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1.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) for COPD in behavioral changes and health outcomes, and also verify the reliability of results in conjunction with trial sequential analysis and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool. METHODS: Studies that implemented MI interventions for COPD patients were systematically searched by eight databases from inception to December 2021. Study screening, quality assessment, data extraction, and meta-analysis were conducted according to Cochrane standards. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies involving 2344 patients were included. The results of meta-analyses indicated that MI made significant improvement in self-efficacy, lung function, quality of life, emotion, and COPD-related admission, but not in self-management and exercise capacity. Subgroup analyses found that the intervention duration was inversely associated with effect size for both self-efficacy and negative emotion severity. The trial sequential analysis showed MI improved patients' lung function and reduced COPD-related hospitalization with certainty, but the findings for exercise capacity need to be confirmed by further research. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review suggested the positive effects of MI on self-efficacy, lung function, quality of life, emotion and COPD-related hospitalization. To make a firm conclusion, more well-designed clinical trials with bigger sample sizes required. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Clinical and community nurses can use MI for COPD to increase healthy behaviors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42021278674.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety might be a potentially modifiable risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Evidence relating anxiety symptoms and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) to CVDs from prospective cohort study was still lacking in China. METHODS: Participants aged 30 to 79 years old from 10 areas across China were recruited during 2004-2008 and were followed up until 2017. 487,209 participants without CVDs at baseline remained for analyses. Anxiety symptoms (panic attacks and continuous anxiety) during the past 12 months were identified in a face-to-face interview. Participants with continuous anxiety were further assessed for GAD using Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form. The primary outcomes were incident CVD, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), haemorrhagic stroke (HS), and ischaemic stroke (IS). RESULTS: During 4.7 million person-years of follow-up, we documented 140,365 incident cases of CVD. For panic attacks, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95 % CI) were 1.08 (1.04-1.13), 1.10 (1.02-1.19), 1.20 (1.05-1.38) and 1.20 (1.11-1.30) for CVD, IHD, HS and IS, respectively. Continuous anxiety was positively associated with incident CVD and IHD, and the corresponding HRs were 1.12 (1.04-1.20) and 1.21 (1.07-1.37). LIMITATIONS: Anxiety symptoms were examined according to self-reported questionnaires, which could constitute key study limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Among the Chinese adults, those with anxiety symptoms or GAD might be important at-risk population of CVD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801835

RESUMO

Photoreduction of CO2 into solar fuels has received great interest, but suffers from low catalytic efficiency and poor selectivity. Herein, two single-Cu-atom catalysts with unique Cu configurations in phosphorus-doped carbon nitride (PCN), namely, Cu1N3@PCN and Cu1P3@PCN were fabricated via selective phosphidation, and tested in visible light-driven CO2 reduction by H2O without sacrificial agents. Cu1N3@PCN was exclusively active for CO production with a rate of 49.8 µmolCO gcat-1 h-1, outperforming most polymeric carbon nitride (C3N4) based catalysts, while Cu1P3@PCN preferably yielded H2. Experimental and theoretical analysis suggested that doping P in C3N4 by replacing a corner C atom upshifted the d-band center of Cu in Cu1N3@PCN close to the Fermi level, which boosted the adsorption and activation of CO2 on Cu1N3, making Cu1N3@PCN efficiently convert CO2 to CO. In contrast, Cu1P3@PCN with a much lower Cu 3d electron energy exhibited negligible CO2 adsorption, thereby preferring H2 formation via photocatalytic H2O splitting.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(13)2022 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteomics-based technologies are emerging tools used for cancer biomarker discovery. Limited prospective studies have been conducted to evaluate the role of circulating proteins in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. METHODS: A two-stage case-control proteomics study nested in the Shanghai Women's Health Study was conducted. A total of 1104 circulating proteins were measured in the discovery phase, consisting of 100 incident CRC cases and 100 individually matched controls. An additional 60 case-control pairs were selected for validation. Protein profiling at both stages was completed using the Olink platforms. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between circulating proteins and CRC risk. The elastic net method was employed to develop a protein score for CRC risk. RESULTS: In the discovery set, 27 proteins showed a nominally significant association with CRC risk, among which 22 were positively and 5 were inversely associated. Six of the 27 protein markers were significantly associated with CRC risk in the validation set. In the analysis of pooled discovery and validation sets, odds ratios (ORs) per standard deviation (SD) increase in levels of these proteins were 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-2.06) for CD79B; 1.71 (95% CI: 1.24-2.34) for DDR1; 2.04 (95% CI: 1.39-3.01) for EFNA4; 1.54 (95% CI: 1.16-2.02) for FLRT2; 2.09 (95% CI: 1.47-2.98) for LTA4H and 1.88 (95% CI: 1.35-2.62) for NCR1. Sensitivity analyses showed consistent associations for all proteins with the exclusion of cases diagnosed within the first two years after the cohort enrollment, except for CD79B. Furthermore, a five-protein score was developed based on the six proteins identified and showed significant associations with CRC risk in both discovery and validation sets (Discovery: OR1-SD = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.53-3.95; validation: OR1-SD = 4.16, 95% CI: 1.92-8.99). CONCLUSIONS: A panel of five protein markers was identified as potential biomarkers for CRC risk. Our findings provide novel insights into the etiology of CRC and may facilitate the risk assessment of the malignancy.

