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1.
Theranostics ; 10(5): 1981-1996, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104496

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin (OXA) resistance is the major obstacle to the anticancer effects of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the chemoresistance of various tumors. Our objective is to clarify the underlying mechanism of miRNAs in chemoresistance and provide a potential strategy to improve the response of CRC patients to chemotherapeutics. Methods: MiRNA microarray and Real-time PCR were performed to compare changes in miRNA expression between oxaliplatin-resistant and the parental cells. CCK8, apoptosis assay, immunofluorescence and xenograft studies were used to elucidate the impact of miR-27b-3p on regulating chemoresistance. Luciferase reporter assay and western blot were carried to assess the regulatory role of miR-27b-3p in ATG10 expression. The effects of miR-27b-3p and ATG10 on autophagy were investigated by GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and western blot. ChIP assay and luciferase assay were performed to test the c-Myc's occupancy on the miR-27B promoter. Results: We observed that miR-27b-3p expression was significantly downregulated in oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines (SW480-OxR and HCT116-OxR) compared to the corresponding parental cell lines and that miR-27b-3p expression was positively correlated with disease-free survival (DFS) time in colorectal cancer patients. MiR-27b-3p could sensitize colorectal cancer cells to oxaliplatin in vitro and in vivo. Under oxaliplatin treatment, chemoresistant cells showed a higher autophagy level than parental cells. Moreover, we also identified that miR-27b-3p inhibited the expression of ATG10 at the posttranscriptional level, thus inhibiting autophagy. Further study demonstrated that c-Myc can inhibit the expression of miR-27b-3p via binding to the promoter region of miR-27B gene. Conclusions: Our study identifies a novel c-Myc/miR-27b-3p/ATG10 signaling pathway that regulates colorectal cancer chemoresistance. These results suggest that miR-27b-3p is not only a potential indicator for evaluating efficiency of chemotherapy, but also a valuable therapeutic target for CRC, especially for patients with chemoresistance.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009386

RESUMO

MXenes are a new type of two-dimensional material, and they have attracted extensive attention because of their outstanding conductivity and rich surface functional groups that make surface engineering easy and possible for adapting to diverse applications. However, there are scarce studies on surface engineering of MXene. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that octylphosphonic acid-modified Ti3C2Tx MXene can be used as an active layer for memory devices and exhibits stable ternary memory behavior. Low threshold voltage, steady retention time, clearly distinguishable resistance states, high ON/OFF rate, OFF/ON1/ON2 = 1:102.7:104.1, and considerable ternary yield (58%) were obtained. In the proof of the mechanism, in situ conductive atomic force microscopy was conducted and the electrode-area relationship was analyzed to demonstrate that charge trapping and filament conduction are more suitable in the nonvolatile information memory of Ti3C2Tx-OP MXene devices. In addition, a polyethylene-terephthalate-based flexible Ti3C2Tx-OP memory device can maintain its stable ternary memory performance after being bent 5000 times. This work provides an easy method for surface modification of MXene and broadens the field of MXene.

3.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(2): 156-166, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis (LS) is a neglected tropical zoonosis of global importance. A nationwide investigation of characteristics, epidemiology, risk factors and outbreak is crucial for awareness of this disease. METHODS: A nationwide database of reported LS cases from October 2007 to December 2014 obtained from the Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan, was analysed. Geographic information system software was used to map the distribution of confirmed LS cases and pigs. Cross-matching with the databases of Q fever, scrub typhus and murine typhus was conducted to identify possible coinfections. RESULTS: A total of 10,917 reported cases of LS were recorded in the database, which included 665 (6.1%) confirmed LS and 10,252 (93.9%) non-confirmed LS cases. The major residences of confirmed LS were the Kaohsiung-Pingtung (248, 37.3%) and Taipei (174, 26.2%) regions. The average annual incidence was 0.4/100,000 people. Compared with non-confirmed LS cases, confirmed LS cases had significantly higher percentages of male gender (83.6% vs. 67.9%, p < .001), high-risk occupations (farmer, animal husbandry or veterinarian) (24.8% vs. 13.7%, p < .001), residence in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung region (37.3% vs. 19.6%, p < .001) and exposure to rats (8.6% vs. 4.9%, p = .001) or pigs (9.4% vs. 1.9%, p < .001) but a lower mean age (47.8 ± 15.1 vs. 51.±18.5 years old). Rat and pig exposure trends were found in the northern and southern regions, respectively. Distribution of LS was consistent with pigs, and one outbreak associated with flooding and pigs occurred in the Pingtung region in 2009. Twenty-three and four patients with LS were coinfected with scrub typhus and Q fever, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LS is an endemic disease in Taiwan, particularly in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung and Taipei regions. High-risk occupations and animal exposure history are important for the clinical presumptive diagnosis of LS, particularly for rats in northern Taiwan and pigs in southern Taiwan. Although uncommon, clinicians should be aware of coinfection of LS with endemic rickettsial diseases.

