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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532862

RESUMO

AIMS: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1ß (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.

2.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence are well documented, though the influence of genetic ancestry is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of geographic genetic ancestry with hypertension and underlying blood pressure traits. METHODS: We tested genetically inferred ancestry proportions from five 1000 Genomes reference populations (GBR, PEL, YRI, CHB, and LWK) for association with four continuous blood pressure (BP) traits (SBP, DBP, PP, MAP) and the dichotomous outcomes hypertension and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension in 220 495 European American, 59 927 African American, and 21 273 Hispanic American individuals from the Million Veteran Program. Ethnicity stratified results were meta-analyzed to report effect estimates per 10% difference for a given ancestry proportion in all samples. RESULTS: Percentage GBR was negatively associated with BP (P = 2.13 × 10-19, 7.92 × 10-8, 4.41 × 10-11, and 3.57 × 10-13 for SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP, respectively; coefficient range -0.10 to -0.21 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion) and was protective against hypertension [P = 2.59 × 10-5, odds ratio (OR) = 0.98] relative to other ancestries. YRI percentage was positively associated with BP (P = 1.63 × 10-23, 1.94 × 10-26, 0.012, and 3.26 × 10-29 for SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP, respectively; coefficient range 0.06-0.32 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion) and was positively associated with hypertension risk (P = 3.10 × 10-11, OR = 1.04) and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension risk (P = 1.86 × 10-4, OR = 1.04) compared with other ancestries. Percentage PEL was inversely associated with DBP (P = 2.84 × 10-5, beta = -0.11 mmHg per 10% increase in ancestry proportion). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that risk for BP traits varies significantly by genetic ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the geographic origin of genetic factors underlying hypertension risk and establish that a portion of BP trait ethnic disparities are because of genetic differences between ancestries.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of DNA methylation (DNAm) epigenetic age acceleration in cognitive decline. Using a twin study design, we examined whether DNAm age acceleration is related to cognitive decline measured longitudinally in persons without a clinical diagnosis of dementia. METHODS: We studied 266 paired male twins (133 pairs) with a mean age of 56 years at baseline. Of these, 114 paired twins returned for a follow-up after an average of 11.5 years. We obtained six indices of DNAm age acceleration based on epigenome-wide data from peripheral blood lymphocytes. At both baseline and follow-up, we administered a battery of cognitive measures and constructed two composite scores, one for executive function and one for memory function. We fitted multivariable mixed regression models to examine the association of DNAm age acceleration markers with cognitive function within pairs. RESULTS: In cross sectional analyses at baseline, there was no association between DNAm age acceleration and cognitive function scores. In longitudinal analyses, however, comparing twins within pairs, each additional year of age acceleration using the Horvath's method was associated with a 3% decline (95% CI, 1% to 5%) in the composite executive function score and a 2.5% decline (95% CI, 0.01% to 4.9%) in the memory function score. These results did not attenuate after adjusting for education and other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Middle-aged men who had older DNAm age relative to their brothers of the same demographic age, showed a faster rate of cognitive decline in the subsequent 11.5 years. These results point to the role of epigenetic modifications in cognitive aging.

4.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(1): e003147, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genomic structure that contributes to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) can be evaluated as a risk score of multiple variants. However, sex differences have not been fully examined in applications of genetic risk score (GRS) of CAD. METHODS: Using data from the UK Biobank, we constructed a CAD-GRS based on all known loci, 3 mediating trait-based (blood pressure, lipids, and body mass index) subscores, and a genome-wide polygenic risk score based on 1.1 million variants. The differences in genetic associations with prevalent and incident CAD between men and women were investigated among 317 509 unrelated individuals of the European ancestry. We also assessed interactions with sex for 161 individual loci included in the comprehensive GRS. RESULTS: For both prevalent and incident CAD, the associations of comprehensive and genome-wide GRSs were stronger among men than women. Using a score of 161 loci, we observed a 2.4× higher risk for incident CAD comparing men with high genetic risk to men with low genetic risk but an 80% greater risk comparing women with high genetic risk to women with low genetic risk (interaction P=0.002). Of the 3 subscores, the blood pressure-associated subscore exhibited sex differences (interaction P=0.0004 per SD increase in subscore). Analysis of individual variants identified a novel gene-sex interaction at locus 21q22.11. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual differences in genetic predisposition should be considered in future studies of CAD, and GRSs should not be assumed to perform equally well in men and women.

