer by 0.23 mm compared to the rural population (t-test; p < 0.001), mostly in younger children and boys. Meanwhile, corneal curvatures were flatter in the urban cohort by 0.08 mm (p < 0.001). This association of axial length with urban vs rural region was reduced in magnitude by 69.7% after accounting for height. CONCLUSIONS: For the same, matched refractive error, children from urban regions had significantly longer eyes and flatter corneal curvature than rural children. Since corneal curvature is defined during the first 2 years of life, early environmental factors may be the source of these differences in ocular dimensions.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(42): 38727-38736, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566352

RESUMO

In addition to large volume change and sluggish kinetics, the capacity decay of silicon anodes is also related to the formation of a crystalline Li15Si4 phase during cycling. Herein, we have demonstrated that refining cheap coarse-grained Si by ball milling with metal carbides (Mo2C, Cr2C3, etc.) can reduce the Si crystallite size significantly and can thus suppress the formation of the crystalline Li15Si4 during cycling, which increases the life of Si-based anode materials significantly. Si-Cr3C2@few-layer graphene (SC@G) composite anode materials were designed and prepared by plasma milling (P-milling) to achieve a considerable capacity of 881.8 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles at 1 A g-1. A study of the microstructure of the SC@G indicated that the refined amorphous-nanocrystal Si grains were distributed uniformly around multiscale Cr3C2 particles, which were covered by few-layer graphenes. The rigid Cr3C2 skeleton, which acts as a good conductive material, can increase the conductivity of the SC@G composite, avoid the agglomeration of refined Si, and regenerate Si nanosized grains during lithiation and delithiation. These results showed that the SC@G anode material exhibited an excellent overall performance based on its high capacity and long cycle stability, as well as excellent lithium-ion diffusion kinetics for lithium storage.

15.
Genome ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580739

RESUMO

Arctium lappa, commonly called burdock, has a long medicinal and edible history. It has recently gained increasing attention because of its economic value. In this study, we obtained the complete chloroplast genome of A. lappa by Illumina Hiseq. The complete chloroplast genome of A. lappa is a typical circular structure with 152 708 bp in length. The GC content in the whole chloroplast genome of A. lappa is 37.7%. A total of 37 tRNA genes, 8 rRNA genes, and 87 protein-coding genes were successfully annotated. And the chloroplast genome contains 113 unique genes, 19 of which are duplicated in the inverted repeat. The distribution of 39 simple sequence repeats was analysed, and most of them are in the large single-copy (LSC) sequence. An inversion comprising 16 genes was found in the LSC region, which is 26 283 bp long. We performed multiple sequence alignments using 72 common protein-coding genes of 29 species and constructed a Maximum Parsimony (MP) tree. The MP phylogenetic result shows that A. lappa grouped together with Carthamus tinctorius, Centaurea diffusa, and Saussurea involucrata. The chloroplast genome of A. lappa is a valuable resource for further studies in Asteraceae.

16.
Biomed Eng Online ; 18(1): 105, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary lobectomy has been a well-established curative treatment method for localized lung cancer. After left upper pulmonary lobectomy, the upward displacement of remaining lower lobe causes the distortion or kink of bronchus, which is associated with intractable cough and breathless. However, the quantitative study on structural and functional alterations of the tracheobronchial tree after lobectomy has not been reported. We sought to investigate these alterations using CT imaging analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. METHODS: Both preoperative and postoperative CT images of 18 patients who underwent left upper pulmonary lobectomy are collected. After the tracheobronchial tree models are extracted, the angles between trachea and bronchi, the surface area and volume of the tree, and the cross-sectional area of left lower lobar bronchus are investigated. CFD method is further used to describe the airflow characteristics by the wall pressure, airflow velocity, lobar flow rate, etc. RESULTS: It is found that the angle between the trachea and the right main bronchus increases after operation, but the angle with the left main bronchus decreases. No significant alteration is observed for the surface area or volume of the tree between pre-operation and post-operation. After left upper pulmonary lobectomy, the cross-sectional area of left lower lobar bronchus is reduced for most of the patients (15/18) by 15-75%, especially for 4 patients by more than 50%. The wall pressure, airflow velocity and pressure drop significantly increase after the operation. The flow rate to the right lung increases significantly by 2-30% (but there is no significant difference between each lobe), and the flow rate to the left lung drops accordingly. Many vortices are found in various places with severe distortions. CONCLUSIONS: The favorable and unfavorable adaptive alterations of tracheobronchial tree will occur after left upper pulmonary lobectomy, and these alterations can be clarified through CT imaging and CFD analysis. The severe distortions at left lower lobar bronchus might exacerbate postoperative shortness of breath.

17.
New Phytol ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663135

RESUMO

Environment-sensitive male sterility (EGMS) lines are widely used in two-line hybrid breeding in rice (Oryza sativa). At present, photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) lines and thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) lines are predominantly used in two-line hybrid rice, with humidity-sensitive genic male sterility (HGMS) lines rarely being reported. Here, we showed that HUMIDITY-SENSITIVE GENIC MALE STERILITY 1 (HMS1), encoding a ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, plays key roles in the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and HGMS in rice. The hms1 mutant displayed decreased seed setting at low-humidity, but normal seed setting at high-humidity. HMS1 catalyzed the biosynthesis of the C26 and C28 VLCFAs, contributing to the formation of bacula and tryphine in the pollen wall, which protect the pollen from dehydration. Under low-humidity, hms1 pollen showed poor adhesion and reduced germination on the stigmas, which could be rescued by increasing humidity. HMS1-INTERACTING PROTEIN (HMS1I) interacted with HMS1 to co-regulate HGMS. Furthermore, both japonica and indica rice varieties with defective HMS1 exhibited HGMS, suggesting that hms1 could potentially be used in hybrid breeding. Our results reveal the novel mechanism of VLCFA-mediated pollen wall formation, which protects pollen from low-humidity stress in rice, and has a potential use in hybrid crop breeding.

