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1.
Opt Lett ; 47(2): 381-384, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030611

RESUMO

Ultra-low sample consumption detection has many applications in molecular biology, bioanalytical chemistry, and medical science. In this Letter, a novel, to the best of our knowledge, simple type of ultra-low sample consumption detection method based on a whispering gallery mode is proposed as a means to realize consecutive detection with a liquid crystal (LC) microdroplet for biochemical molecule detection, using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as a model biomarker. The sensor consists of a 105-µm-core multimode fiber fused with a hollow capillary tube, with the LC microdroplet suspended stably in the testing solution. Its application to the detection of salmon sperm DNA yielded an adjustable measurement range of 3.75-11.25 µg/ml and a sensitivity of 0.33 nm/µg/ml. The test solution required as little as 3 nl of the sample, and the limit of detection was 1.32 µg/ml, which corresponds to the effective detection of as little as 3.96 pg of DNA. This method has great potential for application in the ultra-low sample consumption detection of biochemical molecules.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006678

RESUMO

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) has important environmental implications in tailings by providing bioavailable nitrogen to these habitats and sustaining ecosystem functions. Previously, chemolithotrophic diazotrophs that dominate in mine tailings were shown to use reduced sulfur (S) as the electron donor. Tailings often contain high concentrations of As(III) that might function as an alternative electron donor to fuel BNF. Here, we tested this hypothesis and report on BNF fueled by As(III) oxidation as a novel biogeochemical process in addition to BNF fueled by S. Arsenic (As)-dependent BNF was detected in cultures inoculated from As-rich tailing samples derived from the Xikuangshan mining area in China, as suggested by nitrogenase activity assays, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 15N2 enrichment incubations. As-dependent BNF was also active in eight other As-contaminated tailings and soils, suggesting that the potential for As-dependent BNF may be widespread in As-rich habitats. DNA-stable isotope probing identified Serratia spp. as the bacteria responsible for As-dependent BNF. Metagenomic binning indicated that the essential genes for As-dependent BNF [i.e., nitrogen fixation, As(III) oxidation, and carbon fixation] were present in Serratia-associated metagenome-assembled genomes. Over 20 Serratia genomes obtained from NCBI also contained essential genes for both As(III) oxidation and BNF (i.e., aioA and nifH), suggesting that As-dependent BNF may be a widespread metabolic trait in Serratia spp.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991079

RESUMO

Measurements using an Optical Fiber OFS including an inorganic scintillator placed on the surface of a phantom show that the particle energy distribution inside the phantom remains unchanged. The backscattered intensity measured using an Optical Fiber Sensor (OFS) exhibits a linear relationship with the total radiation dose delivered to the phantom, and this relationship shows that the OFS can be used for indirect dose measurement when located on the surface of the phantom i.e. that arising from the energetic backscattered electrons and photons. Such a device can therefore be used as a clinicalin-vivodosimeter, being located on the patient's body surface. In addition, the measurement results for the same OFS located inside and outside the radiation field of a compound water based phantom are analyzed. The differences in measurement of the fluorescence signal in response to various tissue materials representing bone or tumor tissue in the irradiation field are strongly related to the material's ability to block the scattered rays from the water phantom, as well as the scattered X-rays generated by the material located within the phantom.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126790, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358973

RESUMO

Acid mine drainage (AMD) system represents one of the most unfavorable habitats for microorganisms due to its low pH and high concentrations of metals. Compared to bacteria and fungi, our understanding regarding the response of soil protozoa to such extremely acidic environments remains limited. This study characterized the structures of protozoan communities inhabiting a terrace heavily contaminated by AMD. The sharp environmental gradient of this terrace was generated by annual flooding from an AMD lake located below, which provided a natural setting to unravel the environment-protozoa interactions. Previously unrecognized protozoa, such as Apicomplexa and Euglenozoa, dominated the extremely acidic soils, rather than the commonly recognized members (e.g., Ciliophora and Cercozoa). pH was the most important factor regulating the abundance of protozoan taxa. Metagenomic analysis of protozoan metabolic potential showed that many functional genes encoding for the alleviation of acid stress and various metabolic pathways were enriched, which may facilitate the survival and adaptation of protozoa to acidic environments. In addition, numerous co-occurrences between protozoa and bacterial or fungal taxa were observed, suggesting shared environmental preferences or potential bio-interactions among them. Future studies are required to confirm the ecological roles of these previously unrecognized protozoa as being important soil microorganisms.


