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1.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833415

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and swept-source optical coherence tomographic angiography (SS-OCTA) to identify polypoidal lesions in serous or serosanguinous maculopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients presenting pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) with the diagnosis of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), all of which underwent SD-OCT, SS-OCTA, and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Typical features of polypoidal lesions on SD-OCT included sharply peaked PED, notched PED, and hyperreflective ring underneath PED. SS-OCTA feature was vascularized PEDs on cross-sectional images corresponding to cluster-like structures on en face images. The parameters of PEDs were measured for analysis. RESULTS: Of 72 eyes, 30 had PCV, 22 had nAMD, and 20 had CSC. A total of 128 localized PEDs were detected on SD-OCT. Typical features on SD-OCT had a high specificity (94.0%) but a limited sensitivity (73.8%). SS-OCTA features provided a higher sensitivity (96.7%). PEDs of the polypoidal lesions unrecognized by SD-OCT were dome-shaped, with smaller ratio of height to base diameter and less area, and almost had heterogeneous internal reflectivity and a connected double-layer sign. Some lesions misidentified by SS-OCTA developed into ICGA-proven polypoidal lesions at follow-up visits. CONCLUSION: A small dome-shaped PED with heterogeneous internal reflectivity and a connected double-layer sign on SD-OCT may suggest a polypoidal lesion of PCV. SS-OCTA may be a helpful tool to investigate preclinical PCV and observe the formation of polypoidal lesions.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roasted peanut is widely loved as a kind of food with rich taste. However, peanut allergy is one of the major threats to human health, which affects about 5% of children and 1.4-2% of adults in the world. RESULTS: To evaluate the sensitization mechanism of peanut allergen Ara h 3, Caco-2 cells as the model, which has the similar structure and function to differentiated small intestinal epithelial cells. Compared with Ara h 3-raw (purified from raw peanut) group, more significant results such as the inhibited Caco-2 cell viability and proliferation, the increased secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decreased transepithelial electrical resistance were obtained in Ara h 3-roasted (purified from roasted peanut) group. Accordingly, oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway were more imbalanced, which lead to the increased of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Then, the gene expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and JAM-1 were reduced, which proved that the integrity of the Caco-2 monolayer barrier is severely damaged. CONCLUSION: These finding identify the mechanisms of the allergenicity of roasted peanut allergy proteins are probably associated with intestinal uptake and cytokine dependent allergies. The aggravated allergic reaction might be caused by the increment of TSLP, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 due to the activated NF-κB signaling pathway, and the enhanced transport of Ara h 3-roasted protein by Caco-2 monolayer. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

4.
Malar J ; 20(1): 147, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yunnan Province was considered the most difficult place in China for malaria elimination because of its complex malaria epidemiology, heterogeneous ecological features, relatively modest economic development, and long, porous border with three malaria endemic countries: Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, and Viet Nam. METHODS: Academic publications and grey literature relevant to malaria elimination in Yunnan covering the period from 1950 until 2020 inclusive were considered. The following academic indexes were searched: China Science Periodical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, and MEDLINE. Grey literature sources were mainly available from the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, and the Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases (YIPD). RESULTS: A malaria elimination campaign in the 1950-1960s, based mainly on mass administration of antimalarial drugs and large-scale vector control, reduced morbidity and mortality from malaria and interrupted transmission in some areas, although elimination was not achieved. Similar strategies were used to contain outbreaks and a resurgence of disease during the 1970s, when malaria services were discontinued. From the 1980s, malaria incidence declined, despite the challenges of large numbers of mobile and migrant populations and an unstable primary health care system in rural areas following economic transformation. Launch of the national malaria elimination programme in 2010 led to adoption of the '1-3-7' surveillance and response strategy specifying timely detection of and response for every case, supported by the establishment of a real-time web-based disease surveillance system and a new primary health care system in rural areas. Border malaria was addressed in Yunnan by strengthening the surveillance system down to the lowest level, cross-border collaboration with neighbouring countries and non-governmental organizations, and the involvement of other sectors. CONCLUSIONS: Seven decades of work to eliminate malaria in Yunnan have shown the importance of political commitment, technically sound strategies with high quality implementation, a robust surveillance and response system at all levels, community participation and effective management of border malaria. The experiences and lessons learned from elimination remain important for prevention re-establishment of malaria transmission in the Province.