5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear about the association of muscle mass, strength, and quality with death in the general Chinese population of diverse economical and geographical backgrounds. The present study aimed to comprehensively examine such associations across different regions in China. METHODS: Based on the China Kadoorie Biobank study, the present study included 23,290 participants who were aged 38 to 88 years and had no prevalent cardiovascular diseases or cancer. Muscle mass and grip strength were measured using calibrated instruments. Arm muscle quality was defined as the ratio of grip strength to arm muscle mass. Low muscle mass, grip strength, and arm muscle quality were defined as the sex-specific lowest quintiles of muscle mass index, grip strength, and arm muscle quality, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risks of all-cause mortality in relation to muscle mass, strength, and quality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 3.98 years, 739 participants died. The HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality risk was 1.28 (1.08-1.51) for low appendicular muscle mass index, 1.38 (1.16-1.62) for low total muscle mass index, 1.68 (1.41-2.00) for low grip strength, and 1.41 (1.20-1.66) for low arm muscle quality in models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and medical histories. CONCLUSION: Low muscle mass, grip strength, and arm muscle quality are all associated with short-term increased risks of mortality, indicating the importance of maintaining normal muscle mass, strength, and quality for general Chinese adults.

6.
Arch Virol ; 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796832

RESUMO

In 2019 and 2020, symptoms of dwarfing, yellowing, and reddening were observed in garlic in open fields in Shandong Province, China. Milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) was detected in aphids and symptomatic garlic plants using polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, it was demonstrated using an aphid transmission test that garlic is a natural host of MDV. Rolling-circle amplification was combined with the use of specific primers to amplify the complete genomes of MDV and its related alphasatellites. This is the first report of complete genome sequences of MDV and related alphasatellites from garlic and aphid samples.

