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2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(6): 4290-4300, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973211

RESUMO

Impaired autophagic degradation of intracellular lipids is causally linked to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Pharmacological agents that can restore hepatic autophagic flux could therefore have therapeutic potentials for this increasingly prevalent disease. Herein, we investigated the effects of polydatin, a natural precursor of resveratrol, in a murine nutritional model of NASH and a cell line model of steatosis. Results showed that oral administration of polydatin protected against hepatic lipid accumulation and alleviated inflammation and hepatocyte damage in db/db mice fed methionine-choline deficient diet. Polydatin also alleviated palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation in cultured hepatocytes. In both models, polydatin restored lysosomal function and autophagic flux that were impaired by NASH or steatosis. Mechanistically, polydatin inhibited mTOR signalling and up-regulated the expression and activity of TFEB, a known master regulator of lysosomal function. In conclusion, polydatin ameliorated NASH through restoring autophagic flux. The polydatin-regulated autophagy was associated with inhibition of mTOR pathway and restoration of lysosomal function by TFEB. Our study provided affirmative preclinical evidence to inform future clinical trials for examining the potential anti-NASH effect of polydatin in humans.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111878, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986521

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dahuang Zhechong Pill (DZP) is a classical formula from "Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber". It has been used for treatment of abdominal masses (including tumorous diseases) for thousands of years. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our previous work showed that DZP suppresses CCl-4 induced hepatic fibrosis by downregulating the expression of interleukin-13. We aimed to test if DZP suppresses the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) by ameliorating the fibrosis status of the future metastatic organ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver metastasis was observed by injection of MC38-EGFP cells with stably expressing enhanced green fuorescence protein beneath the splenic capsule of C57BL/6J mice. MC38-EGFP-derived exosomes were analyzed by Label-free comparative proteomics. mRNA expression was determined by Quantitative PCR. Protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry, immunofuorescence and Western blot. Collagen deposition was determined by Masson staining. All data were statistically analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: DZP drastically reduced the metastatic tumor number and fluorescence intensity in a splenic liver metastasis model. It also lowered the expression of mature TGF-ß1 and decreased the fibronectin contents & collagen deposition. Exosome proteomics showed that the upregualted CC chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) was repressed by DZP treatment. Importantly, DZP markedly lowered the expression of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the liver. Exosomal CCL2 activated macrophage recruitment and shifted the M1/M2 paradigm to a M2 phenotype. DZP reduced the macrophage infiltration and attenuated the M2 polarizaion in tumor-bearing mice liver. It decreased the F4/80 positive areas and specifically reduced the ratio of CCR2+ positive macrophage. Anti-fibrosis and inhibition of CCR2 suppress the growth and metastasis of CRC. CONCLUSIONS: DZP inhibits the liver metastasis of CRC by suppressing CCL2 mediated M2-skewing paradigm and ameliorating the pro-fibrotic microenvironment.

4.
Cancer Sci ; 110(5): 1724-1734, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839155

RESUMO

Inducing angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancers that sustains tumor growth and metastasis. Neovascularization is a surprisingly early event during the multistage progression of cancer. Cinobufagin, an important bufadienolide originating from Chan Su, has been clinically used to treat cancer in China since the Tang dynasty. Here, we show that cinobufagin suppresses colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in vivo by downregulating angiogenesis. The hierarchized neovasculature is significantly decreased and the vascular network formation is disrupted in HUVEC by cinobufagin in a dose-dependent way. Endothelial apoptosis is observed by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction which can be neutralized by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is reduced and phosphorylation of mTOR at Ser2481 and Akt at Ser473 is downregulated in HUVEC. Endothelial apoptosis is triggered by cinobufagin by stimulation of Bax and cascade activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3. Increased endothelial apoptosis rate and alterations in the HIF-1α/mTOR pathway are recapitulated in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Further, the anti-angiogenesis function of cinobufagin is consolidated based on its pro-apoptotic effects on an EOMA-derived hemangioendothelioma model. In conclusion, cinobufagin suppresses tumor neovascularization by disrupting the endothelial mTOR/HIF-1α pathway to trigger ROS-mediated vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. Cinobufagin is a promising natural anti-angiogenetic drug that has clinical translation potential and practical application value.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Bufanolídeos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 120, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysteine-rich intestinal protein 1 (CRIP1) is highly expressed in human intestine and aberrantly expressed in several types of tumor. However, studies on CRIP1 are limited and its role on tumor development and progression remains controversial and elusive. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of CRIP1 in paired normal and colorectal tumor specimens, as well as colorectal cell lines. Functional assays, such as CCK8, TUNEL assay and in vivo tumor growth assay, were used to detect the proliferation, apoptosis and response to 5-FU of CRIP1. Western blot was used to analyze Fas-mediated pathway induced by CRIP1. Rescue experiments were performed to evaluate the essential role of CRIP1 for Fas-mediated apoptosis. RESULTS: We demonstrated that CRIP1 is overexpressed in CRC tissues compared with adjacent normal mucosa. CRIP1 could dramatically recover the 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) inhibited CRC cell proliferation in vitro and stimulate the tumor formation of CRC in vivo, probably through inhibiting CRC cell apoptosis. Moreover, CRIP1 also dramatically recovered the 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. Further study demonstrated that CRIP1 down-regulated the expression of Fas protein and proteins related to Fas-mediated apoptosis. CRIP1 could interact with Fas protein and stimulate its ubiquitination and degradation. In addition, a negative correlation was detected between the expression of CRIP1 and Fas protein in most of the clinical human CRC samples. CONCLUSION: The current research reveals a vital role of CRIP1 in CRC progression, which provide a novel target for clinical drug resistance of colorectal cancer and undoubtedly contributing to the therapeutic strategies in CRC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Receptor fas/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteólise , Ubiquitina/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 111: 1057-1065, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841419