5.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21184, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715208

RESUMO

Amyloid ß (Aß) is a crucial component of drusen, the hallmark of the early stage of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and can cause retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell damage through activation of the inflammatory response. MicroRNAs play a critical role in inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of microRNAs on the NLRP3 inflammasome induced by Aß remains poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that Aß1-40 -mediated RPE damage by inducing a decrease in endogenous miR-191-5p expression. This led to the upregulation of its target gene, C/EBPß. C/EBPß acts as a transcription factor for NLRP3, promotes its transcription, and upregulates the downstream inflammatory factors Caspase-1 and IL-1ß. Correspondingly, overexpression of miR-191-5p alleviated RPE cell injury by suppressing inflammation. The present study elucidates a novel transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our findings suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of miR-191-5p in Aß1-40 -induced RPE impairment, shedding light on novel preventive or therapeutic approaches for AMD-associated RPE impairment.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5829, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712683

RESUMO

The recent advent of acoustic metamaterials offers unprecedented opportunities for sound controlling in various occasions, whereas it remains a challenge to attain broadband high sound absorption and free air flow simultaneously. Here, we demonstrated, both theoretically and experimentally, that this problem can be overcome by using a bilayer ventilated labyrinthine metasurface. By altering the spacing between two constituent single-layer metasurfaces and adopting asymmetric losses in them, near-perfect (98.6%) absorption is achieved at resonant frequency for sound waves incident from the front. The relative bandwidth of absorption peak can be tuned in a wide range (from 12% to 80%) by adjusting the open area ratio of the structure. For sound waves from the back, the bilayer metasurface still serves as a sound barrier with low transmission. Our results present a strategy to realize high sound absorption and free air flow simultaneously, and could find applications in building acoustics and noise remediation.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 115755, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582639

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion is an attractive waste treatment technology, achieving both pollution control and energy recovery. Though the inhibition of polystyrene nanoplastics in anaerobic granular sludge is well studied, no direct evidence has been found on the interaction of methanogens and nanoplastics. In this study, to characterize the location of nanoplastics, Pd-doped polystyrene nanoplastics (Pd-PS) were used to explore the inhibition mechanism of anaerobic sludge through short-term exposure to Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A. The results showed that Pd-PS inhibited the methanogenesis of the anaerobic sludge, and the methane production decreased as the Pd-PS increased, with a 14.29% reduction at the Pd-PS concentration of 2.36 × 1010 particles/mL. Also, Pd-PS interacted with the protein in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Furthermore, Pd-PS inhibited the methanogenesis of M. acetivorans C2A without exhibiting an evident reduction in the growth. The inhibition of Pd-PS on methane was due to the inhibition of methane production related genes, MtaA and mcrA. These results provide potential explication for the inhibition of nanoplastics on the methanogens, which will fulfill the knowledge on the stability of methanogens under the short-term exposure of nanoplastics.


Assuntos
Methanosarcina , Microplásticos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Esgotos
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8828299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623789

RESUMO

Circular RNAs are a class of RNAs with a covalently closed configuration, and several members of them have been reported to be capable of regulating various biological processes and predicting the outcome of disease. Among them, circular RNA circ-ITCH has been identified to be aberrantly expressed and associated with disease progression in diverse cancers. However, the correlation of circ-ITCH expression with clinicopathological features, as well as the prognosis of cancers, remains inconclusive. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the clinical significance of circ-ITCH in cancers by systematically summarizing all eligible literatures. Up to August 31, 2020, relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 1604 patients from 14 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that cancer patients with low circ-ITCH expression were more susceptible to develop lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.67-3.02, p ≤ 0.01), larger tumor size (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 2.01-4.52, p ≤ 0.01), advanced TNM stage (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.92-4.14, p ≤ 0.01), and poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 2.07-2.90, p ≤ 0.01, univariate analysis; HR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.82-3.96, p ≤ 0.01, multivariate analysis). Thus, low circ-ITCH expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and unfavorable outcome in various cancers. Therefore, circ-ITCH may serve as a molecular therapy target and a prognostic marker in human cancers.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24006, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545995

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retinitis pigmentosa is a major cause of visual disability and blindness. Photopsia is usually presented in patients with retinal traction caused by posterior vitreous detachment in clinic, which would occur more commonly in those suffer from moderate or high myopia. We describe a patient with leopard-like retinopathy initially complaining of photopsia caused not by myopia but by retinitis pigmentosa. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old woman with a history of moderate myopia presented to us complaining of photopsia for several days. DIAGNOSIS: Fundus examination revealed leopard-like retinopathy with normal optic disc and macula appearance in both eyes. The atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium was found in peripheral retina while no bone spicule was present. Retinal multimodal imaging helped in the correct diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa (sine pigmento), later confirmed by genetic testing. INTERVENTIONS: At current no specific treatment was applied, but the patient was required for follow-up observation every six months. OUTCOMES: Follow-up observation. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the potential for retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento to present with photopsia under cover of myopia and the importance of performing multimodal imaging including fundus autofluorescence for fundus disorders. Careful history review and multimodal imaging with genetic testing would help for the correct diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.