4.
Int Microbiol ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950405

RESUMO

Aeromonas veronii is one of the main pathogens causing sepsis and ulcer syndrome in freshwater fish. Analysis of the results of epidemiological investigations in recent years has revealed that the virulence of A. veronii and its tolerance to drugs have been increasing year by year. Currently, most of the research on A. veronii focuses on its isolation, identification, and drug susceptibility, whereas research on its virulence factors and pathogenesis mechanisms is relatively rare. In this study, we identified and obtained the highly expressed TH0426 cadaverine reverse transporter (CadB) of A. veronii. We used efficient suicide plasmid-mediated homologous recombination to delete the cadB gene in TH0426 and constructed a cadB deletion strain. The LD50 of ΔcadB was 93.2 times higher than that of TH0426 in zebrafish, the toxicity of ΔcadB was 9.5 times less than that of TH0426 in EPC cells, and the biofilm formation ability of ΔcadB was 5.6-fold greater than that of TH0426. In addition, motility detection results indicated that ΔcadB had lost its swimming ability. The results of flagellar staining and TEM demonstrated that ΔcadB shed the flagella. In summary, the virulence and adhesion of A. veronii TH0426 were significantly decreased by the deletion of cadB, which might provide a theoretical basis for research into A. veronii virulence factors.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(1): 47, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969560

RESUMO

Numerous evidences have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a key role in regulating the pathogenesis of cancer. However, the mechanism of circRNAs in urothelial carcinoma of bladder (UCB) remains largely unclear. In this study, we found circFAM114A2 was significantly downregulated both in UCB tissue specimens and cell lines, and the expression level was highly correlated with pathological TNM stage and grade. Functionally, overexpression of circFAM114A2 dramatically inhibited the migration, invasion and proliferation of UCB cells in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, we confirmed miR-762 was copiously pulled down by circFAM114A2 in 5637 and T24 cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) further indicated the cytoplasmic interactions between circFAM114A2 and miR-762. By using luciferase reporter assay, we found that miR-762 could directly target TP63. Subsequently, we found that circFAM114A2 might increase the expression of ∆NP63 (main isoform of TP63 in UCB) by sponging miR-762. Taken together, our results demonstrated that circFAM114A2 might serve as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-762 in regulating the expression of ∆NP63, thus suppressed UCB progression through circFAM114A2/miR-762/∆NP63 axis.

6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(1): 51-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368858

RESUMO

Chlamydia, a kind of obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, can infect humans and animals worldwide, including pigs. However, the information on Chlamydia infection is unavailable in pigs in Shandong province, eastern China. To assess the seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Shandong province, eastern China, a total of 2108 serum samples of slaughter pigs were collected between January 2017 and December 2018, and specific antibodies against Chlamydia were detected by the indirect hemagglutination assay. The overall Chlamydia seroprevalence was 24.15% (509/2108, 95% confidence interval: 22.32-25.97). Species, sampling regions, and rearing systems of pigs were considered as risk factors for Chlamydia infection through statistical analysis by SAS analysis (p < 0.05). These results indicated that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in slaughter pigs in Shandong province, eastern China, and may pose a potential risk for human health. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of Chlamydia seroprevalence in slaughter pigs in Shandong province, eastern China. Moreover, this is the first report to compare the Chlamydia seroprevalence between domestic pigs and farmed wild boars in a same study, which may provide important data for preventing and controlling Chlamydia infection in pigs in China.