5.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 82: 98-103, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical dystonia is the most common of the adult-onset focal dystonias. Most cases are idiopathic. The current view is that cervical dystonia may be caused by some combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic contributions have been studied extensively, but there are few studies of other factors. We conducted an exploratory metabolomics analysis of cervical dystonia to identify potentially abnormal metabolites or altered biological pathways. METHODS: Plasma samples from 100 cases with idiopathic cervical dystonia and 100 controls were compared using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. RESULTS: A total of 7346 metabolic features remained after quality control, and up to 289 demonstrated significant differences between cases and controls, depending on statistical criteria chosen. Pathway analysis revealed 9 biological processes to be significantly associated at p < 0.05, 5 pathways were related to carbohydrate metabolism, 3 pathways were related to lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: This is the first large scale metabolomics study for any type of dystonia. The results may provide potential novel insights into the biology of cervical dystonia.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 protects against coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). The impact on other diseases remains less well characterized. METHODS: We created a genetic risk score (GRS) for PCSK9 using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near the PCSK9 locus known to impact lower LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C): rs11583680, rs11591147, rs2479409, and rs11206510. We then used our GRS to calculate weighted odds ratios reflecting the impact of a genetically determined 10 mg/dL decrease in LDL-C on several pre-specified phenotypes including CAD, IS, peripheral artery disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), type 2 diabetes, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Finally, we used our weighted GRS to perform a phenome-wide association study. RESULTS: Genetic and electronic health record data that passed quality control was available in 312,097 individuals, (227,490 White participants, 58,907 Black participants, and 25,700 Hispanic participants). PCSK9 mediated reduction in LDL-C was associated with a reduced risk of CAD and AAA in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (CAD OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.80-0.87], p = 6.0 x 10-21; AAA OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.68-0.86], p = 2.9 x 10-06). Significant protective effects were noted for PAD in White individuals (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.97], p = 2.3 x 10-04) but not in other genetic ancestries. Genetically reduced PCSK9 function associated with a reduced risk of dementia in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.78-0.93], p = 5.0 x 10-04). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically reduced PCSK9 function results in a reduction in risk of several important extra-coronary atherosclerotic phenotypes in addition to known effects on CAD and IS, including PAD and AAA. We also highlight a novel reduction in risk of dementia, supporting a well-recognized vascular component to cognitive impairment and an opportunity for therapeutic repositioning.

8.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1633-1646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality; however, its genetic determinants remain incompletely defined. In total, 10 previously identified risk loci explain a small fraction of AAA heritability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ≈18 million DNA sequence variants with AAA (7642 cases and 172 172 controls) in veterans of European ancestry with independent replication in up to 4972 cases and 99 858 controls. We then used mendelian randomization to examine the causal effects of blood pressure on AAA. We examined the association of AAA risk variants with aneurysms in the lower extremity, cerebral, and iliac arterial beds, and derived a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) to identify a subset of the population at greater risk for disease. RESULTS: Through a genome-wide association study, we identified 14 novel loci, bringing the total number of known significant AAA loci to 24. In our mendelian randomization analysis, we demonstrate that a genetic increase of 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.66]; P=1.6×10-6), as opposed to systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]; P=0.2), likely has a causal relationship with AAA development. We observed that 19 of 24 AAA risk variants associate with aneurysms in at least 1 other vascular territory. A 29-variant PRS was strongly associated with AAA (odds ratioPRS, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]; PPRS=2.7×10-11 per SD increase in PRS), independent of family history and smoking risk factors (odds ratioPRS+family history+smoking, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.14-1.35]; PPRS=1.27×10-6). Using this PRS, we identified a subset of the population with AAA prevalence greater than that observed in screening trials informing current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We identify novel AAA genetic associations with therapeutic implications and identify a subset of the population at significantly increased genetic risk of AAA independent of family history. Our data suggest that extending current screening guidelines to include testing to identify those with high polygenic AAA risk, once the cost of genotyping becomes comparable with that of screening ultrasound, would significantly increase the yield of current screening at reasonable cost.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(19): 3327-3337, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833022