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects ˜16% of the world population. Chronic stressors contribute to reduced hippocampal volumes and increase the risk of developing MDD. Our previous work showed that XYS ameliorates social isolation and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behaviors in rats by regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hyperactivation, locus coeruleus -norepinephrine activity and kynurenine/5-hydroxytryptamin balance. Here, we report that CUMS & isolation-treated mice exhibit depressive-like behaviors and show a phenotype of mixed apoptosis/autophagy characteristic in mice hippocampus in vivo. Modified Xiaoyao San (MXS) significantly ameliorates CUMS & social isolation-induced anhedonia, loss of interests, psychomotor retardation and behavioral despair. It suppresses the apoptosis by downregulaing condensation of heterochromatin and reducing hippocampal TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. MSX significantly inhibits mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) reduces the release of cytochrome C and the shift of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nucleus. Further, it stimulates the formation of autophagosomes and activates the expression of Atg5 and LC3II. Combined silencing of Atg5 and Atg7 dampens MOMP and impaired the anti-apoptotic effects of MXS. In conclusion, MXS ameliorates depressive-like behaviors by triggering autophagy to alleviate neuronal apoptosis. MXS is an effective supplement for MDD treatment, and can be harnessed to enhance autophagy and synergize with antidepressant action.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
7.
Oncogene ; 38(16): 3019-3032, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575817

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasive transcripts that play pivotal roles in regulating chromatin dynamics, gene and protein expression. Aberrant expression and mutations of lncRNAs represent a driving force behind tumor invasion and metastasis, making them attractive cancer targets. However, most of the lncRNAs are still being discovered and conclusive experimental evidence for their functional relevance is still lacking for most malignancies. In this study, a differentially expressed lncRNA, designated as lnc-CRCMSL, is identified by microarray-based screenings on non-metastatic and metastatic CRC specimens. Lnc-CRCMSL is verified as an anti-metastatic gene and negatively correlated with the poor prognosis of CRC patients. Lnc-CRCMSL overexpression restricts tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Instead, lnc-CRCMSL silencing accelerates CRC cell proliferation and migration. RNA-pulldown assay identifies high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) as a downstream protein of lnc-CRCMSL. Mechanically, lnc-CRCMSL physically binds to HMGB2 and stabilizes the localization of HMGB2 in the cytoplasm. Notably, lnc-CRCMSL knockdown lead to the shift of HMGB2 into nuclear, in which it triggers epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) programming. Importantly, lnc-CRCMSL controls the cytoplasmic retention of HMGB2 and attenuates the interaction between HMGB2 and OCT4 to suppress EMT. Treatment of leptomycin B (LMB), a potent and specific nuclear export inhibitor, counteracts lnc-CRCMSL-mediated suppression of aggressive phenotypes and EMT process by accumulating the nuclear HMGB2. CONCLUSION: Our data highlight the anti-metastatic role of lnc-CRCMSL in stabilizing HMGB2 through lncRNA-protein interactions in the cytoplasm, and suggest that targeting lnc-CRCMSL may represent a therapeutic opportunity for managing metastatic CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteína HMGB2/genética , Transporte Proteico/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Citoplasma/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus
8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment. Eighty-five rs-fMRI scans were collected from 25 MDD patients and 35 healthy controls, and the scans were repeated for all the patients before and after a 6-week SSRI treatment. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated by correlating the rs-fMRI time courses between each voxel and the striatal seeds (i.e. spherical regions placed at the striatums). The level of TNF-α in serum was evaluated by Milliplex assay. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the interaction effects of 'TNF-α × treatment' in the regions with between-group FC difference. RESULTS: Compared with controls, MDD patients showed significantly higher striatal FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral middle/superior temporal cortices before SSRI treatment (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Moreover, a significant interaction effect of 'TNF-α × treatment' was found in MPFC-striatum FC in MDD patients (p = 0.002), and the significance remained after adjusted for age, gender, head motion, and episode of disease. CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that treatment-related brain connectivity change is dependent on the TNF-α level in MDD patients, and the MPFC-striatum connectivities possibly serve as an important target in the brain.