7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 522(2): 485-491, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780259

RESUMO

Acute liver injury can be caused by oxidative stress within a short period and is a common pathway to many liver diseases. The liver is vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical-mediated disorders. ß-arrestin2 was initially discovered to be a negative regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Recently, ß-arrestin2 has been found to act as a multifunctional adaptor protein and play new roles in regulating intracellular signaling networks. However, the role of ß-arrestin2 in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury is unclear. In this study, we hypothesize that ß-arrestin2 regulates acute liver injury via modulation of oxidative stress. ß-arrestin2 knockout mice were used to investigate the impacts of ß-arrestin2 on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury and oxidative stress. Results here suggested that ß-arrestin2 deficiency decreased serum activities of aminotransferase and alleviated liver injury induced by CCl4 injection as compared with wildtype mice. ß-arrestin2 knockout mice exhibited stronger tolerance in oxidative stress compared with wild-type mice, which was demonstrated by decreased ROS level and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in the liver. Furthermore, ß-arrestin2 deficiency significantly inhibited NOX4 (a major source of ROS) expression and the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. These results suggest that ß-arrestin2 deficiency protects against CCl4-induced acute liver injury through attenuating oxidative damage and decreased ERK and JNK phosphorylation.

8.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 61(1): 3-8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870559

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne viral infection which is prevalent in Taiwan. The virus circulates in an enzootic cycle in pigs which serve as amplifying hosts. Outbreaks typically occur during summer. A universal vaccination program using 4-shot mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has successfully controlled JE epidemics in Taiwan since 1968. More than 90% of JE cases in recent years were older than 20 years in Taiwan. Because of several drawbacks, mouse brain-derived vaccine has been replaced by newer generation JE vaccines, including inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine and live chimeric vaccine. The present article describes the recommendations in Taiwan for the use of new JE vaccines and the schedules for shifting between different JE vaccines.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 49(3): 651-658, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844872

RESUMO

A novel 3D coordination polymer {[Cu4.5 (BTZE)1.5 (µ3-OH)3(µ-OH)(SO4)(H2O)1.5·4H2O]}n (1) was synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of 1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl) ethane (BTZE) with copper sulfate. Compound (1) contained triangular [Cu3(µ3-OH)] cluster based magnetic Δ-chains linked with in situ generated µ2-BTZE ligands to form a 2D cyclic annular layer. This 2D layer structure was further modified with sulfate and symmetry-related µ3-OH groups, extending to a 3D coordination framework structure. The magnetic performance of (1) was characterized in the temperature range of 2-300 K in terms of direct-current and alternating-current magnetic susceptibilities, revealing that (1) was a canted ferromagnet with a critical temperature (Tc) of 9.5 K. Notably, (1) behaved as a hard magnet with a coercive field of 2.3 kOe at 2 K, showing significant unique characteristics compared to those of the reported spin canting systems based on pure Cu(ii) ions.

10.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 161, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wound-related complications are an inevitable issue faced by spinal surgeons. Negative pressure drainage remains the most commonly used method to prevent postoperative hematoma and related complications. This prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of compression therapy following posterior lumbar interbody fusion, with emphasis on pain, anemia, and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients who have undergone posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the age range 43-78 years, with an average age of 59 years, were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. Factors, such as drainage volume, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score for back pain, white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels assessed on the 1st, 3rd, and 10th days postoperatively, were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 6 months, ranging from 3 to 11 months. Drainage volume, VAS score, and CRP levels on the 10th day after the surgery were found to be significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. RBC count and Hb levels on the 3rd and 10th postoperative days were observed to be significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). During discharge, the wounds of the patients of the both groups had healed and neither showed any symptoms of infection, hematoma, or necrosis. CONCLUSION: Compression therapy relieves pain, alleviates anemia, and the inflammatory response following posterior lumbar interbody fusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800015825 on chictr.org.cn, April 23, 2018, the trial registry is Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(6): 4193-4202, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777530

RESUMO

The current study aimed to assess the repeatability and validity of cervical range of motion (CROM) measurements using an optical motion capture system (OMCS), compared with a CROM device. A total of 20 healthy volunteers were selected and enrolled in the current study after informed consent was received. The motion of the cervical spine in all directions was measured using the OMCS and CROM devices. Reproducibility of data was assessed using the intra-group correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC). Validity was assessed using the coefficient of determination (R2) in combination with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman plot were presented for the two measurement methods. The range of motion (ROM) was measured by using the OMCS and the CROM device during the same session. Both procedures evidenced high ICCs [OMCS: ICC (1,2) =0.802-0.981; CROM device: ICC (1,2) =0.768-0.948], low SEM values (OMCS: 0.98°-1.38°; CROM device: 1.04°-2.45°) and low MDC values (OMCS: 2.72°-3.81°; CROM device: 2.89°-6.78°). A high R2 (0.568-0.882) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (0.753-0.939) were determined. The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that most of the data were within the 95% consistency limit. In summary, the OMCS has good repeatability and validity when measuring CROM and is an effective way to evaluate cervical vertebral range of motion.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 15(10): e1008279, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603892