RESUMO

Clinical observations have linked tobacco smoking with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Mendelian randomization analysis has recently suggested smoking may be a causal risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, this association could be mediated by additional risk factors correlated with smoking behavior, which have not been investigated. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) could help to explain the association between smoking and diabetes risk. First, we confirmed that genetic determinants of smoking initiation increased risk for type 2 diabetes (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.27, P = 1 × 10-12) and coronary artery disease (CAD; OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.16-1.26, P = 2 × 10-20). Additionally, 2-fold increased smoking risk was positively associated with increased BMI (~0.8 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98 kg/m2, P = 1.8 × 10-11). Multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses showed that BMI accounted for nearly all the risk smoking exerted on type 2 diabetes (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11, P = 0.03). In contrast, the independent effect of smoking on increased CAD risk persisted (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.17, P = 3 × 10-8). Causal mediation analyses agreed with these estimates. Furthermore, analysis using individual-level data from the Million Veteran Program independently replicated the association of smoking behavior with CAD (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12-1.37, P = 2 × 10-5), but not type 2 diabetes (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.08, P = 0.69), after controlling for BMI. Our findings support a model whereby genetic determinants of smoking increase type 2 diabetes risk indirectly through their relationship with obesity. Smokers should be advised to stop smoking to limit type 2 diabetes and CAD risk. Therapeutic efforts should consider pathophysiology relating smoking and obesity.

10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313847, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the third most common form of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is characterized by significant functional disability and increased cardiovascular mortality. Recent genetic data support a role for a procoagulation protein variant, the factor V Leiden mutation, in PAD. The role of other hemostatic factors in PAD remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of hemostatic factors in PAD using Mendelian randomization. Approach and Results: Two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the roles of FVII (factor VII), FVIII (factor VIII), FXI (factor XI), VWF (von Willebrand factor), and fibrinogen in PAD was performed using summary statistics from GWAS for hemostatic factors performed within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in the Genome Epidemiology Consortium and from GWAS performed for PAD within the Million Veteran Program. Genetically determined FVIII and VWF, but not FVII, FXI, or fibrinogen, were associated with PAD in Mendelian randomization experiments (FVIII: odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.62], P=6.0×10-7, VWF: odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.52], P=0.0073). In single variant sensitivity analysis, the ABO locus was the strongest genetic instrument for both FVIII and VWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for hemostasis, and by extension, thrombosis in PAD. Further study is warranted to determine whether VWF and FVIII independently affect the biology of PAD.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with CAD have substantial residual risk of mortality, and whether hitherto unknown small-molecule metabolites and metabolic pathways contribute to this risk is unclear. We sought to determine the predictive value of plasma metabolomic profiling in patients with CAD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Untargeted high-resolution plasma metabolomic profiling of subjects undergoing coronary angiography was performed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolic features and pathways associated with mortality were identified in 454 subjects using metabolome-wide association studies and Mummichog, respectively, and validated in 322 subjects. A metabolomic risk score comprising of log-transformed HR estimates of metabolites that associated with mortality and passed LASSO regression was created and its performance validated. In 776 subjects (66.8 years, 64% male, 17% Black), 433 and 357 features associated with mortality (FDR-adjusted q<0.20); and clustered into 21 and 9 metabolic pathways in first and second cohorts, respectively. Six pathways (urea cycle/amino group, tryptophan, aspartate/asparagine, lysine, tyrosine, and carnitine shuttle) were common. A metabolomic risk score comprising of 7 metabolites independently predicted mortality in the second cohort (HR per 1-unit increase 2.14, 95%CI 1.62, 2.83). Adding the score to a model of clinical predictors improved risk discrimination (delta C-statistic 0.039, 95%CI -0.006, 0.086; and Integrated Discrimination Index 0.084, 95%CI 0.030, 0.151) and reclassification (continuous Net Reclassification Index 23.3%, 95%CI 7.9%, 38.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Differential regulation of six metabolic pathways involved in myocardial energetics and systemic inflammation is independently associated with mortality in patients with CAD. A novel risk score consisting of representative metabolites is highly predictive of mortality.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco
12.
Hypertension ; 76(1): 195-205, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520614

RESUMO

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with P<1×10-5. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (P<1×10-7) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with P<0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 (TXNIP) and cg00716257 (JDP2) determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.

13.
Circulation ; 142(5): 455-465, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological stress is a risk factor for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in individuals with coronary artery disease. Certain brain regions that control both emotional states and cardiac physiology may be involved in this relationship. The rostromedial prefrontal cortex (rmPFC) is an important brain region that processes stress and regulates immune and autonomic functions. Changes in rmPFC activity with emotional stress (reactivity) may be informative of future risk for MACE. METHODS: Participants with stable coronary artery disease underwent acute mental stress testing using a series of standardized speech/arithmetic stressors and simultaneous brain imaging with high-resolution positron emission tomography brain imaging. We defined high rmPFC activation as a difference between stress and control scans greater than the median value for the entire cohort. Interleukin-6 levels 90 minutes after stress, and high-frequency heart rate variability during stress were also assessed. We defined MACE as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina with revascularization, and heart failure hospitalization. RESULTS: We studied 148 subjects (69% male) with mean±SD age of 62±8 years. After adjustment for baseline demographics, risk factors, and baseline levels of interleukin-6 and high-frequency heart rate variability, higher rmPFC stress reactivity was independently associated with higher interleukin-6 and lower high-frequency heart rate variability with stress. During a median follow-up of 3 years, 34 subjects (21.3%) experienced a MACE. Each increase of 1 SD in rmPFC activation with mental stress was associated with a 21% increase risk of MACE (hazard ratio, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.08-1.37]). Stress-induced interleukin-6 and high-frequency heart rate variability explained 15.5% and 32.5% of the relationship between rmPFC reactivity and MACE, respectively. Addition of rmPFC reactivity to conventional risk factors improved risk reclassification for MACE prediction, and C-statistic improved from 0.71 to 0.76 (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Greater rmPFC stress reactivity is associated with incident MACE. Immune and autonomic responses to mental stress may play a contributory role.