18.
Neuroscience ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634513

RESUMO

The damage of locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons and associated with norepinephrine (NE) depletion are early events in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous study showed that LC/NE neurodegeneration exacerbates dopaminergic neurotoxicity and motor deficits. However, whether the damage of LC/NE neurons contributes to non-motor symptoms in PD remain unclear. In this study, LC/NE neurons were pre-lesioned by N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) in paraquat and maneb-induced mouse PD model. We found that DSP-4 significantly impaired learning and memory performance in paraquat and maneb-treated mice, although it failed to interfere with constipation and depression-like behaviors. Consistently, DSP-4 treatment increased hippocampal neurodegeneration, synaptic loss, α-synuclein expression and Ser129-phosphorylation in mice treated with these two pesticides. Mechanistically, DSP-4 increased iron content in hippocampus by disrupting the balance of iron release protein ferroportin 1 (Fpn-1) and transferrin receptor (TFR) in paraquat and maneb-treated mice. DSP-4 treatment also exacerbated paraquat and maneb-induced decrease of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and glutathione contents as well as increase of lipid peroxidation and expressions of gp91phox and p47phox, two subunits of NADPH oxidase, which are all involved in ferroptosis, in mice. Furthermore, exaggerated microglial activation and M1 polarization were observed in DSP-4 and paraquat and maneb co-treated mice compared with paraquat and maneb alone group. Altogether, our findings revealed a critical role of LC/NE neurodegeneration in mediating learning and memory dysfunction in a two pesticide-induced mouse PD model through ferroptosis and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, proving novel insights into the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in PD.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14842-14852, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621303

RESUMO

Mononuclear nonheme manganese complexes are highly efficient catalysts in the catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of carboxylic acids. Although high-valent Mn(V)-oxo complexes have been proposed as the active oxidants that afford high regio-, stereo-, and enantioselectivities in the catalytic oxidation reactions, the importance of the spin state (e.g., S = 0 or 1) of the proposed Mn(V)-oxo species is an area that requires further study. In the present study, we have theoretically demonstrated that a mononuclear nonheme Mn(V)-oxo species with an S = 1 ground spin state is the active oxidant that effects the stereo- and enantioselective alkane hydroxylation reaction; it is noted that synthetic octahedral Mn(V)-oxo complexes, characterized spectroscopically and/or structurally, possess an S = 0 spin state and are sluggish oxidants. In an experimental approach, we have investigated the catalytic hydroxylation of alkanes by a mononuclear nonheme Mn(II) complex, [(S-PMB)MnII]2+, and H2O2 in the presence of carboxylic acids; alcohol is the major product with high stereo- and enantioselectivities. A synthetic Mn(IV)-oxo complex, [(S-PMB)MnIV(O)]2+, is inactive in C-H bond activation reactions, ruling out the Mn(IV)-oxo species as an active oxidant. DFT calculations have shown that a Mn(V)-oxo species with an S = 1 spin state, [(S-PMB)MnV(O)(OAc)]2+, is highly reactive and capable of oxygenating the C-H bond via oxygen rebound mechanism; we propose that the triplet spin state of the Mn(V)-oxo species results from the consequence of breaking the equatorial symmetry due to the binding of an equatorial oxygen from an acetate ligand. Thus, the present study reports that, different from the previously reported S = 0 Mn(V)-oxo species, Mn(V)-oxo species with a triplet ground spin state are highly reactive oxidants that are responsible for the regio-, stereo-, and enantioselectivities in the catalytic hydroxylation of alkanes by mononuclear nonheme manganese complexes and terminal oxidants.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(44): 41258-41266, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603640

RESUMO

The nitrogen coordinated single cobalt atoms embedded in carbon matrix, i.e., Co/N/C material, is cost-efficient and free from iron-ion induced Fenton reagent, which has been thus considered as a promising candidate to replace the well-accepted Pt-based and Fe/N/C materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Recently, the pyrolysis of metal-organic framework (MOF) precursors has been investigated to achieve well-defined Co/N/C catalysts with high ORR activity. However, the relationships among the composition/structure of MOF precursor, the derived catalysts, and ORR performance have been rarely touched in specialty, while the regulations to achieve single-atom Co/N/C catalysts derived from MOF are confusing. Herein, we engineer several Co-doped MOF (zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, to be specific) precursors with different compositions and structures by tuning synthesis protocols (e.g., ratios, cobalt sources, and reaction time) and investigate the derived catalysts and their ORR properties. The regulations to single-atom Co/N/C are revealed in this work. The superior ORR activity and durability of the optimized Co/N/C catalysts are revealed and attributed to the well-defined Co-Nx moieties and their stable nanostructures.

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