Assuntos
Mineração , Solo , Ácidos , Bactérias , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Ecol Evol ; 11(22): 16021-16033, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824808

RESUMO

Permafrost is experiencing climate warming at a rate that is two times faster than the rest of the Earth's surface. However, it is still lack of a quantitative basis for predicting the functional stability of permafrost ecosystems in carbon (C) and nutrient cycling. We compiled the data of 708 observations from 89 air-warming experiments in the Northern Hemisphere and characterized the general effects of temperature increase on permafrost C exchange and balance, biomass production, microbial biomass, soil nutrients, and vegetation N dynamics through a meta-analysis. Also, an investigation was made on how responses might change with habitat-specific (e.g., plant functional groups and soil moisture status) conditions and warming variables (e.g., warming phases, levels, and timing). The net ecosystem C exchange (NEE) was found to be downregulated by warming as a result of a stronger sensitivity to warming in respiration (15.6%) than in photosynthesis (6.2%). Vegetation usually responded to warming by investing more C to the belowground, as belowground biomass increased much more (30.1%) than aboveground biomass (2.9%). Warming had a minor effect on microbial biomass. Warming increased soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations. What's more, a synthesis of 70 observations from 11 herbs and 9 shrubs revealed a 2.5% decline of N in green leaves. Compared with herbs, shrubs had a stronger response to respiration and had a decline in green leaf N to a greater extent. Not only in dry condition did green leaf N decline with warming but also in wet conditions. Warming in nongrowing seasons would negatively affect soil water, C uptake, and biomass production during growing seasons. Permafrost C loss and vegetation N decline may increase with warming levels and timing. Overall, these findings suggest that besides a positive C cycling-climate feedback, there will be a negative feedback between permafrost nutrient cycling and climate warming.

6.
Chemosphere ; : 132754, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798109

RESUMO

Environmental toxicity of antimony (Sb) is significantly increased through the widespread industrial application. The extended release of Sb above the regulatory level became a risk to humans habituated in the ecosystem. Conventional methods to remediate Sb demand high energy or resource input, which further leads to secondary pollution. The bio-electrochemical system offers a promising bioremediation strategy to remove or reduce toxic heavy metals. Thus, this research explores the possibilities of simultaneous metal sulfide (MeS) precipitation and electricity production using a full biological Microbial fuel cell (MFC). A non-conventional sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) Citrobacter freundii SR10 was used for this investigation, where the MFC was operated for lactate utilization in the bio-anode and Sb reduction at the bio-cathode. This study observed 81% of coulombic efficiency (bio-anode) and 97% of sulfate reduction with 99.3% Sb (V) reduction (bio-cathode), and it was concluded that the MeS precipitation entirely depends on sulfide concentration via SR10 sulfate reduction. The MFC-SR10 offers a maximum power density of 1652.9 ± 32.1 mW/m3, and their performance was depicted using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Sb reduction was evaluated through fluorescence spectroscopy, and the Sb (V) MeS precipitation was confirmed as stibnite (Sb2S3) by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the matured anodic and cathodic biofilm formation was confirmed by Scanning electron microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thus the MFC with SRB bio-cathode can be used as an alternative to simultaneously remove sulfate and Sb from the wastewater with electricity production.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770650

RESUMO

The use of optical fiber probe in two-phase flow measurements is very frequently encountered, especially in the applications of chemical engineering and petroleum industries. In this work, the influence of bubble piercing signals caused by bubble deformation is studied experimentally using a laboratory-prepared wedge-shaped fiber probe in a lab-scale gas-liquid flow generator. A three-dimensional simulation model is established to study the influence of bubble deformation on the piercing signals. A theoretical analysis of the characteristics of the pre-signal influenced by the bubble deformations is undertaken for a wide range of different modeled bubble shapes. Combining the experimental and simulation results, a promising analytical method to estimate the bubble shapes by analyzing the characteristics of pre-signals is proposed. The results of this investigation demonstrate that it is possible to estimate the bubble shapes before the fiber probe contacts the bubble surface. The method developed in this investigation is therefore highly promising for reducing errors caused by deformation during the probe piercing process.