RESUMO

Muscle development and lipid accumulation in muscle critically affect meat quality of livestock. However, the genetic factors underlying myofiber-type specification and intramuscular fat (IMF) accumulation remain to be elucidated. Using two independent intercrosses between Western commercial breeds and Korean native pigs (KNPs) and a joint linkage-linkage disequilibrium analysis, we identified a 488.1-kb region on porcine chromosome 12 that affects both reddish meat color (a*) and IMF. In this critical region, only the MYH3 gene, encoding myosin heavy chain 3, was found to be preferentially overexpressed in the skeletal muscle of KNPs. Subsequently, MYH3-transgenic mice demonstrated that this gene controls both myofiber-type specification and adipogenesis in skeletal muscle. We discovered a structural variant in the promotor/regulatory region of MYH3 for which Q allele carriers exhibited significantly higher values of a* and IMF than q allele carriers. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and cotransfection assays showed that the structural variant in the 5'-flanking region of MYH3 abrogated the binding of the myogenic regulatory factors (MYF5, MYOD, MYOG, and MRF4). The allele distribution of MYH3 among pig populations worldwide indicated that the MYH3 Q allele is of Asian origin and likely predates domestication. In conclusion, we identified a functional regulatory sequence variant in porcine MYH3 that provides novel insights into the genetic basis of the regulation of myofiber type ratios and associated changes in IMF in pigs. The MYH3 variant can play an important role in improving pork quality in current breeding programs.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Miosinas/genética , Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Carne , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Sus scrofa/genética , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Suínos
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109502, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394373

RESUMO

The urine levels of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) and bisphenol A (BPA) in kindergarten children (n = 31, 4-6 years old, sampling performed in 2016) in Hong Kong were measured. The detection frequency of the target PFRs, tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) ranged from 52% to 84%. The 95th percentile urinary concentrations of TPHP, TDCIPP, TCIPP, EHDPP and TCEP were 1.70, 0.24, 0.03, 0.05, 0.68 and 0.03 ng/mL, respectively. The median urine level of BPA was 1.69 ng/mL, with a detection frequency of 77%. Due to the lack of metabolism information, two scenarios were used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of these compounds. Back-calculated EDIs of PFRs using the urinary excretion rates from in vivo animal data (scenario 2) were up to 2.97 µg/kg/d (TDCIPP), which was only a little less than that observed in a sample of American infants, and the reference dose (RfD), meaning that the potential health risk of TDCIPP cannot be ignored. Dust ingestion was suggested to be the major pathway of exposure to PFRs, but when the levels in dust and air particles in kindergartens in Hong Kong were used to predict EDIs, these values were nearly half as much as those predicted from urinary TDCIPP in this study. This suggested that children's PFRs burden may be underestimated when considering only PFR levels in dust or air. There is thus a need for further studies with large-scale surveys and investigation of exposure routes.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos/urina , Fenóis/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poeira/análise , Hong Kong , Humanos
14.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 5499-5513, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371988

RESUMO

Background: ß2-adrenoceptors (ß2-ARs) are expressed on the surface of immune cells, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of ß2-ARs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is significantly increased in vitro. However, the role of ß2-AR in M2-polarized macrophages remains unclear. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) can regulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Previous studies showed that down-regulation of GRK2 in HCC contributes the HCC progression, but it still remains unclear whether the regulation of ß2-AR in M2-polarized macrophages by GRK2 can promote HCC. Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the role of activated ß2-AR in M2-polarized macrophages in the HCC progression and GRK2 regulatory effect, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. Results: The results demonstrated that the M2-polarized macrophages were increased with HCC progression. In vitro, the activation of ß2-AR by terbutaline in M2-polarized macrophages elevated the proliferative, migratory and invasive attributes of HCC cells. Furthermore, GRK2 down-regulation in ß2-AR activated M2-polarized macrophages activated the downstream cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A/cAMP-response element binding protein and cAMP/interleukin-6/signal transducer and the activator of transcription 3 signaling pathways, contributing to the secretion of tumor-associated cytokines, and thus resulting in the promotion of malignant biological behavior in HCC cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the regulation of ß2-AR occurs through the silencing of GRK2 in M2-polarized macrophages, which is conducive to HCC development, through its engagement in the activation of downstream signaling.