7.
PLoS Med ; 19(7): e1004052, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with new-onset cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), but it is not known whether COVID-19 has long-term impacts on cardiometabolic outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether the incidence of new DM and CVDs are increased over 12 months after COVID-19 compared with matched controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study from 2020 to 2021 analysing electronic records for 1,356 United Kingdom family practices with a population of 13.4 million. Participants were 428,650 COVID-19 patients without DM or CVD who were individually matched with 428,650 control patients on age, sex, and family practice and followed up to January 2022. Outcomes were incidence of DM and CVD. A difference-in-difference analysis estimated the net effect of COVID-19 allowing for baseline differences, age, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, Charlson score, index month, and matched set. Follow-up time was divided into 4 weeks from index date ("acute COVID-19"), 5 to 12 weeks from index date ("post-acute COVID-19"), and 13 to 52 weeks from index date ("long COVID-19"). Net incidence of DM increased in the first 4 weeks after COVID-19 (adjusted rate ratio, RR 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51 to 2.19) and remained elevated from 5 to 12 weeks (RR 1.27, 1.11 to 1.46) but not from 13 to 52 weeks overall (1.07, 0.99 to 1.16). Acute COVID-19 was associated with net increased CVD incidence (5.82, 4.82 to 7.03) including pulmonary embolism (RR 11.51, 7.07 to 18.73), atrial arrythmias (6.44, 4.17 to 9.96), and venous thromboses (5.43, 3.27 to 9.01). CVD incidence declined from 5 to 12 weeks (RR 1.49, 1.28 to 1.73) and showed a net decrease from 13 to 52 weeks (0.80, 0.73 to 0.88). The analyses were based on health records data and participants' exposure and outcome status might have been misclassified. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that CVD was increased early after COVID-19 mainly from pulmonary embolism, atrial arrhythmias, and venous thromboses. DM incidence remained elevated for at least 12 weeks following COVID-19 before declining. People without preexisting CVD or DM who suffer from COVID-19 do not appear to have a long-term increase in incidence of these conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Embolia Pulmonar , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921546, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35860271

RESUMO

Background: Intestinal dysbiosis is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), two subtypes of IBD, are characterized by unique microbial signatures, respectively. However, it is unclear whether UC or CD has a specific causal relationship with gut microbiota. Objective: To investigate the potential causal associations between gut microbial genera and IBD, UC, or CD, two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were conducted. Materials and Methods: We obtained genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics of gut microbiota and IBD, UC, or CD from published GWASs. Two-sample MR analyses were performed to identify potential causal gut microbial genera for IBD, UC, and CD using the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to validate the robustness of the primary results of the MR analyses. Finally, a reverse MR analysis was performed to evaluate the possibility of reverse causation. Results: Combining the results from the primary and sensitivity analyses, six bacterial genera were associated with the risk of IBD, UC, or CD in the IVW method. Briefly, Eubacterium ventriosum group was associated with a lower risk of IBD (P=0.011) and UC (P=1.00×10-4), whereas Coprococcus 2 was associated with a higher risk of IBD (P=0.022) and UC (P=0.007). In addition, we found a positive association between Oxalobacter with IBD (P=0.001) and CD (P=0.002), and Ruminococcaceae UCG014 with IBD (P=0.005) and CD (P=0.007). We also noticed a negative association between Enterorhabdus (P=0.044) and IBD, and between Lachnospiraceae UCG001 (P=0.023) and CD. We did not find causal effects of IBD, UC, or CD on these bacterial genera in the reverse MR analysis. Conclusion: This study expanded gut microbial genera that were causally associated with the risk of IBD, and also revealed specificity-gut microbial genera for UC or CD.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 886144, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865545