8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(23): e0176921, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756059

RESUMO

Biological arsenite [As(III)] oxidation is an important process in the removal of toxic arsenic (As) from contaminated water. However, the diversity and metabolic potentials of As(III)-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) responsible for As(III) oxidation in wastewater treatment facilities are not well documented. In this study, two groups of bioreactors inoculated with activated sludge were operated under anoxic or oxic conditions to treat As-containing synthetic wastewater. Batch tests of inoculated sludges from the bioreactors further indicated that microorganisms could use nitrate or oxygen as electron acceptors to stimulate biological As(III) oxidation, suggesting the potentials of this process in wastewater treatment facilities. In addition, DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) was performed to identify the putative AOB in the activated sludge. Bacteria associated with Thiobacillus were identified as nitrate-dependent AOB, while bacteria associated with Hydrogenophaga were identified as aerobic AOB in activated sludge. Metagenomic binning reconstructed a number of high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) associated with the putative AOB. Functional genes encoding As resistance, As(III) oxidation, denitrification, and carbon fixation were identified in these MAGs, suggesting their potentials for chemoautotrophic As(III) oxidation. In addition, the presence of genes encoding secondary metabolite biosynthesis and extracellular polymeric substance metabolism in these MAGs may facilitate the proliferation of these AOB in activated sludge and enhance their capacity for As(III) oxidation. IMPORTANCE AOB play an important role in the removal of toxic arsenic from wastewater. Most of the AOB have been isolated from natural environments. However, knowledge regarding the structure and functional roles of As(III)-oxidizing communities in wastewater treatment facilities is not well documented. The combination of DNA-SIP and metagenomic binning provides an opportunity to elucidate the diversity of in situ AOB community inhabiting the activated sludges. In this study, the putative AOB responsible for As(III) oxidation in wastewater treatment facilities were identified, and their metabolic potentials, including As(III) oxidation, denitrification, carbon fixation, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and extracellular polymeric substance metabolism, were investigated. This observation provides an understanding of anoxic and/or oxic AOB during the As(III) oxidation process in wastewater treatment facilities, which may contribute to the removal of As from contaminated water.

9.
Opt Express ; 29(15): 22813-22822, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614560

RESUMO

In this letter, a highly sensitive bending sensor based on an embedded multimode D-shaped long period fiber grating (EMD-LPFG) is proposed. The novel sensor is applied to carry out vector bending measurement. The proposed LPFG is fabricated by polishing on the prepared structure which is formed by periodically splicing between single mode fiber (SMF) and multimode fiber (MMF). Since the cross section of the embedded MMF is D-shaped, we named it EMD-LPFG. Due to the asymmetric modulation of the refractive index on the fiber by the CO2 laser, the sensor has the ability to distinguish the bending directions, and the MMFs provide higher bending response. The experimental transmission spectrum can match the simulation results well. The experimental results show that the average bending sensitivities in three orthogonal directions are 70.21 nm/m-1 (0°), 9.75 nm/m-1 (90°), -12.04 nm/m-1 (180°) and 9.98 nm/m-1 (270°), respectively. Meanwhile, the temperature sensitivity is 30 pm/°C in the range of 25 °C to 75 °C. According to the ultra-compact structure with the total length of 2.5 mm, high bending sensitivity and ability to distinguish the bending direction, the novel sensor has potential in bending measurement.

10.
Opt Express ; 29(15): 22922-22930, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614569

RESUMO

A novel embedded ultra-long period fiber grating (EULPFG) based on a graded index multimode fiber (GI-MMF) is proposed for temperature measurement. Due to the small RI difference of the modes near the GI-MMF self-imaging point, the resonant peak of transmission spectrum is wavelength-insensitive to refractive index (RI), strain and bending. However, the sensor is sensitive to temperature. The experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity of the EULPFG is 90.77 pm/°C. The sensitivities of other physical parameters are suppressed, and the suppressed sensitivities are at least one order of magnitude less than those of similar sensors. The EULPFG with anti-interference from other parameters is expected to be used in ocean monitoring systems to measure the temperature of the seawater.