9.
J Nat Med ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377904

RESUMO

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of betulinic acid on human hepatic stellate cells in vitro and C57BL/6 mice in vivo, as well as the signaling pathways involved. In this study, we explored the effects of betulinic acid on expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and autophagy-related proteins. Betulinic acid reduced pathological damage associated with liver fibrosis, as well as serum platelet-derived growth factor and serum hydroxyproline levels. Furthermore, betulinic acid downregulated the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and type I collagen in mouse liver and upregulated the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B and autophagy-related gene 7 at the gene and protein levels. LC3II expression was increased and alpha smooth muscle actin expression was decreased in betulinic acid-treated hepatic stellate cells. Interventions with bafilomycin A1 and mCherry-GFP-LC3 adenoviruses promoted the formation of autophagosomes in hepatic stellate cells and the development of autophagic flow. Our study found that mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase may be involved in the effects of betulinic acid on liver fibrosis. The present study suggests that betulinic acid has anti-hepatic fibrosis activity by inducing autophagy and could serve as a promising new agent for treating hepatic fibrosis.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1044, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319403

RESUMO

Macropinocytosis is a highly conserved endocytic process which characterizes the engulfment of extracellular fluid and its contents into cells via large, heterogeneous vacuoles known as macropinosomes. Tubeimoside-1 (TBM1) is a low toxic triterpenoid saponin extracted from a traditional Chinese herb Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.). TBM1 stimulates a quick accumulation of numerous phase-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles in multiple colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. These vacuoles can be termed as macropinosomes that efficiently engulf lucifer yellow. These vesicles are not overlaps with endocytic organelle tracers, such as ERTracker, LysoTracker and mitoTracker. These vacuoles induced by TBM1 partially incorporate into lysosomes. Transmission electron microscope indicates membrane ruffling to form lamellipodia. Protrusions collapse onto and then fuse back with the plasma membrane to generate these large endocytic vacuoles. Notably, TBM1 efficiently trafficks dextrans into heterotopic xenografts in vivo, thus provide consolidated evidence that the vacuolization can be mainly defined as macropinocytosis. TBM1 downregulates cell viability and increases PI-positive, but not highlighted Hoechst 33342-positive cells. TBM1 induced cell death can be ascribed as methuosis by hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis which can be compromised by amiloride derivative 5-(Nethyl-N-isopropyl). Light chain 3 II is recruited to these vesicles to stimulate macropinocytosis. The cell death and vacuoles can be significantly neutralized by chloroquine, but can not be the inhibited by 3-methyladenine. TBM1 can coordinate with 5-FU to exert toxicity reducing and efficacy enhancing effects in vivo by increasing the uptake of the latter without hepatic injury. In conclusion, TBM1 effectively induces in vitro and in vivo macropinocytosis which can traffick small molecules into CRC cells. It is an attractive drug transporter and can be harnessed as a chemotherapeutic synergist with translational potential.