RESUMO

Background: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Though previous studies have reported a link between several inflammatory biomarkers and risk of certain types of cancer, there is a lack of systematic investigation. Therefore, we aimed to assess the role of circulating cytokines on the risk of cancer using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Method: We used genetic variants associated with circulating levels of cytokines from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of 8,293 Finns as instrumental variables. Summary level data of 20 site-specific cancer were obtained from the UK BioBank including up to 456,348 participants of European ancestry. We performed two-sample MR analyses using inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method as the main method, followed by weighted-median and likelihood-based methods as sensitivity analysis. Pleiotropic and outlier variants were assessed by MR-Egger regression and MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier (MR-PRESSO) test. Results: 224 genetic variants associated with 27 circulating cytokines achieving genome-wide significance (P<5×10-8) were used as IVs. After Bonferroni correction, genetically predicted high levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) were associated with a decreased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (odds ratio (OR) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.43-0.69, P=5.39×10-7), and circulating levels of IL-17 were associated with altered stomach cancer risk (OR per 1 SD increase = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.07-0.36, P=1.25×10-5) by IVW. Results were stable across sensitivity analyses, and MR-Egger regression did not suggest the presence of directional pleiotropy. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence for 48 cytokine-cancer associations including tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine (CTACK) with the risk of several types of cancer (9.26×10-5≤P<0.05). Conclusions: By using a genetic epidemiological approach, our study systematically evaluated the role of circulating cytokines on the risk of cancer, and provided clues for potential therapeutic targets. However, the exact underlying biological mechanism warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Neoplasias , Citocinas/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
10.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiologic role of circulating proteins in the development of breast cancer subtypes is not clear. We aimed to examine the potential causal effects of circulating proteins on the risk of breast cancer by intrinsic-like subtypes within the Mendelian randomisation (MR) framework. METHODS: MR was performed using summary statistics from two sources: the INTERVAL protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) Study (1890 circulating proteins and 3301 healthy individuals) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; 106,278 invasive cases and 91,477 controls). The inverse-variance (IVW)-weighted method was used as the main analysis to evaluate the associations between genetically predicted proteins and the risk of five different intrinsic-like breast cancer subtypes and the weighted median MR method, the Egger regression, the MR-PRESSO, and the MRLocus method were performed as secondary analysis. RESULTS: We identified 98 unique proteins significantly associated with the risk of one or more subtypes (Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate < 0.05). Among them, 51 were potentially specific to luminal A-like subtype, 14 to luminal B/Her2-negative-like, 11 to triple negative, 3 to luminal B-like, and 2 to Her2-enriched-like breast cancer (ntotal = 81). Associations for three proteins (ICAM1, PLA2R1 and TXNDC12) showed evident heterogeneity across the subtypes. For example, higher levels of genetically predicted ICAM1 (per unit of increase) were associated with an increased risk of luminal B/HER2-negative-like cancer (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.08, BH-FDR = 2.43 × 10-4) while inversely associated with triple-negative breast cancer with borderline significance (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99, BH-FDR = 0.065, Pheterogeneity < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found potential causal associations with the risk of subtypes of breast cancer for 98 proteins. Associations of ICAM1, PLA2R1 and TXNDC12 varied substantially across the subtypes. The identified proteins may partly explain the heterogeneity in the aetiology of distinct subtypes of breast cancer and facilitate the personalised risk assessment of the malignancy.

11.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 878239, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873830

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms represented by constipation were significant non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and were considered early manifestations and aggravating factors of the disease. This paper reviewed the research progress of the mechanism of the gut-brain axis (GBA) in PD and discussed the roles of α-synuclein, gut microbiota, immune inflammation, neuroendocrine, mitochondrial autophagy, and environmental toxins in the mechanism of the GBA in PD. Treatment of PD based on the GBA theory has also been discussed, including (1) dietary therapy, such as probiotics, vitamin therapy, Mediterranean diet, and low-calorie diet, (2) exercise therapy, (3) drug therapy, including antibiotics; GI peptides; GI motility agents, and (4) fecal flora transplantation can improve the flora. (5) Vagotomy and appendectomy were associated but not recommended.

12.
ACS Omega ; 7(23): 20020-20031, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721926

RESUMO

Thermokinetic parameters and transport parameters are of great importance to the combustion model and the reaction rate rules are of great importance to construct the combustion reaction mechanism for hydrocarbon fuels. The HO2 elimination reaction class for hydroperoxyalkenylperoxy radicals is one of the key reaction classes for olefin, for which the rate coefficients are lacking. Therefore, the rate coefficients and rate rules of the HO2 elimination reaction class for hydroperoxyalkenylperoxy radicals are studied in this work. The reaction class transition state theory (RC-TST) is used to calculate the rate coefficients. In addition, the HO2 elimination reaction class of hydroperoxyalkenylperoxy radicals is divided into four subclasses depending upon the type of H-Cß bond that is broken in the reactant molecules, and the rate rules are calculated by taking the average of rate coefficients from a representative set of reactions in a subclass. The calculated kinetics data would be valuable for the construction of the combustion reaction mechanism for olefin.