11.
Opt Express ; 29(20): 31443-31454, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615236

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel refractometer based on Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) is proposed and experimentally investigated. The MZI is composed of 2 micro bending cores (MBCs), one of which excites the cladding modes and the other couples the modes back. This structure is formed by high-frequency CO2 laser polishing and oxyhydrogen flame heating. With the unique deformation method, the interaction between the fiber core and the external status gets enhanced, moreover, higher modes in the cladding are excited, which leads to a high refractive index (RI) sensitivity. Due to the high temperature of the oxyhydrogen flame, the core of CO2 polished fiber is modulated, furthermore, the cladding shape of MBC tends to be circular. Hence, relatively small modulating regions of 500 µm can form for interference. In the experiment, 2 transmission dips are chosen for RI measuring, which possesses the wavelength of 1530.4 nm and 1600.8 nm, respectively. The RI sensitivities of the 2 transmission dips are -271.7 nm/RIU and -333.8 nm/RIU with the RI range of 1.33-1.42. The temperature characteristic is also experimentally analyzed and the temperature sensitivities of which are 0.121 nm/℃ and 0.171 nm/℃ in the range of 34℃-154℃. By solving the matrix equation, the proposed sensor can be applied for simultaneous measurement of RI and temperature.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13902-13912, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581566

RESUMO

Microorganisms play an important role in altering antimony (Sb) speciation, mobility, and bioavailability, but the understanding of the microorganisms responsible for Sb(V) reduction has been limited. In this study, DNA-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomics analysis were combined to identify potential Sb(V)-reducing bacteria (SbRB) and predict their metabolic pathways for Sb(V) reduction. Soil slurry cultures inoculated with Sb-contaminated paddy soils from two Sb-contaminated sites demonstrated the capability to reduce Sb(V). DNA-SIP identified bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Geobacter as putative SbRB in these two Sb-contaminated sites. In addition, bacteria such as Lysinibacillus and Dechloromonas may potentially participate in Sb(V) reduction. Nearly complete draft genomes of putative SbRB (i.e., Pseudomonas and Geobacter) were obtained, and the genes potentially responsible for arsenic (As) and Sb reduction (i.e., respiratory arsenate reductase (arrA) and antimonate reductase (anrA)) were examined. Notably, bins affiliated with Geobacter contained arrA and anrA genes, supporting our hypothesis that they are putative SbRB. Further, pangenomic analysis indicated that various Geobacter-associated genomes obtained from diverse habitats also contained arrA and anrA genes. In contrast, Pseudomonas may use a predicted DMSO reductase closely related to sbrA (Sb(V) reductase gene) clade II to reduce Sb(V), which may need further experiments to verify. This current work represents a demonstration of using DNA-SIP and metagenomic-binning to identify SbRB and their key genes involved in Sb(V) reduction and provides valuable data sets to link bacterial identities with Sb(V) reduction.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Metagenômica , Antimônio , Bactérias/genética , Isótopos , Oxirredução
13.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118248, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592324

RESUMO

A nitrogen (N) deficiency will usually hinder bioremediation efforts in mining-derived habitats such as occurring in mining regions. Diazotrophs can provide N to support the growth of plants and microorganisms in these environments. However, diazotrophic communities in mining areas have been not studied frequently and are more poorly understood than those in other environments, such as in agricultural soils or in the presence of legumes. The current study compares the differences in depth-resolved diazotrophic community compositions and interactions in two contrasting sites (to depths of 2 m), including a highly contaminated and a moderately contaminated site. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) co-contamination induced a loosely connected biotic interaction, and a selection of deep soils by diazotrophic communities. Multiple lines of evidence, including the enrichment of diazotrophic taxa in the highly contaminated sites, microbe-microbe interactions, environment-microbe interactions, and a machine learning approach (random forests regression), demonstrated that Rhizobium was the keystone taxon within the vertical profile of contaminated soil and was resistant to the Sb and As contaminant fractions. All of these observations suggest that one diazotroph, Rhizobium, may play an important role in N fixation in the examined contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes do Solo , Antimônio/análise , Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574906

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to investigate the probable intermediate hosts and the allergenicity of the notorious virus SARS-CoV-2 to understand how this virus emerged. The phylogenetic analysis of the virus spike proteins indicates that SARS-CoV-2 falls into various small subclades that include a bat coronavirus RaTG13, suggesting bats as a likely natural origin. Refined alignment of the spike protein in NCBI found several fragments that are specific to SARS-CoV-2 and/or SARS-CoV are specific to Rattus norvegicus and/or Mus musculus, suggesting that rodents are the intermediate reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. To evaluate the allergenicity values, the binding affinities of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I or II molecules with the spike proteins were calculated, and the results showed that both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are predicted to bind to fourteen HLA class I and II molecules with super-high HLA allele-peptide affinities. The infection rate of individuals who have HLA alleles with very high binding affinities who might become infected and develop into refractory patients if there were no medical or non-medical interventions is about 7.36% and 4.78% of Chinese and Americans, respectively. Extremely high temperature and exceptionally low precipitation, the common climate factors between the outbreak sites of COVID-19 in Wuhan in 2019 and SARS in Guangdong in 2002, might have promoted coronavirus evolution into more virulent forms. Our hypothesis suggests that early immunization with an allergenically-engineered virus, in combination with continued surveillance of meteorological factors and viral mutations, may be one of the most powerful prophylactic modalities to fight this virus.