15.
Bioresour Technol ; 287: 121442, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085429

RESUMO

Biodegradation of crude heavy oil was investigated with Chelatococcus daeguensis HB-4 that was isolated from the produced fluid of Baolige Oilfield in China. Batch growth characterization and crude oil degradation tests confirmed HB-4 to be facultative anaerobic and able to degrade heavy oil. The oil degradation was found to occur through degrading long hydrocarbons chains to shorter ones, resulting in oil viscosity reduction. By mixing crude oil with glucose, or using sole crude oil as carbon source, the content of light fractions (C8-C22) increased by 4.97% while heavy fractions (C23-C37) decreased by 7.98%. It was also found that bioemulsifiers were produced rather than commonly observed biosurfactants in the fermentation process, which was attributed to the extracellular degradation of hydrocarbons. Core flooding tests demonstrated 20.5% oil recovery by microbial enhancement, and 59.8% viscosity reduction, showing potential of strain HB-4 for application in the oil industry, especially in enhanced heavy oil recovery.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Hidrocarbonetos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás
16.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 52(5): 769-778, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to offer key features to differentiate scrub typhus (ST) and murine typhus (MT) at the early stage of the diseases and provide clinicoepidemiologic characteristics of ST and MT in southern Taiwan, a region where both diseases are endemic. Comparison of doxycycline treatment efficacy between the two diseases by matching disease severity and delayed treatment had never been investigated. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of cases of ST and MT in four hospitals in southern Taiwan. Propensity-score matching was used to analyze the defervescence curves between patients with doxycycline-treated ST and MT by log-rank test. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2016, 265 ST and 63 MT cases were diagnosed. The number of cases of ST was significantly related to temperature (Rs = 0.77) and rainfall (Rs = 0.63). Island area exposure, arthropod bite, eschar, and lymphadenopathy were only recorded in ST patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that mountainous area exposure (odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-27.2) was an independent predictor for ST, while contact with rats (OR, 8.4; 95% CI, 3.3-21.3) was that for MT. After propensity-score matching, there was no difference in defervescence curves between these two rickettsioses treated with doxycycline (p = 0.24). CONCLUSION: In the present study, island area exposure, arthropod bite, eschar, and lymphadenopathy were unique manifestations of ST. Mountainous area exposure is a predictive factor for ST, while contact with rats predicted MT. There was no difference in defervescence time between these two rickettsioses after doxycycline treatment.


Assuntos
Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pontuação de Propensão , Ratos , Tifo por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 29(4): 345-348, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of combined treatment of montelukast and budesonide on young children with cough variant asthma, and their serum inflammatory factors of serum hypersensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and pulmonary function. STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, China, from January 2016 to January 2017. METHODOLOGY: A total of 112 children with cough variant asthma were randomly divided into observation group and control group with 56 cases in each group. All children were treated with antibiotics and resolving phlegm. The control group were given budesonide, while the observation group was treated additionally with montelukast. After the course, improvement time of clinical symptoms of cough, asthma, etc., changes in levels of serum inflammatory factors of hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6, and pulmonary function indexes of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at the end of the first 1s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and observe concurrence of untoward effects in the two groups of sick children were compared. RESULTS: After treatment, extinction time for cough and for asthma of the observation group was less than those in the control group (all p<0.001). Levels of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 in the observation group were all lower than those of the control group (all p<0.001). Pulmonary function indices of FVC, FEV1 and PEF of the two groups of sick children were all higher than those of the control group (all p<0.001). During the treatment, there was no difference in the comparison of untoward effect rate of the two groups (p=0.696). After follow-up observation on the two groups of sick children for 1 year, the recurrence rate of the observation group was lower than that of the control group (p=0.026). CONCLUSION: Curative effects on young children with cough variant asthma of montelukast combined with budesonide are significant. The therapy may improve clinical symptoms and pulmonary function and reduce serum inflammatory factor level of sick children, with high application value and worthy of application and promotion.