13.
Clin Epidemiol ; 14: 771-778, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761866

RESUMO

Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third-most frequently diagnosed cancer globally. Studies have linked low serum albumin with increased risk of CRC, but the causal nature of the association remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the potential causal relationship using bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods: Instrumental variants for albumin were obtained from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 102,223 Eastern Asian participants to investigate the effect of albumin on CRC. Summary statistics of CRC were obtained from a GWAS on 7,062 CRC cases and 195,745 controls of Eastern Asian ancestry. Bidirectional MR analysis was performed using inverse variance weighting (IVW) for primary analysis, supplemented with a maximum likelihood-based method, MR-PRESSO test, leave-one-out analysis, and MR-Egger regression. Stratification analyses were further performed. Results: We found that genetically predicted serum albumin per unit was associated with a lower risk of CRC (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.95 with IVW). No evidence of pleiotropy was observed. Sex-stratified MR analysis showed that serum albumin was inversely associated with risk of CRC in men (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96), but not in women (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.55-1.19) using IVW. Reverse MR analysis suggested a genetic predisposition toward CRC was not associated with serum albumin. Conclusion: Our study revealed a suggestive sex disparity in the effect of albumin, which deserves further exploration of the potential biological mechanism.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119567, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659909

RESUMO

The contamination of paddy soils is of great concern since it links to human health via food supply. Limited knowledge is available on PCB residue characteristics and the associated health risks in paddy soils under various environmental conditions. In this study, a soil sampling campaign was conducted in three typical paddy fields, i.e., Sanjiang Plain (SP), Taihu Plain (TP) and Hani Terrace (HT), crossing a transect of 4000 km in China. The concentrations of 29 quantified PCBs varied from 58.6 to 1930 pg/g in paddy soils, with samples at TP showing the highest burden. Tri-CBs were the major homologue group at SP and HT, whereas hexa-CBs at TP. Altitude, temperature, soil organic matter content and soil conductivity well explained the variations in PCB concentrations among sites. The homologue profiles of soil PCBs followed the fractionation theory. In addition, soil conductivity was found to be negatively correlated to low-chlorinated PCBs and positively to high-chlorinated congeners. Furthermore, the toxicities of soil PCBs and the exposure risks through rice intake were estimated. Higher toxicity equivalent quantities and hazard indexes were found at SP than TP and HT, with over one third of the samples displaying health risks. The results of this work highlight the necessity to better understand the occurrence characteristics and the associated health risks of PCBs in soils of rice-growing regions.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113146, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643064

RESUMO

Approximately, one in three ischemic stroke survivors suffered from depression, namely, post-stroke depression (PSD). PSD affects functional rehabilitation and may lead to poor quality of life of patients. There are numerous explanations about the etiologies of PSD. Here, we speculated that PSD are likely to be the result of specific changes in brain pathology. We hypothesized that the stroke-induced hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in PSD. Stroke initiates a complex sequence of events in neuroendocrine system including HPA axis. The HPA axis is involved in the pathophysiology of depression, especially, the overactivity of the HPA axis occurs in major depressive disorder. This review summarizes the possible etiologies of PSD, focusing on the stroke-induced activation of HPA axis, mainly including the stress followed by severe brain damage and the proinflammatory cytokines release. The role of hyperactive of HPA axis in PSD was discussed in detail, which includes the role of high level corticotropin-releasing hormone in PSD, the effects of glucocorticoids on the alterations in specific brain structures, the expression of enzymes, excitotoxicity, the change in intestinal permeability, and the activation of microglia. The relationship between neuroendocrine regulation and inflammation was also described. Finally, the therapy of PSD by regulating HPA axis, neuroendocrine, and immunity was discussed briefly. Nevertheless, the change of HPA axis and the occurring of PSD maybe interact and promote on each other, and future investigations should explore this hypothesis in more depth.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 296: 115462, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714877