15.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398256

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) shortage poses a great challenge to the implementation of in situ bioremediation practices in mining-contaminated sites. Diazotrophs can fix atmospheric N2 into a bioavailable form to plants and microorganisms inhabiting adverse habitats. Increasing numbers of studies mainly focused on the diazotrophic communities in the agroecosystems, while those communities in mining areas are still not well understood. This study compared the variations of diazotrophic communities in composition and interactions in the mining areas with different extents of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) contamination. As and Sb co-contamination increased alpha diversities and the abundance of nifH encoding the dinitrogenase reductase, while inhibited the diazotrophic interactions and substantially changed the composition of communities. Based on the multiple lines of evidence (e.g., the enrichment analysis of diazotrophs, microbe-microbe network, and random forest regression), six diazotrophs (e.g., Sinorhizobium, Dechloromonas, Trichormus, Herbaspirillum, Desmonostoc, and Klebsiella) were identified as keystone taxa. Environment-microbe network and random forest prediction demonstrated that these keystone taxa were highly correlated with the As and Sb contamination fractions. All these results imply that the above-mentioned diazotrophs may be resistant to metal(loid)s.

16.
Water Res ; 203: 117561, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450463

RESUMO

Nanosized activated carbon (NAC) is a novel adsorbent with great potential for water reclamation. However, its transport and reactivity in aqueous environments may be greatly affected by its stability against aggregation. This study investigated the colloidal stability of NAC in model aqueous systems with broad background solution chemistries including 7 electrolytes (NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, and BaCl2), pH 4-9, and 6 macromolecules (humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), cellulose (CEL), bovine serum albumin (BSA), alginate (ALG), and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)), along with natural water samples collected from pristine to polluted rivers. The results showed that higher solution pH stabilized NAC by raising the critical coagulation concentration from 28 to 590 mM NaCl. Increased cation concentration destabilized NAC by charge screening, with the cationic influence following Ba2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ >> Na+ > K+. Its aggregation behavior could be predicted with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory with a Hamaker constant (ACWC) of 4.3 × 10-20 J. The presence of macromolecules stabilized NAC in NaCl solution and most CaCl2 solution following EPS > BSA > CEL > HA > FA > ALG, due largely to enhanced electrical repulsion and steric hindrance originated from adsorbed macromolecules. However, ALG and HA strongly destabilized NAC via cation bridging at high Ca2+ concentrations. Approximately half of NAC particles remained stably suspended for ∼10 d in neutral freshwater samples. The results demonstrated the complex effects of water chemistry on fate and transport of NAC in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Nanopartículas , Eletrólitos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética
17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 676391, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326819

RESUMO

The remediation of uranium (U) through phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) is an emerging technique as well as an interesting phenomenon for transforming mobile U into stable minerals in the environment. While studies are well needed for in-depth understanding of the mechanism of U(VI) immobilization by PSB. In this study, two PSB were isolated from a U-tailing repository site. These bacterial strains (ZJ-1 and ZJ-3) were identified as Bacillus spp. by the sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Incubation of PSB in liquid medium showed that the isolate ZJ-3 could solubilize more than 230 mg L-1 P from glycerol-3-phosphate and simultaneously removed over 70% of 50 mg L-1 U(VI) within 1 h. During this process, the rapid appearance of yellow precipitates was observed. The microscopic and spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that the precipitates were associated with U-phosphate compound in the form of saleeite-like substances. Besides, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the precipitates confirmed that the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) might also play a key role in U sequestration. Furthermore, SEM and FTIR analysis revealed that part of U(VI) was adsorbed on the bacterial surface through cellular phosphate, hydroxy, carboxyl, and amide groups. This study provides new insights into the synergistic strategies enhancing U immobilization rates by Bacillus spp. that uses glycerol-3-phosphate as the phosphorus source, the process of which contributes to harmful pollutant biodegradation.