Assuntos
Miopia/diagnóstico , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Retinite Pigmentosa/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
10.
Exp Eye Res ; 205: 108507, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609510

RESUMO

Proliferative retinopathies, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are major causes of visual impairment and blindness in industrialized countries. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is implicated in cellular proliferation and migration via E-prostanoid receptor (EP4R). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PGE2/EP4R signaling in the promotion of retinal neovascularisation. In a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model and an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model, rats received an intravitreal injection of PGE2, cay10598 (an EP4R agonist) or AH23848 (an EP4R antagonist). Optical coherence tomography, retinal histology and biochemical markers were assessed. Treatment with PGE2 or cay10598 accelerated pathological retinal angiogenesis in STZ and OIR-induced rat retina, which was ameliorated in rats pretreated with AH23848. Serum VEGF-A was upregulated in the PGE2-treated diabetic rats vs non-treated diabetic rats and significantly downregulated in AH23848-treated diabetic rats. PGE2 or cay10598 treatment also significantly accelerated endothelial tip-cell formation in new-born rat retina. In addition, AH23848 treatment attenuated PGE2-or cay10598-induced proliferation and migration by repressing the EGF receptor (EGFR)/Growth factor receptor bound protein 2-associated binder protein 1 (Gab1)/Akt/NF-κB/VEGF-A signaling network in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs). PGE2/EP4R signaling network is thus a potential therapeutic target for pathological intraocular angiogenesis.

11.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(2): 144-156, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398131

RESUMO

Therapeutic genome editing requires effective and targeted delivery methods. The delivery of Cas9 mRNA using adeno-associated viruses has led to potent in vivo therapeutic efficacy, but can cause sustained Cas9 expression, anti-Cas9 immune responses and off-target edits. Lentiviral vectors have been engineered to deliver nucleases that are expressed transiently, but in vivo evidence of their biomedical efficacy is lacking. Here, we show that the lentiviral codelivery of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 mRNA and expression cassettes that encode a guide RNA that targets vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) is efficacious in a mouse model of wet age-related macular degeneration induced by Vegfa. A single subretinal injection of engineered lentiviruses knocked out 44% of Vegfa in retinal pigment epithelium and reduced the area of choroidal neovascularization by 63% without inducing off-target edits or anti-Cas9 immune responses. Engineered lentiviruses for the transient expression of nucleases may form the basis of new treatments for retinal neovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Lentivirus/fisiologia , Degeneração Macular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vetores Genéticos/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/genética
12.
Vaccine ; 39(9): 1463-1471, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487470

RESUMO

As a recently launched novel vaccine used as one of the vaccines for the final eradication of polios worldwide, complete data on the consistency and immunogenicity characteristics of the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine made from the Sabin strain (sIPV) and its safety in large-scale populations are required to support the future use of this vaccine worldwide. A phase IV clinical trial was conducted to perform an immunogenicity evaluation of lot-to-lot consistency of three commercial batches of sIPV in 1200 infants and to investigate the vaccine's safety on a large-scale in 20,019 infants for active monitoring and 29,683 infants for passive monitoring through the Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI) reporting system in China. In the immunogenicity evaluation, the average seroconversion rates for type I, type II and type III of the three groups were 99.83%, 98.93% and 99.44%, respectively. No differences in the seroconversion rate and the GMT ratios were noted in the pair-to-pair comparisons. In the large-scale safety evaluation, most adverse reactions occurred 0-30 days after the first doses, and the common local and systemic reactions were similar to those in the phase III clinical trial, with low incidence in both activated and passive monitoring. In conclusion, sIPV exhibits good lot-to-lot consistency and safety in large-scale populations; thus, it is qualified to serve as one of the vaccines for use in eradicating all wild and vaccine-derived polioviruses worldwide in the near future. Clinic Trial Registration. NCT04224519 and NCT04220515.