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tapinanthus species are hemiparasites that grow on diverse hosts in African regions. Tapinanthus species are locally known as "all purpose herbs" as they are traditionally used to treat various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, inflammation, malaria, anemia, anxiety, itching, and so on. AIM OF THE STUDY: A comprehensive review on research outcomes and future perspectives of Tapinanthus species are presented to provide a reference for relevant researchers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The references regarding Tapinanthus species were retrieved from Google Scholar, Web of Science, Sci-finder, PubMed, Elsevier, Wiley, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Open Access Library, and SpringerLink between 1963 and 2022. Scientific plant names were provided by "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org) and "The world Flora Online" (www.worldfloraonline.org). RESULTS: Even though Tapinanthus species are regarded as notorious pests that can undermine various hosts, they are, as omnipotent herbs in folklore, meaningful for the development of potential phytomedicine sources. Phytochemistry screening has revealed the presence of glycosides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, anthraquinones. Among them, the chemical structures of 40 compounds have been elucidated by phytochemical methods without alkaloids and anthraquinones. These secondary metabolites might be responsible for ethnomedical uses and bioactivities of Tapinanthus species. Current research has provided scientific evidence for traditional uses of Tapinanthus species, especially unraveling hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-anxiety, anti-depression, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological properties. Given the fact that ethnomedical uses served as a valuable reference for pharmacology, however, some records to treat arthritis, fever, itching, dysentery, stomach pain, and anemia, have not been confirmed in current research. Furthermore, the toxic effects of Tapinanthus species were susceptible to the dosages, with relative safety across a wide range. CONCLUSIONS: To reasonably yield Tapinanthus species, artificial culture might be a promising method to develop in the future. The discrepancies between phytochemistry screening and structure elucidation, as well as between ethnomedical uses and current pharmacology, need to be further clarified. The identification of bioactive compounds in crude extracts and fractions, the illustration of the underlying mechanisms of pharmacology, along with the addition of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and clinical trials of toxic tests, should be carried out in depth. This review highlights that Tapinanthus species can be considered promising phytomedicine sources as long as we adhere to digging more deeply into their potential role.


Assuntos
Botânica , Loranthaceae , Antraquinonas , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35624367

RESUMO

The main chemical component of high-silicon iron tailings (HSITs) is SiO2; HSITs also include some oxides such as Al2O3 and CaO. Mechanical activation can reduce the particle size of HSITs and enhance their pozzolanic activity such that they can be used as a type of mineral admixture for cement-based materials (CBMs). This study aims to investigate the mechanical activation (ultrafine grinding) effects of HSITs, including physical and crystallization structure effects. The particle distribution, specific surface area, density, and solubility of HSITs were tested using laser particle size analysis and other routine physical testing methods. Their crystal structures were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry (DSC-TG). Grinding reduced the particle size of HSIT particles and increased their specific surface area, wherein the minimum D50 was 5.75 µm, the maximum specific surface area was 7608 m2/kg, and the corresponding grinding time was 3.5 h. With an increase in grinding time, the solubility showed an increasing trend; however, the density showed a decreasing trend. The change was fast before 3.5 h or 4 h and then slowed down, but the final solubility was still higher than its initial level, while the final density was still lower than its initial level. Grinding reduced the degree of crystallization of the minerals in HSITs and increased the microscopic strain and disorder of its crystal structure. These changes were significant for a grinding time of 0-3.5 h, after which the changes tended to be slow. The symmetry and integrity of the SiO2 structure decreased with grinding. The activity index of the HSIT powder was higher than 0.6. Ultrafine grinding improves the particle size distribution of HSITs and reduces the crystallinity of their main minerals, which in turn increases their chemical reactivity. It can be said that ultra-finely ground HSIT powder is pozzolanic and can be used as a mineral admixture for CBMs, and its grinding limit can be inferred to be 3.5 h.