11.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 138(1): 46-53, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245287

RESUMO

Hepatic steatosis is the early stage of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), may progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis even cirrhosis. Polydatin, the primary active component of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc, has been recognized to possess hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. To investigate whether polydatin alleviates ethanol induced liver injury and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, zebrafish larvae at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf) were exposed to 350 mmol/L of ethanol for 32 h, then treated with polydatin for 48 h. Oil red O, Nile Red and H&E staining were used to analyze the pathological changes in liver. The mRNA levels were measured by quantitative PCR and the antioxidant capacity was detected using H2O2-specific fluorescent probe. Here, polydatin strongly alleviated hepatic steatosis and decreased the expression levels of alcohol and lipid metabolism-related genes, including CYP2Y3, CYP3A65, HMGCRa, HMGCRb and FASN. Additionally, polydatin inhibited oxidative stress in the liver according to fluorescent probe. Moreover, significantly up-regulated expression of DNA damage-related genes (CHOP, GADD45αa) revealed that polydatin attenuated hepatic apoptosis in larvae. In conclusion, polydatin may improve the liver function of zebrafish with acute alcoholic liver injury through attenuating hepatic fat accumulation, ameliorating lipid and ethanol metabolism and reducing oxidative stress and DNA damage.

12.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necroptotic susceptibility is probably an intrinsic weakness of cancer. Here, we report that resibufogenin, a member of bufadienolide family, suppresses the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) through induction of necroptosis in vivo. METHODS: SW480 cells with stably expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein were xenografted to BALB/c-nu mice to observe the growth of tumors. Liver metastasis was observed by injection of MC38 cells beneath the splenic capsule of mice. Protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blot. RESULTS: Consolidated in vitro results indicate that resibufogenin has anti-proliferative activity on CRC cells. PI staining and transmission electron microscope imaging suggest that the cell death induced by resibufogenin are mainly through necrosis, which is further confirmed by the ineffectiveness of z-VAD, a pan-caspase general inhibitor. In particular, resibufogenin induced necrosis is substantially abrogated in receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts. The RIP3-dependent necrosis has been classified as necroptosis. Resibufogenin triggeres necroptosis through upregulating RIP3 and phosphorylating mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein at Ser358. Resibufogenin also activates the expression of PYGL, GLUD1 and GLUL in a RIP3-dependent manner. Resibufogenin exerts cytotoxic effect by inducing reactive oxygen species accumulation which can be neutralized by N-acetylcysteine. Remarkably, resibufogenin significantly suppresses liver-metastasis from spleen implantation. The anti-neoplastic effect of this compound can be abrogated by RIP3 knockdown. CONCLUSION: Resibufogenin suppresses growth and metastasis of CRC through RIP3-mediated necroptosis.

13.
Life Sci ; 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031061

RESUMO

AIMS: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading health risk worldwide, which can induce hepatic steatosis, progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis and even carcinoma. As a potential therapeutic drug for ALD, naringin, an abundant flavanone in grapefruit, could improve resistance to oxidative stress and inflammation and protects against multiple organ injury. However, the specific mechanisms responsible for protection against alcoholic injury remain not fully understood. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect and the regulatory mechanisms of naringin in the liver and whole body after alcohol exposure under zebrafish larvae system. MAIN METHODS: At 96 h post fertilization (hpf), larvae from wild-type (WT) and transgenic zebrafish, with liver-specific eGFP expression (Tg(lfabp10α:eGFP)), were exposed to 2% ethanol for 32 h to establish an ALD model. Different endpoints, such as morphological changes in liver shape and size, histological changes, oxidative stress-related free radical levels, apoptosis and the expression of certain genes, were chosen to verify the essential impact of naringin in alcohol-induced liver lesions. KEY FINDINGS: Subsequent experiments, including Oil red O, Nile red, pathological hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and TUNEL staining and qPCR, revealed that naringin treatment reduced alcoholic hepatic steatosis, and this inhibitory effect was dose dependent. Specifically, a 25 mg/L dose resulted in an almost normal response. SIGNIFICANCE: This finding suggested that naringin may inhibit alcoholic-induced liver steatosis and injury by attenuating lipid accumulation and reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.