Assuntos
Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Proteína C-Reativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 104: 8-13, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817970

RESUMO

It has been reported that voriconazole is used to treat infections caused by invasive aspergillosis, fluconazole-resistant Candida, Actinoplanes and Fusarium. This study was performed to investigate the safety of prodrug of voriconazole (POV) and explore the distribution and metabolism of POV in vivo. The POV for injection was formulated into POV injection. In this study, POV injection was given intravenously at the doses of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg/d to SD rats for 4 weeks consecutively. Toxicokinetic study was also performed to explore its distribution and metabolism. POV injection was found to be safe and well tolerated. Some statistically significant differences in relative liver weight were observed and several cases of hepatocyte hypertrophy occurred after the 4-week POV injection treatment. Liver-related toxic response could be reversed after recovery period. The results of toxicokinetics showed that POV can rapidly converts to voriconazole in SD rats after administration. The exposure of voriconazole in each group was significantly different between male and female rats. The results showed that the target organ for the toxic effect of POV is liver and the no-toxic-reaction-dose for long-term administration of POV injection was 60 mg/kg/d.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Fármacos/toxicidade , Voriconazol/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Voriconazol/administração & dosagem
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(7): 2470-2475, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683727

RESUMO

Understanding climate controls on gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for accurate projections of the future land carbon cycle. Major uncertainties exist due to the challenge in separating GPP and respiration from observations of the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has a dominant vegetative sink, and plant COS uptake is used to infer GPP through the leaf relative uptake (LRU) ratio of COS to CO2 fluxes. However, little is known about variations of LRU under changing environmental conditions and in different phenological stages. We present COS and CO2 fluxes and LRU of Scots pine branches measured in a boreal forest in Finland during the spring recovery and summer. We find that the diurnal dynamics of COS uptake is mainly controlled by stomatal conductance, but the leaf internal conductance could significantly limit the COS uptake during the daytime and early in the season. LRU varies with light due to the differential light responses of COS and CO2 uptake, and with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the peak growing season, indicating a humidity-induced stomatal control. Our COS-based GPP estimates show that it is essential to incorporate the variability of LRU with environmental variables for accurate estimation of GPP on ecosystem, regional, and global scales.


Assuntos
Umidade , Luz , Fotossíntese , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Óxidos de Enxofre/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Ritmo Circadiano , Finlândia , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Taiga
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 1549-1558, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678013

RESUMO

Pollutants in tailpipe emissions can be highly elevated around roadways, and in early mornings the pollution plume can extend hundreds of meters into surrounding neighborhoods. Solid sound walls and vegetation barriers are commonly used to mitigate noise, but they also help mitigate near-road air pollution. Here we assess the effectiveness of barriers consisting of vegetation only and of a combination of vegetation and a solid sound wall (combination barrier) in reducing pollution concentrations downwind of roads, under stable atmospheric stability and calm to light wind conditions. Because there was no practical (no barrier) control site in the area, we primarily compare the two barrier types to each other and explore the importance of atmospheric conditions. Using measurements collected with a mobile platform, we develop concentration decay profiles of ultrafine and fine particles, oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2) and carbon monoxide downwind of a freeway in California with different barrier configurations and meteorological conditions. Diurnally averaged data collected with passive samplers indicate that pollution from morning rush hour has about equal impact as the entire remainder of the day, because of differences in atmospheric dispersion as the day progresses. Under calm and stable atmospheric conditions (wind speed <0.6 m/s); a vegetation-only barrier was more effective than a combination barrier with a total height that was somewhat lower than the vegetation-only barrier, by 10-24% in the first 160 m downwind. Under light winds (above ~ 0.6 but below 3 m/s) and stable conditions, the combination barrier was more effective than the vegetation barrier alone, by 6-33%, in the first 160 m from the barrier. The average particle size downwind of the vegetation-only barrier was larger than downwind of the combination barrier, indicating that particle deposition plays an important role in the reductions observed downwind of vegetation. Our results are consistent with the notion that at low wind speeds, vegetation acts as an effective barrier. Overall, adding vegetation alone or to an existing solid barrier results in lower downwind pollution concentrations, especially under low wind speeds when concentrations can be high.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , California , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Vento
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