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Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109793, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587478


The mortality risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been linked to the cytokine storm caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the inflammatory responses shared between COVID-19 and other infectious diseases that feature cytokine storms may therefore help in developing improved therapeutic strategies. Here, we use integrative analysis of single-cell transcriptomes to characterize the inflammatory signatures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COVID-19, sepsis, and HIV infection. We identify ten hyperinflammatory cell subtypes in which monocytes are the main contributors to the transcriptional differences in these infections. Monocytes from COVID-19 patients share hyperinflammatory signatures with HIV infection and immunosuppressive signatures with sepsis. Finally, we construct a "three-stage" model of heterogeneity among COVID-19 patients, related to the hyperinflammatory and immunosuppressive signatures in monocytes. Our study thus reveals cellular and molecular insights about inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and provides therapeutic guidance to improve treatments for subsets of COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sepse/sangue , Transcriptoma , COVID-19/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Análise de Dados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Sepse/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única
Infect Immun ; 89(12): e0029721, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491790


Human cystic echinococcosis, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, has been reported a near-cosmopolitan zoonotic disease. Various infiltrating immune cells gather around the lesion and produce a lesion microenvironment; however, cellular composition and heterogeneity in hepatic cystic echinococcosis lesion microenvironments are incompletely understood. Here, 81,865 immune cells isolated from peripheral blood, perilesion liver tissue, and adjacent normal liver tissue from four cystic echinococcosis patients were profiled using single-cell RNA sequencing. We identified 23 discrete cell populations and found distinct differences in infiltrating immune cells between tissue environments. Despite the significant similarity between perilesion and adjacent normal liver tissue-resident immune cells, the cellular proportions of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were higher in perilesion liver tissue. Interestingly, the immunosuppressive gene NFKBIA was upregulated in these cells. Seven subsets of CD4+ T cell populations were found, and there were more regulatory-CD4+ T cells (Treg-CD4+) and Th2-CD4+ T cells in perilesion tissue than in adjacent normal tissue. There was close contact between CD4+ T cells and ILC2s and pDCs, which caused upregulation of genes related to positive immune activity in adjacent normal liver tissue. However, expression of genes related to immunosuppression, especially the immune inhibitory checkpoint gene NKG2A/HLA-E, was obviously higher in perilesion tissue, suggesting that cellular interaction resulted in an inhibitory microenvironment in the cystic echinococcosis (CE) lesion. This work offers new insights into the transcriptional heterogeneity of infiltrating immune cells in hepatic cystic echinococcosis lesion microenvironments at a single-cell level and provides potential target signatures for diagnosis and immunotherapies.

Cell ; 184(7): 1895-1913.e19, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657410


A dysfunctional immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet a detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 196 COVID-19 patients and controls and created a comprehensive immune landscape with 1.46 million cells. The large dataset enabled us to identify that different peripheral immune subtype changes are associated with distinct clinical features, including age, sex, severity, and disease stages of COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in diverse epithelial and immune cell types, accompanied by dramatic transcriptomic changes within virus-positive cells. Systemic upregulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis of and developing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.

COVID-19/imunologia , Megacariócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Adulto Jovem