14.
Brain Res Bull ; 142: 107-115, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, but the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease have not yet been discovered. METHODS/MATERIALS: We have established a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model to explore the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We initially studied the relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and BOLD activity using BDNFtm1Krj/J mice. RESULTS: We found that CUMS induced depressive-like behaviours and stimulated changes in brain regions expressing a different BDNF level, which was decreased in the hippocampus and PFC but increased in the BLA. In contrast, the BOLD activity was elevated in the hippocampus and PFC but reduced in the BLA after CUMS exposure, indicating that the BDNF level negatively correlated with the BOLD activity in the WT CUMS-exposed mice. Moreover, the depressive-like behaviours and region-specific BOLD activity in BDNFtm1Krj/J mice were consistent with those in WT CUMS-exposed mice. CONCLUSION: We surmised that critical neural circuitry connects the hippocampus, PFC and BLA in mice, which was regulated by BDNF to protect against depression. These findings suggested a potential central role of BDNF expression in functional changes in the brain.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 578, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed sanguinarine induced apoptosis in CRC cells but did not define the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this work was to determine the in vivo and in vitro effects of sanguinarine on CRC tumors and to elucidate the mechanism in regulating the intrinsic apoptosis. METHODS: Cell viability of CRC cell lines treated with sanguinarine was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells stained with Annexin V and 7-AAD were detected by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by JC-1 and DCFH-DA staining, respectively. The in vitro kinase activity of MELK was analyzed by using HTRF® KinEASE™-STK kit. The expression of proteins were determined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorecence were used to study the interaction between STRAP and MELK. The anti-neoplastic effect of sanguinarine was observed in vivo in an orthotopic CRC model. RESULTS: Sanguinarine decreased the tumor size in a dose-dependent manner in orthotopical colorectal carcinomas through intrinsic apoptosis pathway in BALB/c-nu mice. It significantly increased cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP in implanted colorectal tissues. Sanguinarine increased mitochondrial ROS and triggered mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in multiple colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. NAC pretreatment lowered ROS level and downregulated apoptosis induced by sanguinarine. The intrinsic apoptosis induced by sanguinarine was Bax-dependent. The elevated expression and association between serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) were observed in Bax positive cells but not in Bax negative cells. Sanguinarine dephosphorylated STRAP and MELK and disrupted the association between them in HCT116 and SW480 cells. The expression and association between STRAP and MELK were also attenuated by sanguinarine in the tumor tissues. Importantly, we found that STRAP and MELK were overexpressed and highly phosphorylated in colorectal adenocarcinomas and their expression were significantly correlated with tumor stages. Furthermore, the expression of MELK, but not STRAP, was associated with lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Sanguinarine dephosphorelates STRAP and MELK and disassociates the interaction between them to trigger intrinsic apoptosis. Overexpression of STRAP and MELK may be markers of CRC and their disassociation may be a determinant of therapeutic efficacy.

16.
Oncol Lett ; 15(6): 8223-8230, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805556

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that asiatic acid (AA), the major component of Centella asiatica, is able to meditate cytotoxic and anticancer effects on various types of carcinoma cells. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism that underlies the antitumor effect of AA, the present study investigated the effects of AA on proliferation, migration and apoptosis of SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Viability and changes in cell morphology in the cells were assessed by MTT assay and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Colony formation analysis was used to observe proliferation of the single cell, and migratory ability of the cells was assessed by performing Transwell migration assay. Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining and flow cytometry were used to assess apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells. The expression of proteins associated with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6K signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker were analyzed by western blotting. The present study revealed that proliferation and migration of colon carcinoma cells were inhibited by AA in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Numerous apoptotic bodies were observed, and G2/M and S phase progression were delayed in colon cancer cells treated with AA, but not in the control group. A number of phosphorylated proteins, including PI3K, Akt (Ser473), mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) downregulated, while the expression of Pdcd4 was upregulated following treatment with AA. Additionally, AA affects expression of EMT markers in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that AA inhibited proliferation, migration and induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells by regulating Pdcd4 via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. These observations suggest that AA may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of colon carcinoma.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 5238760, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687002

RESUMO

TMZ resistance remains one of the main reasons why treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) fails. In order to investigate the underlying proteins and pathways associated with TMZ resistance, we conducted a cytoplasmic proteome research of U87 cells treated with TMZ for 1 week, followed by differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) screening, KEGG pathway analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction, and validation of key candidate proteins in TCGA dataset. A total of 161 DEPs including 65 upregulated proteins and 96 downregulated proteins were identified. Upregulated DEPs were mainly related to regulation in actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and phagosome and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways which were consistent with our previous studies. Further, the most significant module consisted of 28 downregulated proteins that were filtered from the PPI network, and 9 proteins (DHX9, HNRNPR, RPL3, HNRNPA3, SF1, DDX5, EIF5B, BTF3, and RPL8) among them were identified as the key candidate proteins, which were significantly associated with prognosis of GBM patients and mainly involved in ribosome and spliceosome pathway. Taking the above into consideration, we firstly identified candidate proteins and pathways associated with TMZ resistance in GBM using proteomics and bioinformatic analysis, and these proteins could be potential biomarkers for prevention or prediction of TMZ resistance in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Temozolomida , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 499(4): 797-802, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621548

