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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1550, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354713

RESUMO

Vertical transmission of the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) can lead to devastating consequences during gestation. Tim-3, a negative immune regulator, is constitutively expressed on decidual macrophages, but its specific role during T. gondii infection has not yet been explored. In the present study, we discovered that Tim-3 plays an important role in the abnormal pregnancy due to T. gondii infection using Tim-3-/- pregnant mice and anti-Tim-3 neutralizing antibody treated human decidual macrophages. The results showed that abnormal pregnancy outcomes were more prevalent in Tim-3-/- infected pregnant mice than in wild-type infected pregnant mice. Tim-3 expression in decidual macrophages was significantly down-regulated after T. gondii infection both in vitro and in vivo. Tim-3 down-regulation by T.gondii infection could strengthen M1 activation and weaken M2 tolerance by changing the M1 and M2 membrane molecule expression, arginine metabolic enzymes synthesis, and cytokine secretion profiles of decidual macrophages. Moreover, Tim-3 down-regulation by T.gondii infection led to PI3K-AKT phosphorylation inhibition, downstream transcription factor C/EBPß expression, and SOCS1 activation, which resulted in enzymes synthesis regulation and cytokines secretion. Our study demonstrates that Tim-3 plays an indispensable role in the adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by T. gondii infection.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 483, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386260

RESUMO

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most frequent complications of stroke. The Yi-nao-jie-yu prescription (YNJYP) is an herbal prescription widely used as a therapeutic agent against PSD in traditional Chinese medicine. Disruption of adult neurogenesis has attracted attention as a potential cause of cognitive pathophysiology in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in neurogenesis. This study investigated the effects of YNJYP on adult neurogenesis and explored its underlying molecular mechanism in a rat model of PSD that is established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and accompanied by chronic immobilization stress for 1 week. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks, depression-like behavior was evaluated by a forced swim test (FST) and sucrose consumption test (SCT). Neurogenesis was observed by double immunofluorescence staining. Notch signals were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results show that, at 4 weeks, the immobility time in the FST for rats in the PSD group increased and the sucrose preference in the SCT decreased compared with that in the stroke group. Therefore, YNJYP decreased the immobility time and increased the sucrose preference of the PSD rats. Further, PSD interfered with neurogenesis and decreased the differentiation toward neurons of newly born cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and increased the differentiation toward astrocytes, effects that were reversed by YNJYP, particularly at 4 weeks. At 2 weeks, compared with the stroke group, expression of target gene Hes5 mRNA transcripts in the PSD group decreased, but increased after treatment with YNJYP. At 4 weeks, compared with the stroke group, the expression of Notch receptor Notch1 mRNA transcripts in the PSD group decreased, but also increased after treatment with YNJYP. Overall, this study indicated that disturbed nerve regeneration, including the increased numbers of astrocytes and decrease numbers of neurons, is a mechanism of PSD, and Notch signaling genes dynamically regulate neurogenesis. Moreover, YNJYP can relieve depressive behavior in PSD rats, and exerts a positive effect on neurogenesis by dynamically regulating the expression of Notch signaling genes.

3.
J Proteomics ; 186: 28-37, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031066

RESUMO

A Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can result in spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, or congenital fetal defects. The decidual immune system plays a critical role in regulating the immune micro-environment and in the induction of immune tolerance. To better understand the factors that mediate the decidual immune response associated with the T. gondii infection, a large-scale study employing TMT proteomics was conducted to characterize the differential decidual immune proteomes from infected and uninfected human decidual immune cells samples. The decidual immune cells from 105 human voluntary abortion tissues were purified, and of the 5510 unique proteins identified, 181 proteins were found to be differentially abundant (>1.2-fold cutoff, p < 0.05) in the T. gondii-infected decidual immune cells. 11 proteins of 181 differentially expressed proteins associated with trophoblast invasion, placental development, intrauterine fetal growth, and immune tolerance were verified using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. This systematic analysis for the proteomics of decidual immune cells identified a broad range of immune factors in human decidual immune cells, shedding a new insight into the decidual immune molecular mechanism for abnormal pregnancy outcomes associated with T. gondii infection.

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