14.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 680-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541925

RESUMO

We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility via multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), DIAMANTE, Biobank Japan and other studies. We report 568 associations, including 286 autosomal, 7 X-chromosomal and 25 identified in ancestry-specific analyses that were previously unreported. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D associations with genetically predicted gene expression in 687 novel genes; of these, 54 are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was strongly associated with increased risk of T2D-related retinopathy and modestly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and neuropathy. We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including coronary heart disease (CHD), CKD, PAD and neuropathy. These findings may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D to vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos , Cromossomos Humanos X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(4): ofaa106, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328508

RESUMO

Background: Understanding the link between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes is increasingly important as public health responds to the growing global burden of noncommunicable diseases. Genetic association studies have identified numerous host genetic variants linked to TB; however, potential host genetic mechanisms linking TB and diabetes remain unexplored. Methods: We used genetic and phenotypic data from the UK Biobank to evaluate the association of 6 previously reported TB-related host genetic variants (genome-wide significant associations from published studies) with diabetes. The study included 409 692 adults of European ancestry including 2177 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 13 976 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), defined by ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Results: Of the 6 TB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 2 were associated with T1DM and 3 with T2DM, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and population structure. After correction for multiple testing, SNPs rs2894257 and rs3135359 (HLA-DRA-DQA1) were associated with T1DM (rs2894257: odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.45; rs3135359: OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.57-1.88) and T2DM (rs2894257: OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15; rs3135359: OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.025-1.096). The associations with T2DM weakened for rs2894257 and rs3135359 after further exclusion of probable T1DM cases defined by International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) codes. SNP rs4733781 on chromosome 8 (ASAP1 gene) was associated with T2DM after exclusion of T1DM cases. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that common host genetic effects may play a role in the molecular mechanism linking TB and diabetes. Future large genetic studies of TB and diabetes should focus on developing countries with high burdens of infectious and chronic diseases.

16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(2): 147-155, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799987

RESUMO

Importance: Stem and progenitor cells mobilize from the bone marrow in response to myocardial ischemia. However, the association between the change in circulating progenitor cell (CPC) counts and disease prognosis among patients with ischemia is unknown. Objective: To investigate the association between the change in CPC counts during stress testing and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included a population-based sample of 454 patients with stable CAD who were recruited between June 1, 2011, and August 15, 2014, at Emory University-affiliated hospitals and followed up for 3 years. Data were analyzed from September 15, 2018, to October 15, 2018. Exposures: Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium Tc 99m sestamibi at rest and 30 to 60 minutes after conventional stress testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Circulating progenitor cells were enumerated with flow cytometry as CD34-expressing mononuclear cells (CD45med/CD34+), with additional quantification of subsets coexpressing the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CD34+/CXCR4+). Changes in CPC counts were calculated as poststress minus resting CPC counts. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify factors associated with the combined end point of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction after adjusting for clinical covariates, including age, sex, race, smoking history, body mass index, and history of heart failure, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Results: Of the 454 patients (mean [SD] age, 63 [9] years; 76% men) with stable CAD enrolled in the study, 142 (31.3%) had stress-induced ischemia and 312 (68.7%) did not, as measured by single-photon emission computed tomography. During stress testing, patients with stress-induced ischemia had a mean decrease of 20.2% (interquartile range [IQR], -45.3 to 5.5; P < .001) in their CD34+/CXCR4+ counts, and patients without stress-induced ischemia had a mean increase of 3.2% (IQR, -20.6 to 35.1; P < .001) in their CD34+/CXCR4+ counts. Twenty-four patients (5.2%) experienced adverse events. After adjustment, baseline CPC counts were associated with worse adverse outcomes, but this association was not present after stress-induced ischemia was included in the model. However, the change in CPC counts during exercise remained significantly associated with adverse events (hazard ratio, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.32, per 50% CD34+/CXCR4+ count decrease), even after adjustment for clinical variables and the presence of ischemia. The discrimination of risk factors associated with incident adverse events improved (increase in C statistic from 0.72 to 0.77; P = .003) with the addition of the change in CD34+/CXCR4+ counts to a model that included clinical characteristics, baseline CPC count, and ischemia. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of patients with CAD, a decrease in CPC counts during exercise is associated with a worse disease prognosis compared with the presence of stress-induced myocardial ischemia. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether strategies to improve CPC responses during exercise stress will be associated with improvements in the prognosis of patients with CAD.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(4): 667-673, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have higher risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Previous studies have implicated epigenetic changes related to CKD; however, the mechanism of HIV-related CKD has not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study of eGFR among 567 HIV-positive and 117 HIV-negative male participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study to identify epigenetic signatures of kidney function. RESULTS: By surveying more than 400 000 cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we identified 15 sites that were significantly associated with eGFR (false discovery rate Q value < 0.05) among HIV-positive participants. The most significant CpG sites, located at MAD1L1, TSNARE1/BAI1, and LTV1, were all negatively associated with eGFR (cg06329547, P = 5.25 × 10-9; cg23281907, P = 1.37 × 10-8; cg18368637, P = 5.17 × 10-8). We also replicated previously reported eGFR-associated CpG sites including cg17944885 (P = 2.5 × 10-5) located between ZNF788 and ZNF20 on chromosome 19 in the pooled population. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we uncovered novel epigenetic associations with kidney function among people living with HIV and suggest potential epigenetic mechanisms linked with HIV-related CKD risk.