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation and overactivated microglia underlies the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, microglia could polarize into classic inflammatory M1 and immunosuppressive M2 phenotype. Thus, inhibiting the overactivated inflammatory M1 microglia by promoting the transformation of microglia to the protective M2 phenotype provides potential therapy for PD, but the mechanism that modulates microglia polarization remains unknown. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is a recently identified immune receptor expressed by the microglia in the brain. Emerging evidence indicates that TREM2 enhances the phagocytosis function of microglia and suppress inflammation. Based on these evidence, we hypothesized that TREM2 might play a protective role through regulating microglia polarization. Here, we employ a lentiviral strategy to overexpress or suppress TREM2 on microglia and found that TREM2 was essential for M2 microglia polarization. Knockdown of TREM2 in BV2 microglia inhibited M2 polarization and lead to exaggeration of M1 microglial inflammatory responses, whereas overexpression of TREM2 promoted M2 polarization and alleviated microglial inflammation. We also observed that the TREM2 level was higher in the midbrain of PD mice, which was accompanied by an elevated level of Arginase-1 and increased proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that TREM2 is an important factor in switching the microglia phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that TREM2 plays a crucial role in altering the proinflammatory M1 microglia to M2 phenotype and has beneficial effects in the immune pathogenesis of PD.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Polaridade Celular , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Lentivirus/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução Genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
19.
J Cell Commun Signal ; 12(4): 689-698, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368299

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is generally believed to progress through an adenoma - carcinoma sequence. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations serve as the initiating event in adenoma formation. The ApcMin/+ mouse harbors a mutation in the APC gene, which is similar or identical to the mutation found in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis and 70% of all sporadic CRC cases. Autophagy is a constitutive process required for proper cellular homeostasis. However, its role in intestinal adenoma formation is still controversial. Atractylenolide I (AT1) is a sesquiterpenoid that possesses various clinically relevant properties such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. The role of AT1 on adenoma formation was tested in ApcMin/+ mice and its underlying mechanism in regulating autophagy was documented. D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT) was identified as a potential target of AT1 by an proteomics-based approach. The effects of p53 modification on autophgic flux was monitored in p53-/- and p53+/+ HCT116 cells. Small interfering RNA was used to investigate the function of Atg7 and D-DT on autophagy programme induce by AT1. AT1 effectively reduced the formation of adenoma and downregulated the tumorigenic proteins in ApcMin/+ mice. Importantly, AT1 stimulated autophagic flux through downregulating acetylation of p53. Activation of Sirt1 by AT1 was essential for the deacetylation of p53 and downregulation of D-DT. The lowered expression of COX-2 and ß-catenin by AT1 were partly recovered by Atg7 knockdown. AT1 activates autophagy machinery to downregulate D-DT and reduce intestinal adenoma formation. This discovery provides evidence in vivo and in vitro that inducing autophagy by natural products maybe a potential therapy to ameliorate colorectal adenoma formation.

20.
Oncotarget ; 8(49): 84782-84797, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156683

RESUMO

Background & Aims: San huang yin chi decoction(SHYCD) is derived from the yin chen hao decoction, a well-known and canonical Chinese medicine formula from the "Treatise on Febrile Diseases". Over the past decade, SHYCD has been used to treat and prevent the liver cirrhosis and liver failure. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SHYCD for acute on chronic liver failure(ACLF) and explored its potential mechanism. an ACLF rat model, which induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) combined with D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS), was used and confirmed by B-ultrasound analysis. Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, SHYCD-H group, SHYCD-M group, SHYCD-L group, AGNHW group. Compared with the ACLF model group, High, medium, and low doses of SHYCD reduced ALT, AST, TBIL, NH3, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα expression levels in the serum, Shorten PT and INR time,and increased Fbg content in the whole blood, increased survival rate of the rats, improved liver pathological changes. APE1 / Ref-1 was mainly expressed in the nucleus, but the nucleus and cytoplasm were co-expressed after hepatocyte injury. SHYCD significantly downregulated APE1/Ref-1 expression in the cytoplasm. Increased APE1/Ref-1, Bcl-2, reduced p53, caspase-3, Bax, and Cyt-c in the total protein. Base on the results, we conclused that High, medium, and low doses of SHYCD could be applied in prevention and treatment of ACLF, and dose-dependent. The possible mechanism is to promote the APE1 / Ref-1 from the cytoplasm to the nuclear transfer, regulation of p53 apoptosis signal pathway prevention and treatment of ACLF.

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