13.
Virus Res ; 291: 198196, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098914

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. The emergence of multidrug resistance in E. coli poses a severe threat to global health. Phage therapies are an alternative method to control multidrug-resistant pathogens, which have been attracting increasing attention. Owing to their ability to lyse bacteria specifically and efficiently, bacteriophages are considered novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we used multidrug-resistant E. coli as an indicator and isolated, characterized, and compared two new phages of the Siphoviridae family referred to as vB_EcoS_XF and vB_EcoS_XY2. These phages were able to infect several pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli strains. A short latent period and large burst size ensured their rapidly reproduction in host cells. Their tolerance of high temperatures and high pH levels meant that remained stable when used to control pathogenic E. coli strains. No obvious cytotoxicity was observed when either HEK293 T or A549 cells were incubated with these two phages. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed us to identify several phage-encoded proteins. Genomic analysis revealed that no toxic proteins or antibiotic proteins were encoded. Genome comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the phages identified show high similarity with E. coli phages of the genus Kagunavirus. The desirable characteristics of the novel phages identified make them good potential therapeutic candidates, and components of phage cocktails to treat multidrug-resistant E. coli in the future.

14.
Talanta ; 223(Pt 2): 121779, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298284

RESUMO

According to the mechanism of hydrazine to ester bond elimination, a novel ratiometric fluorescent probe (FCP) based on the fluorescein-coumarin structure is designed and synthesized for detecting hydrazine. The obvious red shift in the absorption and fluorescence spectrum is caused by the hydrolysis of the ester bond of FCP by upon mixing with hydrazine. The proposed FCP probe is shown to have linear detection ranges from 0 to 250 nM for hydrazine, and LOD is 0.364 nM. In addition, this promising probe possesses high sensitivity and selectivity for monitoring the intracellular hydrazine, thus, has great potential to be applied in early diagnosis of disease. Meanwhile, it has been successfully applied to the detection and cell imaging of hydrazine in actual water samples.

15.
Talanta ; 224: 121798, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379025

RESUMO

Three intelligent chemometric multi-way calibration methods including alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD), alternating trilinear decomposition assisted multivariate curve resolution (ATLD-MCR) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) were used to quantify ten molecular targeted anti-tumor drugs in three complex biological matrices (plasma, urine and cell culture media matrices). All analytes can be successfully eluted in 6.5 min. In this experiment, various degrees of time shifts occurred in different samples. While slight time shifts exist in the chromatographic analysis, satisfactory results can be obtained by the three proposed methods. When the time shift was large (5.6 s), the average spiked recoveries obtained by ATLD analysis were in the range of 58.9%-116.5%, which was less than satisfactory. However, the average recoveries obtained by MCR-ALS and ATLD-MCR analysis were 89.8%-114.8% and 84.5%-106.1% respectively, and more satisfactory results were obtained. For further research, ATLD-MCR and MCR-ALS methods were compared, and the results were evaluated by statistical tests. Accuracies of concentrations obtained by them were considered to be no significant difference. In addition, compared with other methods currently published, the proposed chemometric methods combined with the HPLC-DAD can rapidly, simultaneously and accurately determine varieties of molecular targeted anti-tumor drugs in different complex biological matrices even in the presence of severe peak overlaps, severe time shifts, slight baseline drifts and different unknown background interferences.

16.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 462, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a significant cause of mortality in-hospital, especially in ICU patients. Early prediction of sepsis is essential, as prompt and appropriate treatment can improve survival outcomes. Machine learning methods are flexible prediction algorithms with potential advantages over conventional regression and scoring system. The aims of this study were to develop a machine learning approach using XGboost to predict the 30-days mortality for MIMIC-III Patients with sepsis-3 and to determine whether such model performs better than traditional prediction models. METHODS: Using the MIMIC-III v1.4, we identified patients with sepsis-3. The data was split into two groups based on death or survival within 30 days and variables, selected based on clinical significance and availability by stepwise analysis, were displayed and compared between groups. Three predictive models including conventional logistic regression model, SAPS-II score prediction model and XGBoost algorithm model were constructed by R software. Then, the performances of the three models were tested and compared by AUCs of the receiver operating characteristic curves and decision curve analysis. At last, nomogram and clinical impact curve were used to validate the model. RESULTS: A total of 4559 sepsis-3 patients are included in the study, in which, 889 patients were death and 3670 survival within 30 days, respectively. According to the results of AUCs (0.819 [95% CI 0.800-0.838], 0.797 [95% CI 0.781-0.813] and 0.857 [95% CI 0.839-0.876]) and decision curve analysis for the three models, the XGboost model performs best. The risk nomogram and clinical impact curve verify that the XGboost model possesses significant predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: Using machine learning technique by XGboost, more significant prediction model can be built. This XGboost model may prove clinically useful and assist clinicians in tailoring precise management and therapy for the patients with sepsis-3.