18.
Birth ; 47(3): 290-298, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the effects of high blood pressure (BP) in pregnancy, preeclampsia, or eclampsia on later BP, and the epigenetics of this phenomenon is similarly poorly understood, especially among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between high BP in pregnancy, epigenomics, and later BP in African American women in the InterGEN Study (n = 250). METHODS: In cross-sectional analyses, regression and linear mixed-effects models were employed to examine the effects of high BP in pregnancy on: (a) epigenetic associations (DNA methylation) and (b) BP 3-5 years after birth. The 850K Illumina EPIC BeadChip was used for evaluating epigenome-wide DNA methylation. High BP in pregnancy, preeclampsia, or eclampsia was self-reported by women, and BP was measured 3-5 years after birth, per JNC-7 guidelines. DNA methylation and clinical BP were the main outcomes. RESULTS: Mean age of enrolled women was 31.2 years, 21.8% were smokers, 58% had some college or higher education, 46.6% reported an annual income <$15 000, and 13.6% reported high BP in pregnancy. After adjustment for obesity, smoking, and age, women with a history of high BP in pregnancy had significantly higher BP than those who did not report this complication (5.39 ± 2.4 mm Hg, P = .030). Epigenome-wide analysis revealed no significant sites after multiple testing correction. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a small, but clinically significant, increase in BP in women who reported high BP in pregnancy 3-5 years after that pregnancy. Future studies with larger sample sizes should examine epigenetic contributions to this finding.

19.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1574-1579, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676865

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a significant cause of mortality1, yet its genetic determinants are incompletely defined. We performed a discovery genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program and UK Biobank, with testing of approximately 13 million DNA sequence variants for association with venous thromboembolism (26,066 cases and 624,053 controls) and meta-analyzed both studies, followed by independent replication with up to 17,672 venous thromboembolism cases and 167,295 controls. We identified 22 previously unknown loci, bringing the total number of venous thromboembolism-associated loci to 33, and subsequently fine-mapped these associations. We developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score for venous thromboembolism that identifies 5% of the population at an equivalent incident venous thromboembolism risk to carriers of the established factor V Leiden p.R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the genetic epidemiology of venous thromboembolism and suggest a greater overlap among venous and arterial cardiovascular disease than previously thought.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 763-772, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564439

RESUMO

Large-scale multi-ethnic cohorts offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the genetic factors influencing complex traits related to health and disease among minority populations. At the same time, the genetic diversity in these cohorts presents new challenges for analysis and interpretation. We consider the utility of race and/or ethnicity categories in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of multi-ethnic cohorts. We demonstrate that race/ethnicity information enhances the ability to understand population-specific genetic architecture. To address the practical issue that self-identified racial/ethnic information may be incomplete, we propose a machine learning algorithm that produces a surrogate variable, termed HARE. We use height as a model trait to demonstrate the utility of HARE and ethnicity-specific GWASs.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
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