18.
Int J Dev Disabil ; 68(3): 247-273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603000

RESUMO

People with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDDs) face lifelong challenges in areas such as self-care, learning and socializing abilities. Having such individuals at home brings family caregivers extra stress, especially when support is insufficient. Because of the inadequacy of professional support available globally, the need to increase the ability of the caregivers to provide effective support is evident. Behavior skills training (BST), an approach consisting of instruction, modelling, rehearsal, and feedback, has been used in numerous studies to train caregivers in necessary skills to help their family members with IDDs. This study conducted a systematic review of past literatures, wherein BST was used to train family caregivers of individuals with IDDs. Seventeen relevant studies were summarized according to their countries, participant characteristics, training focus, intervention details, and outcomes. Outcomes revealed that BST had been used to train caregivers of varying demographics, various target skills (e.g. discrete trial training, incidental training, etc.), order of delivery, and sometimes the introduction of novel components. Most studies showed an improvement for both caregivers and the individuals with IDDs. However, some studies did not present desired outcomes in relation to the individuals. Possible reasons and future measures were also discussed in this review.

19.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(7): 420, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530953

RESUMO

Background: The hospitalization for asthma exacerbation has varied with seasons, however, the underlying weather reasons have not been fully explored yet. This study is aimed to explore the effect of weather factors on increased number of hospitalization due to worsening of asthma symptoms. This will provide more information to the relevant authorities to allocate appropriate medical resources as per the weather conditions in Qingdao, China. Methods: All adult patients admitted for asthma exacerbation from 1 January, 2017 to 31 December, 2019 were enrolled from 13 main hospitals of Qingdao. The clinical data, including age, sex, smoking history, etc., were collected from the electronic medical record (EMR) systems. The hourly air quality of Qingdao from 2017-2019, including the air quality index (AQI), PM2.5 and PM10, was obtained from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre. All these parameters during 2017-2019 were compared monthly. For meteorological data, the monthly horizontal wind at 850 hPa and vertical velocity at 500 hPa during 1960-2020 were obtained from National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) global reanalysis dataset. The correlation analysis was applied to determine the association between asthma hospitalizations and the environmental factors, including atmospheric pressure, humidity, vertical visibility, and etc., monthly. Results: In all, 10,549 asthmatic inpatients (45.7% males, 54.3% females) were included in the study. The inpatients number for asthma exacerbation had a plateau lasting from March to June of 2019, accompanied with high PM2.5 and PM10, as well as bad air quality from January to March of 2019, potentially governed by the El Niño event in 2018. However, there was no significance correlation between the number of asthma hospitalizations and the average value of all environmental factors. Conclusions: The high rate of hospitalization for asthma exacerbation in Qingdao during the spring of 2019 was associated with the unfavorable weather conditions, which might be linked to the atmospheric circulation in East Asia.

20.
J Oncol ; 2022: 1612702, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509847

RESUMO

Background: Leukemia is a common malignancy that has four main subtypes and is a threat to human health. Understanding the epidemiological status of leukemia and its four main subtypes globally is important for allocating appropriate resources, guiding clinical practice, and furthering scientific research. Methods: Average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) were calculated to estimate the change trends of age-standardized rates (ASRs) from 1990 to 2019 in 204 countries and territories. The risk factors for leukemia death and disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) were also analyzed. In addition, the future trends in ASRs were projected through 2030. Results: The total number of incident cases, deaths, and DALYs from leukemia in 2019 was 0.64, 0.33, and 11.66 million, respectively. Decreasing trends in age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), the age-standardized death rate (ASDR), and age-standardized DALY rate were detected on a global level while increasing trends in ASIR were detected in the high-sociodemographic index (SDI) regions. The leukemia burden was heavier in males than in females. By cause, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were more likely to impose a burden on the elderly, while acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) showed a greater impact in the younger population. A significant positive correlation was observed between SDI and AAPC in ASIR, while SDI was negatively correlated with AAPCs in both ASDR and age-standardized DALY rate. Smoking remained the most significant risk factor associated with leukemia-related death and DALY, especially in males. Similar deaths and DALYs were caused by smoking and high body mass index (BMI) in females. Future projections through 2030 estimated that ASIR and ASDR will continue to increase, while the DALY rate is predicted to decline. Conclusions: Patterns and trends of leukemia burden are correlated with SDI. The estimated contributions to leukemia deaths indicate that timely measures are needed to reduce smoking and obesity.

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