17.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 586130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262977

RESUMO

Exosomes have a rapid development of bio-nanoparticles for drug delivery and confluent advances in next-generation diagnostics, monitoring the progression of several diseases, and accurate guidance for therapy. Based on their prominent stability, cargo-carriage properties, stable circulating capability, and favorable safety profile, exosomes have great potential to regulate cellular communication by carrying variable cargoes into specific site. However, the specific loading strategies and modification methods for engineered exosomes to enhance the targeting ability are unclear. The clinical application of exosomes is still limited. In this review, we discuss both original and modified exosomes for loading specific therapeutic molecules (proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules) and the design strategies used to target specific cells. This review can be used as a reference for further loading and modification strategies as well as for the therapeutic applications of exosomes.

18.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 164, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNAs) and hypoxia have been found to play the key roles in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the expressions and functions of the specific circRNAs in regulating hypoxia-involved CRC metastasis, and the circRNAs that are relevant to regulate HIF-1α levels in CRC remain elusive. METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of circRNAs and mRNA in CRC cells and tissues. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze the location of circ-ERBIN. Function-based experiments were performed using circ-ERBIN overexpression and knockdown cell lines in vitro and in vivo, including CCK8, colony formation, EdU assay, transwell, tumor growth and metastasis models. Mechanistically, luciferase reporter assay, western blots and immunohistochemical stainings were performed. RESULTS: Circ-Erbin was highly expressed in the CRC cells and Circ-Erbin overexpression facilitated the proliferation, migration and metastasis of CRC in vitro and in vivo. Notably, circ-Erbin overexpression significantly promoted angiogenesis by increasing the expression of hypoxia induced factor (HIF-1α) in CRC. Mechanistically, circ-Erbin accelerated a cap-independent protein translation of HIF-1α in CRC cells as the sponges of miR-125a-5p and miR-138-5p, which synergistically targeted eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1(4EBP-1). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncover a key mechanism for circ-Erbin mediated HIF-1α activation by miR-125a-5p-5p/miR-138-5p/4EBP-1 axis and circ-ERBIN is a potential target for CRC treatment.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187214

RESUMO

Lonidamine (LND) has the ability to resist spermatogenesis and was first used as an anti-spermatogenic agent. Later, it was found that LND has a degree of anticancer activity. Currently, LND is known to target energy metabolism, mainly involving the inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT), mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), respiratory chain complex I/II, mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pore, and hexokinase II (HK-II). However, phase II clinical studies showed that LND alone had a weak therapeutic effect, and the effect was short and reversible. Interestingly, LND does not have the common side effects of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs, such as alopecia and myelosuppression. In addition, LND has selective activity toward various tumors, and its toxic and side effects do not overlap when combined with other chemotherapeutic drugs. Therefore, LND is commonly used as a chemosensitizer to enhance the antitumor effects of chemotherapeutic drugs based on its disruption of energy metabolism relating to chemo- or radioresistance. In this review, we summarized the combination treatments of LND with several typical chemotherapeutic drugs and several common physical therapies, such as radiotherapy (RT), hyperthermia (HT), and photodynamic therapy (PDT), and discussed the underlying mechanisms of action. Meanwhile, the development of novel formulations of LND in recent years and the research progress of LND derivative adjudin (ADD) as an anticancer drug were also discussed.

20.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 223, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is the most common haemolytic anaemia caused by congenital membrane defects of red blood cells. The name derives from the presence of spherical red blood cells in the peripheral blood. Clinical manifestations of HS are anaemia, haemolytic jaundice, and large spleen, and infection can worsen the condition, often with cholelithiasis. HS is mainly caused by abnormal functions of the products of six genes. Splenectomy is the main treatment for HS. CASE PRESENTATION: Half a day after birth, the proband exhibited HS-related symptoms, with progressive aggravation. Routine examination in the outpatient department showed an increase in white blood cells and a decrease in red blood cells. His mother had HS and a partial splenectomy. We suspected that the infant might also have HS. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from the three members of the HS trio pedigree, and genomic whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed. The three DNA samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by Sanger sequencing to identify mutation sites. A novel nonsense heterozygous mutation, c.790C > T (p. Gln264Ter), in the ANK1 gene, which causes premature termination of translation, was found in this Chinese family with autosomal dominant HS. CONCLUSIONS: This de novo nonsense mutation can cause the onset of HS in early childhood, with severe symptoms. Expanding the ANK1 genotype mutation spectrum will lay a foundation for the further application of mutation screening in genetic counselling.

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