18.
Opt Lett ; 46(14): 3324-3327, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264204

RESUMO

External temperature variations inevitably affect the accuracy of a liquid crystal sensor. Therefore, we propose a novel temperature-compensated fiber volatile organic compound (VOC, using acetone as a model compound) gas sensor. The proposed sensor consists of a short segment of hollow-core fiber (HCF), which is spliced on a multimode fiber. Cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) is sealed into HCF to sense the temperature, and another type of CLC is coated on the end face of HCF for VOC gas detection. The VOC gas concentration and ambient temperature can be simultaneously measured by monitoring the wavelength shifts of two Bragg reflection peaks caused by two types of CLCs. The effects of the CLC thickness on the sensitivities of temperature and acetone concentration are investigated, and optimal parameters are chosen. An optimal sensor can reach a temperature sensitivity of 2.53 nm/°C and acetone concentration sensitivity of 48.46 nm·L/mmol at 8-44°C. In addition, temperature compensation capability, repeatability, response time, and stability are also researched. The experimental results prove this sensor has great application potential in high-precision real-time VOC gas monitoring and detection.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(47): 67472-67486, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254246

RESUMO

The use of citric acid (CA) chelator to facilitate metal bioavailability is a promising approach for the phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminants. However, the role of the CA chelator associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on phytoextraction of vanadium (V) has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of CA chelator and AMF inoculation on growth performance and V phytoextraction of plants in V-contaminated soil. The experiment was performed via CA (at 0, 5, and 10 mM kg-1 soil levels) application alone or in combination with AMF inoculation by Medicago sativa Linn. (M. sativa). Plant biomass, root mycorrhizal colonization, P and V accumulation, antioxidant enzyme activity in plants, and soil chemical speciation of V were evaluated. Results depicted (1) a marked decline in plant biomass and root mycorrhizal colonization in 5- and 10-mM CA treatments which were accompanied by a significant increased V accumulation in plant tissues. The effects could be attributed to the enhanced acid-soluble V fraction transferring from the reducible fraction. (2) The presence of CA significantly enhanced P acquisition while the P/V concentration ratio in plant shoots and roots decreased, owing to the increased V translocation from soil to plant. (3) In both CA-treated soil, AMF-plant symbiosis significantly improved dry weight (31.4-73.3%) and P content (37.3-122.5%) in shoots and roots of M. sativa. The combined treatments also showed markedly contribution in reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) content (12.8-16.2%) and higher antioxidants (SOD, POD, and CAT) activities in the leaves. This suggests their combination could promote growth performance and stimulate antioxidant response to alleviate V stress induced by CA chelator. (4) Taken together, 10 mM kg-1 CA application and AMF inoculation combination exhibited a higher amount of extracted V both in plant shoots and roots. Thus, citric acid-AMF-plant symbiosis provides a novel remediation strategy for in situ V phytoextraction by M. sativa in V-contaminated soil.

20.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283261

RESUMO

The extensive application of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) causes their frequent detection in various environments. In this work, two typical PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), are selected to investigate their effects on soil microorganisms. Microbial community structure and microbe-microbe relationships were investigated by high-throughput sequencing and co-occurrence network analysis. Under 90 days of exposure, the alpha-diversity of soil microbial communities was increased with the PFOS treatment, followed by the PFOA treatment. The exposure of PFASs substantially changed the compositions of soil microbial communities, leading to the enrichment of more PFASs-tolerant bacteria, such as Proteobacteria, Burkholderiales, and Rhodocyclales. Comparative co-occurrence networks were constructed to investigate the microbe-microbe interactions under different PFASs treatments. The majority of nodes in the PFOA and PFOS networks were associated with the genus Azospirillum and Hydrogenophaga, respectively. The LEfSe analysis further identified a set of biomarkers in the soil microbial communities, such as Azospirillum, Methyloversatilis, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudoxanthomonas, and Fusibacter. The relative abundances of these biomarkers were also changed by different PFASs treatments. Functional gene prediction suggested that the microbial metabolism processes, such as nucleotide transport and metabolism, cell motility, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, and secondary metabolites biosynthesis transport and catabolism, might be inhibited under PFAS exposure, which may further affect soil ecological services.

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